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Archive for the ‘Kīlauea’ Category

VolcanoWatch Weekly [7 October 2009]

Posted by feww on October 9, 2009

VOW:  Ambrym

Destructive acid rain caused by eruption

According to press reports, an eruption from Benbow Crater occurred on 10 February [1979.]  Gases from the eruption caused acid rainfall on the SW portion of Ambrym Island, destroying most vegetation within 24 hours, contaminating water supplies, and burning some inhabitants. Jean-Luc Saos, Director of Mineral Resources for the New Hebrides government, reported a high concentration of HCl and sulfur compounds in the volcanic gases. Although heavy ashfalls have occurred in the area in the past, this is the first report of acid rains. More …


View of the Marum cone at Ambrym looking SW, 7 June 2007. Incandescence from the active lava lakes can be seen reflected in the clouds (left). Courtesy of Steven Clegg.


Lava lake inside Mbwelesu crater within Marum cone at Ambrym, 7 June 2007. Courtesy of Steven Clegg.

vanuatu_amo_2009279
A hazy layer of vog—volcanic fog—overlies Malekula and a few other islands of the Vanuatu archipelago in this natural-color satellite image. The source of the vog is Ambrym, a volcano in the southeast (lower right) corner of this scene. The haze extends over the Coral Sea several hundred kilometers to the northwest. Ambrym emits sulfur dioxide—the gas responsible for the formation of vog— intermittently. (Kilauea Volcano has recently affected the residents of Hawaii with similar vog emissions.)  The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired this natural-color image on October 6, 2009. [Large earthquake measuring up to 8.2 Mw struck Vanuatu region  on October 7, 2009 at 22:03 UTC. FEWW]
NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of this region. Caption by Robert Simmon.

Vanuatu.A2004278.2300.250m
Ash plume from Ambrym Volcano, Vanuatu October 4, 2004, 23:00 UTC.  Source: NASA/MODIS Rapid Response System.


View into the Mbwelesu crater on the Marum cone at Ambrym, captured 7 September 2008. Lava can be seen through two gaps in the crusted-over lava lake (enlarged insets). Courtesy of Arnold Binas.


Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations. Caption: GVP

Ambtym
Country: Vanuatu
Subregion Name: Vanuatu
Volcano Number: 0507-04=
Volcano Type: Pyroclastic shield
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2009
Summit Elevation: 1334 m 4,377 feet
Latitude: 16.25°S 16°15’0″S
Longitude: 168.12°E 168°7’0″E

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(30 September – 6 October 2009)

New activity/Unrest:

News From GVP:

On 29 September, people living in Chaitén town, 10 km SW of Chaitén’s Domo Nuevo 1 (Phase I) and Domo Nuevo 2 (Phase II) lava-dome complex, noticed that the eruption column was larger. Scientists conducted an overflight and saw a third lava dome (Phase III) in the SW area of the complex, which had filled up a depression left by a collapse on 19 February.

According to news articles from 2 October, increased seismicity at Gaua was detected during the previous two weeks. Villagers living nearby reported ashfall and sulfur odors.

An explosive eruption from Galeras on 30 September prompted INGEOMINAS to raise the Alert Level. An ash plume rose to an approximate altitude of 12.3 km (40,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, then N. —GVP

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Other Related Links:

Recent Posts on Chaitén:

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Posted in California volcanoes, ecuador, FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast, Hawaii, island of Java, Kīlauea, Langila, Mexico, New Britain, Popocatépetl, Rabaul, Reventador, Sangay, volcanic hazard, volcanism, volcano services, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [2 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 5, 2009

Supervolcanoes may awaken

VOW: Mt Tambora

Mt tambora indonesia
Photo: Mark Webster/Lonely Planet Images. Image may be subject to copyright.

Tambora Photo
Country:    Indonesia
Region:    Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia)
Volcano Type:     Stratovolcano
Last Known Eruption:     1967 ± 20 years
Summit Elevation:     2,850 m     (9,350 feet)
Latitude:     8.25°S
Longitude:     118.00°E
Source: GVP


Tambora volcano on Indonesia’s Sumbawa Island was the site of the world’s largest historical eruption in April 1815. This NASA Landsat mosaic shows the 6-km-wide caldera truncating the 2850-m-high summit of the massive volcano. Pyroclastic flows during the 1815 eruption reached the sea on all sides of the 60-km-wide volcanic peninsula, and the ejection of large amounts of tephra caused world-wide temperature declines in 1815 and 1816. NASA Landsat7 image (worldwind.arc.nasa.gov). Caption GVP.

Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. Sumbawa is flanked both to the north and south by oceanic crust, and Tambora was formed by the active subduction zones beneath it. This raised Mount Tambora as high as 4,300 m (14,000 ft), making it one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago.

Tambora erupted in 1815 with a rating of seven on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, making it the largest eruption since the Lake Taupo eruption in about 180 AD. It was the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. The explosion was heard on Sumatra island (more than 2,000 km  away). Heavy volcanic ash falls were observed as far away as Borneo, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku islands. Most deaths from the eruption were from starvation and disease, as the eruptive fallout ruined agricultural productivity in the local region. The death toll was at least 71,000 people (perhaps the most deadly eruption in history), of whom 11,000–12,000 were killed directly by the eruption. The eruption created global climate anomalies; 1816 became known as the Year Without Summer because of the effect on North American and European weather. Agricultural crops failed and livestock died in much of the Northern Hemisphere, resulting in the worst famine of the 19th century. (Source: Wikipedia; edited by FEWW)

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(26 August-1 September 2009)

New activity/unrest:

  • Kanlaon, Negros Island (central Philippines)
  • Kolokol Group, Urup Island  (Kurile Islands,Sakhalin Oblast region, Russia)
  • Koryaksky, Eastern Kamchatka, Russia

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Posted in Chaiten, Kanlaon, Kolokol Group, Koryaksky, Kīlauea, Popocatépetl, Shiveluch | Tagged: , , , , , | 1 Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [2 July 2009]

Posted by feww on July 3, 2009

VoW: Yellowstone Volcano

Location: 44.43°N 110.67°W
Summit Elevation:  2,805 m
Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Yellowstone
Remote sensor imagery of Yellowstone Caldera. Source: a frame-freeze picture from Yellowstone Volcano Due To Erupt


The rim of the Yellowstone Caldera.  Source ESA (mirrored from http://www.yellowstonegis.utah.edu/home/home.html)

What’s brewing under the old rocks?

  • Earthquake swarms are common at Yellowstone.
  • Increased seismic activity at Yellowstone Lake in Yellowstone National Park  in late December 2008 decreasing  since January 8, 2009.
  • Seismic activity  could continue.
  • The recent swarm is well above typical activity at Yellowstone, but  not unprecedented.
  • Earthquake swarms within the Yellowstone caldera typically occur with magnitudes of about 4.0.
  • A swarm with about 3,000 events occurred in 1985 on the northwest rim of the caldera, lasting for three months, with largest earthquakes up to M4.9  recorded. (Source: Volcanoes USGS )


Yellowstone Lake showing location and times of the recent earthquakes from Dec. 27, 2008 (blue) to Jan. 8, 2009 (red). The M 3.0 and greater earthquakes are shown as stars, the smaller earthquakes are shown as circles. During the swarm, the earthquake locations appear to have moved north. For more information on the depths of the earthquakes, see the cross section from X to X’ below.
(Source: Volcanoes USGS/ YVO )


The depth versus location of the Yellowstone Lake earthquake swarm from X to X’ on the Yellowstone Lake map. Earthquakes are shown from Dec. 27, 2008 (blue) to
Jan. 8, 2009 (red). The M 3.0 and greater earthquakes are shown as stars, the smaller earthquakes are shown as circles.  (Source: Volcanoes USGS
/ YVO )


Number of reviewed Yellowstone Lake earthquakes in six-hour and three-hour intervals from 12/27/08 to 01/06/09. The green line on the left figure gives the cumulative
number of earthquakes; the steep slopes correspond to increase in earthquake number. The red line in the figure on the right gives the cumulative moment, or energy; its sharp increase in the first few days is due to a greater number of large earthquakes with their greater energy release. The total cumulative moment is equivalent in energy to about one M 4.5 earthquake. Click on the image for a full-size version.
(Source: Volcanoes USGS/ YVO )

What causes earthquakes at Yellowstone?

USGS / YVO cite a combination of geological factors including:

  • Regional stress associated with normal faults such as the nearby Teton and Hebgen Lake faults
  • Magmatic movements at depth (>7 kms)
  • Hydrothermal fluid activity caused by boiling groundwater which is heated by magma.

However,  YVO has not reported any anomalous changes in hot springs discharges, gas emissions …

In 2004 the Yellowstone caldera underwent period of accelerated uplift, clocking 7 cm/yr, or three times  faster than  in the recorded history; however the movement has now slowed down to  a maximum rate of 4 cm/yr (or about 175 % of the pre-2004 records.)

The uplift is most noticeable at the White Lake GPS station, as has been discussed in our monthly YVO updates during the past year. As of late October 2007, the total uplift since 2004 at that location is about 17 cm. Chang and his colleagues credit the relatively rapid rise to recharge of magma into the giant magma chamber that underlies the Yellowstone Caldera. They also used numerical modeling to infer that the magma intruded about 10 km (6 miles) beneath the surface.


This interferogram provides a map view of ground movements at Yellowstone. Each color contour represents a line of equal uplift relative to the ENVISAT satellite between Sept. 2004 and Aug. 2006. The center of the uplift is an elliptical region stretching from the northeastern part of the Yellowstone Caldera (the dashed black line) to the southwest. This area of maximum uplift encompasses both Yellowstone’s resurgent domes, features long known for similar movements. During this time period, the north-rim uplift anomaly subsided (bullseye in the upper left part of the interferogram). The yellow lines are roads. The yellow triangles are locations of GPS stations with continuous data. The light blue lake within the caldera is Yellowstone Lake. Thin black lines are mapped faults. Figure courtesy of C. Wicks, USGS. Caption: USGS / YVO


Yellowstone caldera Map. USGS   Click Image to Enlarge.


Source: USGS


Source: Yellowstone National Park.

Conclusion:

USGS / YVO: “At this time, there is no reason to believe that magma has risen to a shallow level within the crust or that a volcanic eruption is likely. ”

FEWW: Perhaps, a new mindset is needed to help understand the true nature, “utility function” and full range of  all possible scenarios that might occur at the super volcano site. Let’s start looking at Yellowstone in the Big Picture frame.  There may be a few sobering “surprises” in store!


Volcanic Activity Report: 24 June-30 June 2009

Source: Global Volcanism program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

NOTE: A small explosive eruption of Cleveland on 25 June prompted AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. An ash cloud that detached from the volcano was seen on satellite imagery moving S at an estimated altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. No further activity was reported. On 27 June, AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. (Source: GVP)

Ongoing Activity:

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates for July 03, 2009 0040 UTC

  • Redoubt Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

  • Kilauea Activity  –  Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Cleveland Activity – Color Code – YELLOW : Alert Level – ADVISORY

  • Mauna Loa Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

Redoubt Volcano Latest Observations: Local time: June 24, 2009 1705 AKDT (June 25, 2009 0105 UTC)
The eruption of Redoubt continues. Seismic activity remains low but above background levels.

Related Links:

Posted in Kīlauea, volcanism, Volcano Hazards, Volcano Status, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , | 2 Comments »

VolcanoWatch [27 May 2009]

Posted by feww on May 28, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 20 May – 26 May 2009

Source: Global Volcanism program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

Redoubt Activity – Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH


Redoubt Volcano lava dome viewed from the southeast. This dome has been slowly growing since April 4, 2009. [Picture Date: May 26, 2009 16:12:26 AKDT – Image Creator: Rick Wessels; Image courtesy of AVO/USGS.

Ongoing Activity:

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates for Wednesday, May 27, 2009 7:32 AM HST (Wednesday, May 27, 2009 17:32 UTC)

  • Redoubt Activity – Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Kilauea Activity  –  Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Veniaminof Activity – Color Code GREEN : Alert Level NORMAL

  • Mauna Loa Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

Related Links:

Posted in Kīlauea, Redoubt, volcanic activity, volcanism, VolcanoWatch | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Weekly VolcanoWatch [13 May 2009]

Posted by feww on May 14, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 6 May – 12 May 2009

Source: Global Volcanism program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

VoW: Curacoa


A submarine volcano south of Curacoa Reef at the northern end of the Tofua volcanic arc was first observed in eruption in 1973. Explosive eruptions, which produced large rafts of dacitic pumice covering an area of more than 100 sq km, were observed from the island of Tafahi, 27 km to the SSW. The eruption site was located about 6.5 km SW of Curacoa Reef. Multiple submarine vents are apparently located in this area; a second eruption was reported in 1979 from a location 13 km north of Tafahi. Photo by the crew of the vessel “Port Nicholson,” 1973 (courtesy of Tom Simkin, Smithsonian Institution). Caption: GVP.

FEWW Forecast: FEWW earth model suggests Curacoa may explode spectacularly in one or more episodes this year. [Photos, or eye-witness accounts of any activity will get an honorable mention on the blog.]

  • Country: Tonga
  • Region: Tonga Islands
  • Volcano Type: Submarine volcano
  • Last Known Eruption: 1979
  • Summit Elevation: -33 m – 108 feet
  • Latitude: 15.62°S 15°37’0″S
  • Longitude: 173.67°W 173°40’0″W

Ongoing Activity:

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates for Wednesday, May 13, 2009 at 22:20 AKDT (May 14, 2009 06:20 UTC)

  • Redoubt Activity – Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Kilauea Activity  –  Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Veniaminof Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

  • Mauna Loa Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

Related Links:

Posted in Chaiten, Curacoa, Ebeko, Kīlauea, Rinjani | Tagged: , , , , | 1 Comment »

Weekly Volcano Watch: 16 April 2009

Posted by feww on April 16, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 8 April – 14 April 2009

Source: Global Volcanism program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

VoW: Kaba

Country:  Indonesia
Region:  Sumatra
Volcano Type:  Stratovolcano
Last Known Eruption: 2000
Summit Elevation:  1,952 m (6,404 feet)
Latitude: 3.52°S (3°31’0″S)
Longitude: 102.62°E (102°37’0″E)

Data Source: GVP

Kaba3
Mt. Kaba. Image Source: Mountain. Image may be subject to copyright.


Kaba, a twin volcano with Mount Hitam, has an elongated summit crater complex dominated by three large historically active craters trending ENE from the summit to the upper NE flank. The SW-most crater of 1952-m-high Gunung Kaba, Kawah Lama, is the largest. Most historical eruptions have affected only the summit region of the volcano. They mostly originated from the central summit craters, although the upper-NE flank crater Kawah Vogelsang also produced explosions during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Photo by Setiadarma, 1989 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia). Caption: GVP.

Ongoing Activity:

Posted in Dukono, Kaba, Kīlauea, Soufrière Hills, Sumatra | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Weekly Volcano Watch: 9 April 2009

Posted by feww on April 9, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 1 April – 7 April 2009

Source: SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

VoW: Vesuvius


An aerial photo of Vesuvius. Source: solarnavigator. Image may be subject to copyright.

Country: Italy
Region: Campania
Volcano Type: Somma volcano
Last Known Eruption: 1944
Summit Elevation: 1281 m (4,203 feet)
Latitude: 40.821°N 40°49’17″N
Longitude: 14.426°E 14°25’34″E



One of the world’s most noted volcanoes, Vesuvius (Vesuvio) forms a dramatic backdrop to the Bay of Naples. The historically active cone of Vesuvius was constructed within a large caldera of the ancestral Monte Somma volcano, thought to have formed incrementally beginning about 17,000 years ago. The Monte Somma caldera wall has channeled lava flows and pyroclastic flows primarily to the south and west. Eight major explosive eruptions have taken place in the last 17,000 years, often accompanied by large pyroclastic flows and surges, such as during the well-known 79 AD Pompeii eruption. Intermittent eruptions since 79 AD were followed by a period of frequent long-term explosive and effusive eruptions beginning in 1631 and lasting until 1944. The 1631 eruption was the largest since 79 AD and produced devastating pyroclastic flows that reached as far as the coast and caused great destruction. Many towns are located on the volcano’s flanks, and several million people live within areas potentially affected by eruptions of Vesuvius. Photo by Dan Dzurisin, 1983 (U.S. Geological Survey). Caption: GVP.

[Note: A somma volcano is a volcanic caldera in which a new cone  has grown. The name comes from Mount Somma, a stratovolcano that hosts the cone of Mount Vesuvius. Other examples of somma  include volcanoes on  Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) and the Kuril Islands that extend from Kamchatka to the island of  Hokkaido, Japan.]

Index of monthly reports (GVP)

vesuvius|
Vesuvius Eruption photographed in March 1944. Image: John Reinhardt, USAAF.

FEWW Forecast: There is at least a 0.6 probability that Vesuvius may erupt by August/September 2009.

Ongoing Activity:

Posted in Batu Tara, Galeras, Kīlauea, Sakura-jima, Somma volcano | Tagged: , , , , | 2 Comments »

Weekly Volcano Watch: 26 March 2009

Posted by feww on March 26, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 18 March – 24 March 2009

Source: SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

VoW: Fonualei, Tonga Islands (SW Pacific)

  • Country: Tonga
  • Subregion Name: Tonga Islands
  • Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
  • Volcano Status: Historical
  • Last Known Eruption: 1957
  • Summit Elevation: 180 m (591 feet)
  • Latitude: 18.02°S  (18°1’0″S)
  • Longitude: 174.325°W  (174°19’30″W)
  • Source: USGS


Fonualei:  Seen from the NE, Fonualei volcano has an upturned saucer profile. The small, less than 2-km-wide island of Fonualei contains a fumarolically active crater, which is breached to the SW with a fresh lava flow extending to the sea and forming a rugged shoreline. Blocky lava flows from a central pyroclastic cone have reached the sea through notches in the rim of a small caldera. Eruptions at Fonualei have been recorded since 1791, with the two largest taking place in October 1846 and July 1847. [In 1847,] explosive eruptions produced large pumice rafts, and ashfall damaged crops on the island of Vavua (56 km away) and fell on vessels up to 950 km distant. In 1939 explosive and effusive activity occurred from summit and flank vents, and water spouts were reported 1.6 km SE of the island. Photo by Paul Taylor (published in Taylor and Ewart, 1997). Caption: GVP

FEWW Comment: Fonualei may be one of the next volcanoes in the Tonga region to erupt in the next 30-90 days.

Ongoing Volcanic Activity:

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program.

Elevated Volcanic Activity in the US [Source: USGS]

Mar 25, 2009 at 21:08:47 PDT [PDT is 7 hours behind of Coordinated Universal Time,UTC]

The following U.S. volcanoes are known to be above normal background (elevated unrest or eruptions) or have shown activity that warranted an Information Release (for example, an earthquake swarm).

Volcano Alert Levels & Aviation Color Codes defined at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem.

Volcano Hazards

Redoubt: Alert Level=WATCH. Aviation Color Code=ORANGE. As of Mar 25, 2009, 13:35 ADT

  • No explosions in last 36 hours and seismicity has declined. Possible lava dome growth at the summit. Explosions could resume without much warning.
    (Change to current status occurred on Mar 25, 2009 13:35 ADT from Alert Level WARNING and Aviation Color Code RED )For more information see http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/Redoubt.php

Kilauea: Alert Level=WATCH. Aviation Color Code=ORANGE. As of Mar 25, 2009, 07:53 HST

  • Elevated SO2 and some tephra from Halema`uma`u vent; elevated SO2 from Pu`u `O`o vent; lava in tubes to ocean. (Change to current status occurred on Jul 2, 2007 20:09 HST from Alert Level ADVISORY and Aviation Color Code YELLOW ). For more information see http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/activity/kilaueastatus.php

Cleveland: Alert Level=ADVISORY. Aviation Color Code=YELLOW. As of Mar 24, 2009, 12:46 ADT

Mauna Loa: Alert Level=ADVISORY. Aviation Color Code=YELLOW. As of Mar 2, 2009, 15:05 HST

Program Webcams page links to webcams at 19 of the 169 active volcanoes in the U-S.

Posted in ashfall, Chaiten, Fonualei, Kīlauea, volcanism | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

Weekly Volcano Watch: 5 March 2009 [Take 2]

Posted by feww on March 5, 2009

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates for Thursday, Mar 5, 2009 at 06:40:05 PST

Volcano Hazards Program Webcams page links to webcams at 19 of the 169 active volcanoes in the U-S.

Volcanic Activity Report: 25 February-3 March 2009

Source: SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

Volcano of the Week: Jan Mayen


Remote Jan Mayen Island, located in the Norwegian Sea along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge about 650 km NE of Iceland, consists of two volcanic complexes separated by a narrow isthmus. The large Beerenberg basaltic stratovolcano (Nord-Jan) forms the NE end of the 40-km-long island, which is ringed by high cliffs. Beerenberg is a large 2277-m-high glacier-covered stratovolcano with a 1-km-wide summit crater and numerous cinder cones that were erupted along flank fissures. It is composed primarily of basaltic lava flows with minor amounts of tephra. Historical eruptions at Beerenberg date back to the 18th century. The Sor-Jan group of pyroclastic cones and lava domes occupies the SW tip of Jan Mayen. The Holocene Sor-Jan cinder cones, tephra rings, and trachytic lava domes were erupted from short fissures with a NE-SW trend.
Photo by Gernot Hecker, 2005 (Wikimedia Commons). Caption: GVP.

  • Volcano: Jan Mayen
  • Country: Norway
  • Subregion: Jan Mayen Island
  • Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
  • Last Known Eruption: 1985
  • Summit Elevation: 2,277 m (7,470 feet)
  • Latitude: 71.08°N (71°5’0″N)
  • Longitude: 8.17°W (8°10’0″W)


Ongoing Activity:

Posted in Chaiten, Jan Mayen, Kīlauea, Redoubt, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Volcano Watch: 24 February 2009

Posted by feww on February 26, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 18 February – 24 February 2009

Source: SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

Volcano of the Week: Sibayak

Country:   Indonesia
Region:    Sumatra (Indonesia)
Volcano Type:    Stratovolcanoes
Last Known Eruption:     1881
Summit Elevation:     2212 m     7,257 feet
Latitude:     3.23°N     3°14’0″N
Longitude:     98.52°E     98°31’0″E


Sibayak volcano in NE Sumatra and its twin volcano Mt. Pinto are constructed within a compound caldera. The slightly higher Mt. Pinto partially overtops the 900-m-wide crater of Sibayak on the north. The summit contains a lava dome and an area of hydrothermal alteration visible in this photo. An ash eruption from Sibayak was recorded in 1881, and area residents note legends of eruptions. Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey). Caption: GVP


Sibayak crater lake.
Credit: browngroove via flickr. See source for copyright information.

Ongoing Activity:

Posted in Barren Island, Karymsky, Kīlauea, Popocatépetl, Suwanose-jima | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Volcano Watch: 10 February 2009

Posted by feww on February 12, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 4 February – 10 February 2009

Source: SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Volcano of the Week: Popocatépetl

A plume of steam and ash rises above Popocatépetl, whose Aztec name means “Smoking Mountain.” This December 1994 aerial view is of the NE side of the massive stratovolcano, which towers more than 3200 m above the Valley of Mexico to the right.

Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America’s 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas south of the volcano. The modern volcano was constructed to the south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 AD, have occurred from Popocatépetl since the mid Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since precolumbian time.  Photo courtesy of ENAPRED, Mexico City, 1994. Caption: GVP

Volcano Name: Volcán Popocatépetl

Country: México

Volcano Type: Stratovolcanoes

Last Known Eruption: 2008 (in or after)

Summit Elevation: 5426 m (17,802 feet)

Latitude:      19.023°N (19°1’24″N)

Longitude: 98.622°W (98°37’20″W)

“CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 4-10 February; the plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. On 6 February, an ash plume rose 800 m above the crater at 0839, and was followed by 75 minutes of increased seismicity.” GVP said.

Ongoing Activity:

Posted in Chaiten, Colima, Kīlauea, Redoubt, Volcano Watch | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Volcano Watch No. 44

Posted by feww on November 6, 2008

Erta Ale Erupted

Update: Nov 7, 2008 – According to the latest news bulletins, the eruption in the Erta Ale, Africa’s largest in historic times,  was due to a fissure between Alu and Dalaffilla volcanoes.

Erta Ale, an active shield volcano located in the Afar Region of northeastern Ethiopia [located some 600 km from Addis Ababa,] is Ethiopia’s only active volcano. Eye witnesses said the volcano erupted late Monday. Satellite photos show the lava had covered about 300 sq km, a record area.

The volcano  stands 613 meters tall, with a lava lake, one of only four in the world, at the summit. It is notable for being the longest existing lava lake, present since the early years of the twentieth century. It is located in the Danakil Depression, a desert area bordering Eritrea. The area is described as one of the hottest places on earth famed for its salt mines.

Erta Ale’s last major eruption in 2005 forced thousands of nearby residents to flee. Additional lava flow activity took place in August 2007, forcing the evacuation of hundreds and leaving two missing.

Erta Ale, Alu, Tat Ali and other Ethiopian highlands are together known as the Danakil Alps. (Sources: Addis Ababa University, various academic and news organizations, Wikipedia).


Erta Ale, an active shield volcano located in the Afar Region [northeastern] of Ethiopia in the Danakil Desert, is Ethiopia’s only active volcano. License: cc-by-sa-2.0. Credit: posted to Flickr by filippo_jean.

29 October – 4 November 2008

New Activity/Unrest:

Ongoing Activity:

This Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summary is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program.

Posted in Danakil Depression, Kīlauea, lava, shield volcano, Tungurahua | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Volcano Watch No. 42

Posted by terres on October 23, 2008

15 – 21 October 2008

New Activity/Unrest:

Ongoing Activity:

This page is updated on Wednesdays, please see the GVP Home Page for news of the latest significant activity.

Posted in Akan, Batu Tara, Karymsky, Kīlauea, Popocatépetl | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »