5 Indonesian volcanoes remain on the 2nd highest state of alert, “orange,” 17 others on “yellow”
The alerts follow the latest eruption at Mt Sinabung, which saw the volcano ejecting ash to a height of about 7 km above the summit, forcing the authorities to evacuate about 5,600 people in several villages, according to Indonesia’s Center for Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation (PVMBG).
Indonesian authorities have established a 3-km exclusion zone near the volcano following the Tuesday eruption for the second time in 9 days.
PVMBG had issued a “level three,” or “orange alert,” recommending villagers to stay out of the 3-km danger zone on November 3, 2013, followed by a 7-day state of emergency declared by the local authorities.
The explosive activity follows a series of most recent eruptions exhibited by the 2,460-meter high volcano that began in September 2013, leading to a significant eruption on October 24, which saw the volcano spewing smoke and ash to a height of about 3km above the crater summit, followed by other eruptions, especially the explosive eruption that occurred on Sunday, November 3.
Mt Sinabung is one of 130 or so active volcanoes in the Indonesian archipelago, whose 18,307 islands (922 of the islands are permanently inhabited) straddle the Pacific Ring of Fire (PRF).
PRF, aka the circum-Pacific seismic belt, is home to 452 volcanoes, or more than 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes.
About 90% of the global seismicity and 82% of the largest quakes occur along PRF [FIRE-EARTH data.]
Mt Sinabung erupted explosively again on November 12, 2013 for a second time in 9 days. Image credit: CRIonLine via Xinhua. More images…
Mount Sinabung spewing volcanic ashes as seen from Simpang Empat Village in Karo, North Sumatera (September 15, 2013). Credit: ANTARA/Septianda Perdana.
Mt Sinabung erupted in August 2010 after 410 years of dormancy. The eruption claimed a dozen lives and displaced thousands of others. The eruption which occurred on August 29, 2010 was followed by a more powerful explosion the next day, and much stronger blast on September 7, 2010.
Sinabung spewed ash to a height of about 2km in its second eruption in two days on August 30, 2010.
Mount Sinabung volcano spews smoke in Suka Nalu village in the district of Tanah Karo, in Indonesia’s North Sumatra province August 30, 2010. The Indonesian volcano that erupted for the first time in centuries on Sunday spewed fresh plumes of smoke early on Monday morning, causing panic in nearby villages and delaying local flights, officials said on Monday. Credit: Reuters/Tarmizy Harva. Image may be subject to copyright. More photos …
Approximate location of Sinabung is marked on the map by FEWW. Mount Sinabung is one of Indonesia’s 130 active volcanoes
Sinabung Volcano: Summary of Details
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Holocene
Last Known Eruption: Unknown [1600?]
Summit Elevation: 2,460m
Latitude: 3.17°N Longitude: 98.392°E
Sinabung is located in Group K Volcanoes
Map of Volcanoes. Background Map: University of Michigan. Designed and enhanced by Fire Earth Blog. Click image to enlarge.
The PVMBG categorizes Sinabung as a type A volcano, or those that have erupted since 1600. Type B volcanoes have not erupted since 1600 but show signs of activity, and type C are those that have not erupted in recorded history.
Mount Sinabung ejected tephra into the air as seen from Tanah Karo, North Sumatra, Indonesia, Friday, Sept. 3, 2010. (AP Photo/Dedy Zulkifli). Image may be subject to copyright.
Indonesian Volcanoes have been responsible for a number of cataclysmic explosions in modern history.
Krakatoa [Krakatau] Cataclysmic Eruption 1883
William Ashcroft painting “On the Banks of the River Thames” in London, November 26, 1883 [Exactly three months after Krakatoa's cataclysmic 1883 eruption.]
The Krakatoa eruption affected the climate driving the weather patterns wild for the next 5 years. Average global temperatures fell by about 1.2 °C in the following years, returning to normal only in 1888.
The eruption ejected about 21 cubic kilometers of volcanic matter and destroyed two-thirds of the Krakatoa island. The explosion also spawned giant tsunamis killing an estimated 40,000 people.
An 1888 lithograph of the 1883 violent explosion of Krakatau.
Based on their models, our colleagues at EDRO forecast that the collapse of Singapore may occur as a result of volcanic activity on the island of Sumatra. However, they have not disclosed any further detail.
Indonesia Volcano Alerts
PVMBG has placed five volcanoes on the second highest level of activity “Level III, Orange Alert,” and 17 others on third highest alert level “Level II, Yellow Alert.” Following table shows the alert level designations, as of November 16, 2013.
Indonesia Volcano Alerts as of November 16, 2013. Source: PVMBG. Image enhanced by FIRE-EARTH Blog.