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Archive for the ‘Sakura-jima’ Category

VolcanoWatch Weekly [23 July 2009]

Posted by feww on July 23, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 15 July – 21 July 2009

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

VOW: Revisiting Mount Tambora Volcano, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia

Tambora
On April 10, 1815, the Tambora Volcano produced the largest eruption in recorded history. An estimated 150 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) of tephra—exploded rock and ash—resulted, with ash from the eruption recognized at least 1,300 kilometers (808 miles) away to the northwest. While the April 10 eruption was catastrophic, historical records and geological analysis of eruption deposits indicate that the volcano had been active between 1812 and 1815. Enough ash was put into the atmosphere from the April 10 eruption to reduce incident sunlight on the Earth’s surface, causing global cooling, which resulted in the 1816 “year without a summer.”

This detailed astronaut photograph depicts the summit caldera of the volcano. The huge caldera—6 kilometers (3.7 miles) in diameter and 1,100 meters (3,609 feet) deep—formed when Tambora’s estimated 4,000-meter- (13,123-foot) high peak was removed, and the magma chamber below emptied during the April 10 eruption. Today the crater floor is occupied by an ephemeral freshwater lake, recent sedimentary deposits, and minor lava flows and domes from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Layered tephra deposits are visible along the northwestern crater rim. Active fumaroles, or steam vents, still exist in the caldera.

In 2004, scientists discovered the remains of a village, and two adults buried under approximately 3 meters (nearly 10 feet) of ash in a gully on Tambora’s flank—remnants of the former Kingdom of Tambora preserved by the 1815 eruption that destroyed it. The similarity of the Tambora remains to those associated with the AD 79 eruption of Mount Vesuvius has led to the Tambora site’s description as “the Pompeii of the East.”

Astronaut photograph ISS020-E-6563 was acquired on June 3, 2009  [photo caption said acquired March 6, 2009] , with a Nikon D3 digital camera fitted with an 800 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 20 crew. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by William L. Stefanov, NASA-JSC.

New activity/unrest:

Ongoing Activity:

  • Bagana, Bougainville
  • Barren Island, Andaman Is
  • Batu Tara, Komba Island (Indonesia)
  • Chaitén, Southern Chile
  • Egon, Flores Island (Indonesia)
  • Ibu, Halmahera
  • Kilauea, Hawaii
  • Makian, Halmahera
  • Rabaul, New Britain
  • Sarychev Peak, Matua Island
  • Semeru, Eastern Java (Indonesia)
  • Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
  • Suwanose-jima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

Posted in Batu Tara, Chaiten, Komba Island, Sakura-jima, Sarychev Peak | Tagged: , , , , , | 2 Comments »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [9 July 2009]

Posted by feww on July 9, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 1 July – 8 July 2009

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

NOTES: A large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo were detected in satellite imagery during 28-30 June. On 8 July, a scientist that visited the area reported fresh lava flows, an eruptive fissure that was about 5 km long, and gas emitting from multiple cones.

According to news articles, PHIVOLCS implemented increased monitoring of Mayon after a recent rise in seismicity. Incandescence in the crater and a slight increase in sulfur dioxide gas output over background levels were also noted. (Source: GVP)

MANDA HARARO Northeastern Africa 12.17°N, 40.82°E; summit elev. 600+ m


Steam rises from new fissures that fed lava flows at the Manda Hararo complex, as seen on August 20, 2007. The Manda Hararo complex is the southernmost axial range of western Afar. The massive complex is 105 km long and 20-30 km wide, and represents an uplifted segment of a mid-ocean ridge spreading center. Voluminous fluid lava flows issued from NNW-trending fissures of the Ethiopian rift. Photo courtesy of Gezahegn Yirgu, 2007 (Addis Ababa University). Caption: GVP.

A large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo were detected in satellite imagery during 28-30 June. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite imagery indicated a surface lava flow in the Karbahi region. Karbahi is a graben area with numerous active faults, fissures, and basalt flows, NW of the center of the broad Manda Hararo volcanic complex. Preliminary data suggested that the eruption was larger than the previous eruption in August 2007. On 8 July, a scientist that visited the area reported fresh lava flows, an eruptive fissure that was about 5 km long, and gas emitting from multiple cones.


A steaming volcanic vent in the Afar desert. The black basalt rock erupted onto the surface on 28 June and now covers an area of 10 square kilometres. Photograph: Talfan Barnie, University of Cambridge via Guardian Science Blog. Image may be subject to copyright.

Geologic Summary. The southernmost axial range of western Afar, the Manda Hararo complex is located in the Kalo plain, SSE of Dabbahu volcano. The massive complex is 105 km long and 20-30 km wide, and represents an uplifted segment of a mid-ocean ridge spreading center. A small basaltic shield volcano is located at the northern end of the complex, south of which is an area of abundant fissure-fed lava flows. Two basaltic shield volcanoes, the largest of which is Unda Hararo, occupy the center of the complex. The dominant part of the complex lies to the south, where the Gumatmali-Gablaytu fissure system is located. Voluminous fluid lava flows issued from these NNW-trending fissures, and solidified lava lakes occupy two large craters. Lava flows from the Gablaytu and Manda shield volcanoes overlie 8000-year-old sediments. Hot springs and fumaroles occur around Daorre lake. The first historical eruption from Manda Hararo produced fissure-fed lava flows in 2007. (Source: GVP)

Ongoing Activity:

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates

Alaska Volcano Observatory Update: July 09, 2009 0105 UTC

  • Redoubt Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

  • Cleveland Activity – Color Code – YELLOW : Alert Level – ADVISORY

HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE: Wednesday, July 8, 2009  18:14 UTC

  • Kilauea Activity  –  Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Mauna Loa Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

Related Links:

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Posted in Chaiten, Sakura-jima, Shiveluch, Ubinas, Volcanic Activity Report, volcanism | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Weekly Volcano Watch: 9 April 2009

Posted by feww on April 9, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 1 April – 7 April 2009

Source: SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

VoW: Vesuvius


An aerial photo of Vesuvius. Source: solarnavigator. Image may be subject to copyright.

Country: Italy
Region: Campania
Volcano Type: Somma volcano
Last Known Eruption: 1944
Summit Elevation: 1281 m (4,203 feet)
Latitude: 40.821°N 40°49’17″N
Longitude: 14.426°E 14°25’34″E



One of the world’s most noted volcanoes, Vesuvius (Vesuvio) forms a dramatic backdrop to the Bay of Naples. The historically active cone of Vesuvius was constructed within a large caldera of the ancestral Monte Somma volcano, thought to have formed incrementally beginning about 17,000 years ago. The Monte Somma caldera wall has channeled lava flows and pyroclastic flows primarily to the south and west. Eight major explosive eruptions have taken place in the last 17,000 years, often accompanied by large pyroclastic flows and surges, such as during the well-known 79 AD Pompeii eruption. Intermittent eruptions since 79 AD were followed by a period of frequent long-term explosive and effusive eruptions beginning in 1631 and lasting until 1944. The 1631 eruption was the largest since 79 AD and produced devastating pyroclastic flows that reached as far as the coast and caused great destruction. Many towns are located on the volcano’s flanks, and several million people live within areas potentially affected by eruptions of Vesuvius. Photo by Dan Dzurisin, 1983 (U.S. Geological Survey). Caption: GVP.

[Note: A somma volcano is a volcanic caldera in which a new cone  has grown. The name comes from Mount Somma, a stratovolcano that hosts the cone of Mount Vesuvius. Other examples of somma  include volcanoes on  Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) and the Kuril Islands that extend from Kamchatka to the island of  Hokkaido, Japan.]

Index of monthly reports (GVP)

vesuvius|
Vesuvius Eruption photographed in March 1944. Image: John Reinhardt, USAAF.

FEWW Forecast: There is at least a 0.6 probability that Vesuvius may erupt by August/September 2009.

Ongoing Activity:

Posted in Batu Tara, Galeras, Kīlauea, Sakura-jima, Somma volcano | Tagged: , , , , | 2 Comments »