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Archive for August 20th, 2008

Bezymianny Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula erupts

Posted by msrb on August 20, 2008

PETROPAVLOVSK-KAMCHATSKY. The Bezymianny Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula has erupted, Itar-Tass reported.

During the period of unrest, it emitted an ash column with a diameter of about 100 km.

The eruption was forecast prior to the unrest. The Bezymianny Volcano (2,800m high) is one of 28 active volcanoes on the peninsula. Bezymianny erupts explosively once or twice each year. The eruptions can last up to several days.

During its most powerful eruption in 1956, Bezymianny dome exploded collapsing about 280m of its summit (reduced from 3080 to 2800m). It ejected about one cubic kilometer volcanic debris in a very short time. [See VEI below.]

Bezymianny Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula. Photo: Itar-Tass. Image may be subject to copyright. See Fair Use Notice!

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Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)

The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaiʻi in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.

VEI and ejecta volume correlation. Credit: USGS (Via Wikipedia)

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Oklahoma Drought

Posted by feww on August 20, 2008

Cropland and Prairie, Cimarron County, Oklahoma

In the second week of August 2008, the western Oklahoma Panhandle got just enough rain to ease the region’s drought status from “exceptional” to “extreme“ according to the U.S. Drought Monitor report from August 12. The area had been suffering through a drought since fall 2007; in terms of dryness, the year rivaled conditions the area faced during the Dust Bowl years.

As of early August, the Oklahoma panhandle was experiencing its driest year (previous 365 days) since 1921, according to records kept by the Oklahoma Climatological Survey. Through July, year-to-date precipitation in Boise City, in the heart of Cimarron County, was only about 4.8 inches, barely half of average and drier than some years in the 1930s, the height of the Dust Bowl.

These maps show how vegetation conditions compared to average during 16-day periods in July 2007 and June/July 2008. Green indicates more vegetation than the 2000-2006 average, brown is less vegetation than normal, and beige indicates that vegetation conditions were average.

NASA images by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, based on MODIS data from the Global Agricultural Monitoring Project. Caption by Rebecca Lindsey.

The scattered August rains may be responsible for some of the vegetation patterns recorded by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite in this image from August 14, 2008. The image uses a combination of visible and infrared light to enhance the appearance of vegetation, which looks red. Places where vegetation is dead or dormant are shades of beige to gray. Very reflective surfaces, such as roads and dry creek beds are off-white. The small farming towns of Boise City and Keyes are separated by a patchwork of geometric fields.

The most robust vegetation occurs in fields with center-pivot irrigation, usually corn in this part of Oklahoma, but sometimes milo, sorghum for livestock feed, or cotton, according to Cherri Brown, district conservationist for the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service in Boise City. The other circular fields could be residue from harvested crops, but they could also be places where crops have succumbed to drought. Most of the rectangular fields are being prepared for seeding of wheat or are planted with milo and sorghum feed crops. Many of the fields are streaked or marbled with bright, sandy-looking patches. Narrow, straight lines may be cultivation patterns, but the more blotchy-looking areas may be places where the death of vegetation has allowed the region’s sandy soils to blow and drift.

In the first half of 2008, an exceptional drought descended on the High Plains, centered on Cimarron County, Oklahoma. This map shows the extent of drought in the continental United States on July 22, 2008. (Map by Robert Simmon, based on data from the U.S. Drought Monitor.)

North of the cropland, the landscape transitions to prairie, much of which is used as grazing land. The health of vegetation on these lands is variable. In places, the landscape is gray and brown, indicating dead or dormant grasses. But across some areas, there is a faint tinge of red, indicating some plants are surviving the drought. These variations could be due to a combination of patchy rainfall, topography, and soils.

To learn more about the region’s drought, please read the feature story Devastating Drought Settles on the High Plains.

NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Caption by Rebecca Lindsey.

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3 million acres of spruce killed in Alaska in 15 years

Posted by feww on August 20, 2008

“Beetles take no prisoners, It’s a Mafia-style execution!”

~ Ed Berg, ecologist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Alaska has experienced an average warming of 3 degrees Celsius (5.4 °F) and about 4.5 °C (8°F) in the inner regions in winter months since the 1960s, the largest regional warming of anywhere in the U.S., according to records.

The warmer temperature means Alaska’s peat bogs, which are nearly 14,000 years old, are drying up. Ed Berg, an ecologist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has discovered that shrubs and other plants have been rooting in areas of peat big normally too soggy for woody plants to grow during the last three decades.

Black Spruce taiga, Copper River, Alaska. (Credit: NOAA)

“We’ve got mounds of evidence that an extremely powerful and unprecedented climate-driven change is underway,” said a forest ecologist at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks. “It’s not that this might happen, these changes are underway and there are more changes coming.”

In Alaska, 35 percent forest, global warming is causing irreversible changes including droughts, forest fires, and infestations of tree-killing insects like spruce beetles and spruce budworm moths. In the last 15 years, the spruce beetles, which thrive in warmer climates, have destroyed a total of about 3 million acres (1.21 million hectares) of spruce forest in south-central Alaska.

Adult female spruce bark beetle

Western Spruce Budworm caterpillar, sixth (final) instar (stage of development). Spruce budworms and relatives are serious pests of conifers. (Credit: David G. Fellini and Jerald E. Dewey, Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture.

The Alaskan landscape is covered with dead spruce trees after a major outbreak of spruce bark bettles in the arctic region in this file image. REUTERS/handout

The Spruce Beetle in Alaska Forests. (Credit:The University of Alaska Fairbanks Cooperative Extension Service)

As the areas of beetle-infested forest grow, more land is clear-cut and land speculation frenzy grows.

Wetlands are a natural defense mechanism retarding forest fires. The warmer weather and drier forest therefore could lead to more forest fires.

Drying or burning peat bogs, which comprise 50-60 percent carbon, would release additional carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere.

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