Fire Earth

Mass die-offs from human impact and planetary response to the assault could occur by early 2016

Archive for the ‘VolcanoWatch’ Category

Red Alert at Copahue Volcano: Argentina and Chile Order Evacuation

Posted by feww on May 28, 2013

Chile and Argentina order evacuation of 3,000 people living near Copahue

Argentine and Chilean authorities have issued a red alert, fearing that the volcano could erupt imminently.

The mandatory evacuation order covers all residents living within a 25-km radius of Copahue.

The 2,965m tall volcano began spewing volcanic gasses Friday amid heightened seismic activity, with volcanic tremors occurring at an average rate of about 450 per hour.

Copahue volcano sits in the Biobio region of Chile, straddling the border with Argentina’s Neuquen province.

copahue
This photo released by the Government of Neuquen, Monday, May 27, 2013, shows a plume of ash and smoke rise from the Copahue volcano, as seen from Caviahue, in the Argentine province of Neuquen, Friday, May 24, 2013.  (AP Photo/Government of Neuquen, Tony Huglich)

[NOTE: The most probable outcome over the next 96 hours or so can be deduced from the photo.]

Related Links

Posted in volcano alert, volcano eruption, Volcano Hazard, Volcano News, VolcanoWatch | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [23 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 24, 2009

Magnitude 6.4 EQ occurred off SW of Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, at a depth of 35 km, today.

FEWW Comments: The strong earthquake may have primed for eruption either one or both of two volcanoes Bárcena, which forms the island of San Benedicto, and Socorro, located on island of the same name, about 380 km to the west of the EQ location.

VOW1: Bárcena


Bárcena volcano forms the elongated island of San Benedicto, seen here from the SW in March 1955. The tuff cone with the circular summit crater at the center and the lava delta to the right were formed during an eruption in 1952-53, the only eruption known from this volcano in historical time. Pleistocene trachytic lava domes are located at the far NE tip of the island. Dark-colored lava domes from the 1952-53 eruption can be seen in the summit crater. Photo by Adrian Richards, 1955. Caption: GVP

VOW2: Socorro


Cerro Evermann, the high point of Socorro Island, rises above a Mexican Naval camp near the southern tip of the island. Socorro lies in the Revillagigedo Islands south of Baja California. Cerro Evermann is a large tephra cone and lava dome complex that forms the 1050-m-high summit of the volcano. Rhyolitic lava domes have been constructed along flank rifts, and silicic lava flows erupted from summit and flank vents have created an extremely irregular shoreline. Only minor explosive activity has occurred in historical time. Photo by Martha Marin, 1998 (Mexican Navy).
Caption: GVP

map_ of mexico_volcanoes
Bárcena  and Socorro are shown to the lower left of the map.

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(16 September – 22 September 2009)

New activity/Unrest:

News From GVP:

  • KVERT reported that although seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi did not exceed background levels during 11-18 September, weak tremor was detected. Strombolian activity that ejected tephra 70 m above the crater was seen at night on 16 and 17 September.
  • KVERT reported that during 11-18 September seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels. On 13 September, pyroclastic flow deposits 5 km long were seen on the S part of the lava dome.  —GVP

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Other Related Links:

Posted in Supervolcanoes, Volcanic Activity Report, VolcanoWatch, VolcanoWatch Weekly | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [9 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 11, 2009

VOW: Toba the Sleeping Colossus

Toba
Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia – Landsat photo – Source: NASA

Lake Toba is a supervolcano, 100 kilometres long and 30 kilometres wide, and 505 metres (1,666 ft) at its deepest point. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft), the lake stretches from 2.88°N 98.52°E  to 2.35°N 99.1°E.  It is the largest volcanic lake in the world. It’s also the site of a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 74,000 years ago, a massive climate-changing event. The eruption is believed to have had a VEI intensity of 8. This eruption, believed to have been the largest anywhere on Earth in the last 25 million years, may have had catastrophic consequences globally; some anthropologists and archeologists believe that it killed most humans then alive, creating a population bottleneck in Central Eastern Africa and India that affected the genetic inheritance of all humans today. (Source: Wikipedia).

Toba Large
Lake Toba Topography.
Source: Andaman Org.

Toba catastrophe theory

The Toba catastrophe theory holds that 70,000 to 75,000 years ago, a supervolcanic event at Lake Toba, on Sumatra, plunged the Earth into a mini-ice-age lasting several thousand years, reducing the world’s human population to 10,000 or even a mere 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution. The theory was proposed in 1998 by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

The Toba eruption (the Toba event) occurred at what is now Lake Toba about 67,500 to 75,500 years ago. It had an estimated Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8 (described as “mega-colossal”), making it possibly the largest explosive volcanic eruption within the last twenty-five million years. It had a volume 300 cubic km greater than the Island Park Caldera supereruption (2500 cubic km) of 2.1 million years BP.

The total amount of erupted material was estimated at about 2,800 km³ — about 2,000 km³ of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground, and some 800 km³ that fell as ash, with the wind blowing most of it to the west. The pyroclastic flows of the eruption destroyed an area of 20,000 square kilometers, with ash deposits as thick as 600 metres near the main vent [ cf, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens ejected about 1.2 km³;  of material, whilst the largest volcanic eruption in historic times, at Mount Tambora in 1815, emitted the equivalent of 100 km3 of dense rock.] The eruption was also about three times the size of the latest Yellowstone eruption of Lava Creek 630,000 years ago. (Source: Wikipedia).

volcanic features of toba
The eruption of 73,000 years ago left the Sibandung caldera.  Lake Toba is surrounded by two small, active volcanos as well as several updomed areas and hot springs. These features indicate that there is activity below the surface today and that pressure is rising. Samosir island, too, is evidence for upthrust from below. From the record it seems that Toba produces major eruptions every 300-400,000 years. Source: Andaman Org.

Volcanic features in and around Lake Toba:

Grey area: Present-day topographic depression
green area: Updomed areas

Area # 1.  Sibandung caldera: made 73,000 years ago by the Toba YTT event (Young Toba Ash)
Area # 2. Haranggaol caldera: made 500,000 years ago by the Toba MTT event (Middle Toba Ash)
Area # 3.  Sibandung caldera: made 800,000 years ago by the Toba OTT event (Old Toba Ash)

The MTT and OTT events were not as large as the YTT event of 73,000 years ago
but were still major eruptions of at least VEI 7.

V1 Tandukbenua (Sipisopiso) – young dacit-andesite volcano
V2 Pusubukit volcano – young dacit-andesite volcano
D1 Pardepur dacite domes
D2 Tuk-tuk rhyolite dome
HS Hot springs
Source: Andaman Org.

Recent Activity

Large earthquakes have occurred in the vicinity of the volcano more recently, notably in 1987.  Other earthquakes have occurred in the area in 1892, 1916, and 1920-1922.

Lake Toba lies near the Great Sumatran fault which runs along the centre of Sumatra called the Sumatra Fracture Zone. The volcanoes of Sumatra and Java are part of the Sunda Arc, a result of the northeasterly movement of the Indo-Australian Plate which is sliding under the eastward-moving Eurasian Plate. The subduction zone in this area is very active: the seabed near the west coast of Sumatra has had several major earthquakes since 1995, including the 9.3 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake [followed by the deadly tsunami] and the 8.7 2005 Sumatra earthquake, the epicenters of which were around 300 km from Toba Lake. (Source: Wikipedia).

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(26 August-1 September 2009)

New activity/unrest:

Notes [Source: GVP]

RVO reported that during 28 August-3 September white and gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera’s Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater and produced ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas.

The Washington VAAC reported that on 6 September an explosion from San Cristóbal produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude no higher than 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted 75 km W.

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Posted in Sumbawa Island, Supervolcanoes, toba, Toba catastrophe theory, toba lake, toba volcano, Volcanic Activity Report, VolcanoWatch, VolcanoWatch Weekly | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off

VolcanoWatch Weekly [27 August 2009]

Posted by feww on August 28, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 19 August – 25 August 2009

VOW: Koryaksky

koryaksky_amo_2009239
Koryaksky Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula released a plume on August 27, 2009, caught by MODIS on NASA’s Aqua satellite. The volcano has released intermittent ash and/or steam plumes late August.

This true-color image shows a pale plume, which consists primarily of water vapor, blowing away from the summit east-northeast, toward the Bering Sea.

Vostok Media reported simultaneous activity at six Kamchatka volcanoes, describing  the first concurrent unrest in 60 years as rare. NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Michon Scott. [Edited by FEWW.]

New activity/unrest:

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

KORYAKSKY Eastern Kamchatka 53.320°N, 158.688°E; summit elev. 3,456 m

KVERT reported that during 14-21 August seismic activity from Koryaksky was slightly above background levels. During 13-16 August, gas-and-steam plumes rose to altitudes of 3.5-5 km (11,500-16,400 ft) a.s.l. Based on visual observations during 16-20 August, gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to altitudes of 3.5-4.2 km (11,500-13,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ash plumes were also seen in satellite imagery, drifting 215 km E and W. On 23 August, a probable ash plume detected in satellite imagery drifted 50 km ESE. During 24-25 August, seismicity increased; more than 100 earthquakes were recorded. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Geologic Summary. The large symmetrical Koryaksky stratovolcano is the most prominent landmark of the NW-trending Avachinskaya volcano group, which towers above Kamchatka’s largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion has produced a ribbed surface on the eastern flanks of the 3456-m-high volcano; the youngest lava flows are found on the upper western flank and below SE-flank cinder cones. No strong explosive eruptions have been documented during the Holocene. Extensive Holocenefissure vents about 3900-3500 years ago reached Avacha Bay. Only a few moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during historical lava fields on the western flank were primarily fed by summit vents; those on the SW flank originated from flank vents. Lahars associated with a period of lava effusion from south- and SW-flank time. Koryaksky’s first historical eruption, in 1895, also produced a lava flow. (Source: GVP).

Notes:

Based on information from the Tegucigalpa MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that ash was detected within 15 km of Fuego on 19 August. According to INSIVUMEH, rumbling sounds were accompanied by incandescent tephra ejected 75 m high on 21 August. (Source: GVP).

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

Volcanic Activity Report, Volcano Hazard, VolcanoWatch, volcanism, volcanoes. Tagged: , , , , , , , .

Posted in Volcanic Activity Report, volcanism, Volcano Hazard, volcanoes, VolcanoWatch | Tagged: , , , , , | 1 Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [20 August 2009]

Posted by feww on August 22, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 12 August-18 August 2009

VoW: Talang

Talang
The Indonesian volcano Talang on the island of Sumatra had been dormant for centuries when, in April 2005, it suddenly rumbled to life. A plume of smoke rose 1000 meters high and nearby villages were covered in ash. Fearing a major eruption, local authorities began evacuating 40,000 people. Caption: James A. Phillips, NASA.

And just to confuse the readers a little, the following caption is by volcano.oregonstate.edu

Talang is a stratovolcano with 8 confirmed eruptions between 1833 and 1968. The volcano may have had a phreatic eruption in 1986 but the activity has not been confirmed. Most of the eruptions are moderate in size (VEI=2) and explosive. Eruptions in 1833, 1843, 1845, and 1876 were from flank vents. An eruption in 1967 and two different eruptions in 1968 were from radial fissures. The distance from the city of Padang to Talang is about 35 km. Image courtesy of the Landsat Pathfinder Project.

TALANG
Country: Indonesia
Region: Sumatra
Last Known Eruption: 2007
Summit Elevation: 2,597 m (8,520 feet)
Latitude: 0.978°S  (0°58’42″S)
Longitude:  100.679°E (100°40’46″E)
Source: GVP


Talang, which forms a twin volcano with the extinct Pasar Arbaa volcano, lies ESE of the major city of Padang and rises NW of Dibawah Lake. Talang has two crater lakes on its flanks; the largest of these is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang. Most historical eruptions have not occurred from the summit of the volcano, which lacks a crater. Historical eruptions from Gunung Talang volcano have mostly involved small-to-moderate explosive activity first documented in the 19th century that originated from a series of small craters in a valley on the upper NE flank. Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1986 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia). Caption: GVP.

Authorities raise Mt. Talang alert level to highest

The vulcanology and disaster mitigation office in West Sumatra has raised the alert status for Mt. Talang to the highest level following a 6.9-magnitude earthquake and a series of aftershocks that struck the province.

Vulcanologist Dalipa Marjusi said Tuesday the tremors had sparked a volcanic earthquake and temblors, although eruption of the volcano remained undetected.

“Since Sunday’s earthquake we have recorded 1,600 volcanic quakes and 700 tectonic quakes, but only 23 of them were felt,” Dalipa said.

Fog has blanketed the summit of the 2,597-meter volcano for the last two days, making it difficult to see ash or lava that might be erupting from its crater.

The volcano last spewed hot ash last April.

A seven-strong team from the directorate general of vulcanology and disaster mitigation have arrived in Padang from Bandung to monitor the volcano’s activities.
Source: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/08/18/authorities-raise-mt-talang-alert-level-highest.html


Talang is the 6th listed volcano from top left.

New activity/unrest:

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Notes:

IG reported that on 4 August seismicity from Reventador increased and periods of tremor frequently saturated the seismic stations. On 6 August, incandescent blocks were ejected from the crater. Thermal images revealed a linear area of higher temperatures, confirming the presence of a new lava flow on the S flank.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 14 August a 2-hour-long thermal anomaly detected over Pagan was followed by a small emission. The emission, hotter than its surroundings, drifted NW and quickly dissipated. [Source: GVP]

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

Posted in Volcanic Activity Report, volcanism, Volcano Hazard, volcanoes, VolcanoWatch | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [13 August 2009]

Posted by feww on August 14, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report:  5  – 11 August 2009

VoW: Kilauea

Kilauea
Since the vent collapse in late June, Kilauea’s summit plume had been wispy, translucent and low in SO2 content, resulting in improved air quality in Kona and Ka‘u. However, the summit vent has picked up in activity again this week. (Photo courtesy of Hawaiian Volcano Observatory). Source: Click Here.

New activity/unrest:

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

Posted in Volcanic Activity Report, volcanism, Volcano Hazard, volcanoes, VolcanoWatch | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [30 July 2009]

Posted by feww on July 30, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 22 July – 28 July 2009

VOW: Batu Tara

batu tara July 27 2009
Batu Tara remained active in late July 2009. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image the volcano releasing a faint plume on July 27, 2009. The distinct segments of the plume suggest that the volcano has released ash and/or steam in pulses. The plume blows toward the northwest over the Flores Sea.  NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Michon Scott.

batutara EO 18 may 2009
Batu Tara remained active in mid-May 2009. On May 17, 2009, as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this image, the tiny volcanic island released a plume of ash and/or steam. The volcano’s plume forms a counter-clockwise arc north of the volcano. East of that plume is another, fainter plume, almost certainly of the same origin, blowing westward over the Flores Sea. NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Michon Scott.

New activity/unrest:

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Notes:

KVERT reported that during 17-18 and 20-24 July seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels. According to news sources, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. late on 25 July. Increased seismicity, powerful ash bursts, and avalanches were also reported.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 July explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 23 July and 27 July pilots observed ash plumes. (Source: GVP)

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

Posted in Global Volcanism, Volcanic Activity Report, volcanism, Volcano Hazard, volcanoes, VolcanoWatch | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch [27 May 2009]

Posted by feww on May 28, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 20 May – 26 May 2009

Source: Global Volcanism program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

Redoubt Activity – Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH


Redoubt Volcano lava dome viewed from the southeast. This dome has been slowly growing since April 4, 2009. [Picture Date: May 26, 2009 16:12:26 AKDT - Image Creator: Rick Wessels; Image courtesy of AVO/USGS.

Ongoing Activity:

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates for Wednesday, May 27, 2009 7:32 AM HST (Wednesday, May 27, 2009 17:32 UTC)

  • Redoubt Activity – Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Kilauea Activity  -  Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Veniaminof Activity – Color Code GREEN : Alert Level NORMAL

  • Mauna Loa Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

Related Links:

Posted in Kīlauea, Redoubt, volcanic activity, volcanism, VolcanoWatch | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

 
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 392 other followers