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Posts Tagged ‘APHIS’

FIRE-EARTH AI Alerts: H7 HPAI, H5N2 LPAI, HAPI A Viruses

Posted by feww on March 7, 2017

AI: H5N2 strain reported in Wisconsin, H7 HPAI in Tennessee

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has reported a  strain of low pathogenic H5N2 avian flu  in a flock of 84,000 turkeys in Barron County, Wisconsin (OIE), the second in the country in two days.

The USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture Trade and Consumer Protection are responding to this event. • Testing of the commercial turkey flock occurred after the birds exhibited signs of depression. • Samples were submitted for laboratory testing and were confirmed positive for influenza A virus H5N2 LPAI North American wild bird origin. Both the HA and NA are distinct from the EA/AM H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses from 2015. • The infected premises was quarantined and the turkeys will be depopulated through controlled marketing. • A comprehensive epidemiological investigation with enhanced surveillance is ongoing.

On March 5, USDA/APHIS confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H7 avian influenza (HPAI) of North American wild bird lineage in a commercial chicken breeder flock in Lincoln County, Tennessee. “This is the first confirmed case of HPAI in commercial poultry in the United States this year. The flock of 73,500 is located within the Mississippi flyway. Samples from the affected flock, which experienced increased mortality, were tested at Tennessee’s Kord Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory and confirmed at the APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa. Virus isolation is ongoing, and NVSL expects to characterize the neuraminidase protein, or ‘N-type’, of the virus within 48 hours.”

In December 2016, a total of 56 outbreaks of HPAI were detected in poultry farms across Hungary, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Sweden and The Netherlands affecting a variety of poultry species (ducks, geese, turkeys, chickens) mainly in backyard farms. Additionally the virus was found in wild birds in 10 EU Member States (Hungary, Poland, Germany, Croatia, Austria, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, Finland and Romania), as well as in Switzerland.

2017 Reported cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza and HPAI A viruses:

Algeria, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Chile, China (People’s Rep. of), Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia (Former Yug. Rep. of), Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, U.S., Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom and Vietnam.

2017 Reported cases of  low pathogenic avian influenza (poultry): 

Cases reported in the U.S., South Africa, Netherlands, Germany, France, Chile and Cambodia so far this year.

 

 

 

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State of Disaster Emergency Extended in Iowa amid Rising Bird Flu Cases

Posted by feww on June 1, 2015

44.6 Million Birds Affected by Deadly Avian Flu Viruses in U.S.

Iowa’s Gov. Branstad has extended a State of Disaster Emergency Proclamation until July 1 as more farms continue to report new cases of the deadly avian flu virus in their poultry flocks. The Proclmation was due to expire on May 31, 2015.

Update on Avian Influenza Findings – Poultry Findings Confirmed by USDA’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories

  • Birds Affected: 44,612,573 [up from 33,521,073; additional cases pending]
  • Detections Reported: 197 [previously 162]
  • First Detection Reported: December 19, 2014
  • Last Detection Reported: May 28, 2015 [previously reported on May 13, 2015]

Infected Commercial Flocks

Commercial flocks have been infected in at least 15 States: Arkansas, California, Idaho, Indiana (May 10, 2015), Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska (May 11, 2015), North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington and  Wisconsin.

The majority of the infections have been reported in the state of Iowa, with 29,095,500 birds  affected [up from 24,815,500 on May 13,] across 18 counties, and at least 6 additional flocks being tested for the deadly virus(es).

  • Minnesota has the second highest number of infections, with 8,220,760 birds affected.
  • Nebraska has 3,794,100 affected birds.
  • Wisconsin reported 1,950,733 birds.

  • South Dakota has 1,116,200 affected birds.

Wild Flocks with Infection Found in at least 5 States: Kentucky, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.

Wild Bird HPAI Cases in the United States
A list prepared by National Flyway Council reports HPAI cases in wild bird flocks across the following states:

  • CA, ID, KS, KY, MN, MO, NM, NV, OR, WA, WI and WY.

Key Points: HPAI H5  [CDC Influenza Division]

  • Increased outreach, reporting and surveillance activities in the United States followed the detection of HPAI H5N2 among commercial poultry flocks in Canada in early December 2014.
  • USDA has reported
    • HPAI H5N8 virus in California, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Nevada.
    • HPAI H5N2 virus in Nebraska, Indiana, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, Minnesota, Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Wisconsin, Iowa and Kentucky.
    • HPAI H5N1 virus in Washington.
    • H5 virus in a wild bird in New Mexico, but diagnostic test did not determine the neuraminidase (NA).
  • HPAI H5N8, HPAI H5N2 and HPAI H5N1 viruses with this combination of genes had not been detected previously in the United States.

A strain of avian flu, EA-H5N8, which had previously been found only in the Western U.S., was detected in a backyard mixed poultry flock in Whitley County, Indiana on May 11, APHIS reported.

WILD BIRD HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA  [Last updated by APHIS on May 14, 2013]

Background and Additional Links

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State of Emergency Declared in Nebraska in Bird Flu Epidemic

Posted by feww on May 15, 2015

UPDATED

USDA reporting H5 bird flu virus detections in 20 U.S. states

Gov. Ricketts has proclaimed a state of emergency  following the discovery of avian influenza in Nebraska’s poultry sector, according to a statement posted on his website.

[Nebraska is now the fourth US state to declare a state of emergency due to the rapidly spreading bird flu epidemic. The three other states are Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin.]

“The Nebraska Department of Agriculture is coordinating with several state agencies for a thorough, expeditious response,” said Ricketts.

USDA is reporting H5 bird flu virus detections in 20 U.S. states; 15 states with outbreaks in poultry and 5 states with H5 detections in wild birds only.

The Nebraska Department of Agriculture (NDA)  and USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have confirmed the presence of a second case of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial layer flock in Dixon County. The second farm (referred to as Dixon 2) is in close proximity to the initial farm (referred to as Dixon 1) identified on May 12, 2015.

Dixon 2 is a flock of 1.8 million chickens. [Dixon 1 is believed to be a flock of 1.7 million birds.]

“Having a second farm in Nebraska confirmed to have HPAI is unfortunate but not completely unexpected. This follows the pattern we’ve seen in other states when it comes to the spread of the virus,” said NDA Director.

Both farms are under quarantine, and the birds on both properties will be depopulated, the NDA Director added.

“A perimeter has been established around Dixon 2, and as is the USDA protocol, NDA will be visiting all locations within a 6.2 mile radius of the farm that have poultry to conduct testing. Due to the proximity of Dixon 2 to Dixon 1, the 6.2 mile radius overlaps significantly,” said NDA.

Update on Avian Influenza Findings – Poultry Findings Confirmed by USDA’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories

  • Birds Affected: 33,521,073  [additional cases pending]
  • Detections Reported: 162 (previously 142)
  • First Detection Reported: December 19, 2014
  • Last Detection Reported: May 13,  2015

Commercial Flocks Infected in at least 15 States: Arkansas, California, Idaho, Indiana (May 10, 2015), Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska (May 11, 2015), North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington and  Wisconsin.

Majority of the infections have been reported in the state of Iowa, with 24,815,500 birds affected, and at least 6 additional flocks being tested for the deadly virus(es).

Wild Flocks with Infection Found in at least 5 States: Kentucky, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.

Wild Bird HPAI Cases in the United States
A list prepared by National Flyway Council reports HPAI cases in wild bird flocks across the following states:

  • CA, ID, KS, KY, MN, MO, NM, NV, OR, WA, WI and WY.

Key Points: HPAI H5  [CDC Influenza Division]

  • Increased outreach, reporting and surveillance activities in the United States followed the detection of HPAI H5N2 among commercial poultry flocks in Canada in early December 2014.
  • USDA has reported
    • HPAI H5N8 virus in California, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Nevada.
    • HPAI H5N2 virus in Nebraska, Indiana, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, Minnesota, Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Wisconsin, Iowa and Kentucky.
    • HPAI H5N1 virus in Washington.
    • H5 virus in a wild bird in New Mexico, but diagnostic test did not determine the neuraminidase (NA).
  • HPAI H5N8, HPAI H5N2 and HPAI H5N1 viruses with this combination of genes had not been detected previously in the United States.

A strain of avian flu, EA-H5N8, which had previously been found only in the Western U.S., was detected in a backyard mixed poultry flock in Whitley County, Indiana on May 11, APHIS reported.

 Background and Additional Links

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State of Emergency Declared in Nebraska due to Bird Flu

Posted by feww on May 15, 2015

USDA reporting H5 bird flu virus detections in 20 U.S. states

Gov. Ricketts has proclaimed a state of emergency  following the discovery of avian influenza in Nebraska’s poultry sector, according to a statement posted on his website.

[Nebraska is now the fourth US state to declare a state of emergency due to the rapidly spreading bird flu epidemic. The three other states are Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin.]

“The Nebraska Department of Agriculture is coordinating with several state agencies for a thorough, expeditious response,” said Ricketts.

USDA is reporting H5 bird flu virus detections in 20 U.S. states; 15 states with outbreaks in poultry and 5 states with H5 detections in wild birds only.

The Nebraska Department of Agriculture (NDA)  and USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have confirmed the presence of a second case of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial layer flock in Dixon County. The second farm (referred to as Dixon 2) is in close proximity to the initial farm (referred to as Dixon 1) identified on May 12, 2015.

Dixon 2 is a flock of 1.8 million chickens. [Dixon 1 is believed to be a flock of 1.7 million birds.]

“Having a second farm in Nebraska confirmed to have HPAI is unfortunate but not completely unexpected. This follows the pattern we’ve seen in other states when it comes to the spread of the virus,” said NDA Director.

Both farms are under quarantine, and the birds on both properties will be depopulated, said NDA Director.

“A perimeter has been established around Dixon 2, and as is the USDA protocol, NDA will be visiting all locations within a 6.2 mile radius of the farm that have poultry to conduct testing. Due to the proximity of Dixon 2 to Dixon 1, the 6.2 mile radius overlaps significantly,” said NDA.

Update on Avian Influenza Findings – Poultry Findings Confirmed by USDA’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories

  • Birds Affected: 33,521,073  [additional cases pending]
  • Detections Reported: 162 (previously 142)
  • First Detection Reported: December 19, 2014
  • Last Detection Reported: May 13,  2015

Commercial Flocks Infected in at least 15 States: Arkansas, California, Idaho, Indiana (May 10, 2015), Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska (May 11, 2015), North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington and  Wisconsin.

Majority of the infections have been reported in the state of Iowa, with 24,815,500 birds affected, and at least 6 additional flocks being tested for the deadly virus(es).

Wild Flocks with Infection Found in at least 5 States: Kentucky, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.

Key Points: HPAI H5  [CDC Influenza Division]

  • Increased outreach, reporting and surveillance activities in the United States followed the detection of HPAI H5N2 among commercial poultry flocks in Canada in early December 2014.
  • USDA has reported
    • HPAI H5N8 virus in California, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Nevada.
    • HPAI H5N2 virus in Nebraska, Indiana, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, Minnesota, Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Wisconsin, Iowa and Kentucky.
    • HPAI H5N1 virus in Washington.
    • H5 virus in a wild bird in New Mexico, but diagnostic test did not determine the neuraminidase (NA).
  • HPAI H5N8, HPAI H5N2 and HPAI H5N1 viruses with this combination of genes had not been detected previously in the United States.

A strain of avian flu, EA-H5N8, which had previously been found only in the Western U.S., was detected in a backyard mixed poultry flock in Whitley County, Indiana on May 11, APHIS reported.

 Background and Additional Links

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Mad Cow Disease Kills Texan

Posted by feww on June 6, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
PRION DISEASES
DEADLY CJD
SCENARIO 011
.

Degenerative, fatal brain disorder, variant CJD, kills Texas man, 4th in the U.S.

A diagnosis of variant CJD (a fatal brain disorder) in a patient who recently died in Texas has been confirmed after laboratory tests of an autopsy of the patient’s brain, reported CDC.

Variant CJD is a rare, degenerative, fatal brain disorder in humans, first discovered in 1996 in the United Kingdom. It is believed to be caused by consumption of products from cows with the disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow” disease).

At least 220 variant CJD patients have been reported worldwide, with a majority of them in the United Kingdom (177 cases) and France (27 cases).

The latest fatality is the fourth to be reported in the United States. In each of the three previous cases, infection likely occurred outside the United States, including the United Kingdom (2 cases) and Saudi Arabia (1 case).

“The history of this fourth patient, including extensive travel to Europe and the Middle East, supports the likelihood that infection occurred outside the United States.”

The disease also spread to many other European countries, and cases in cattle have been identified outside of Europe, in Canada, Israel and Japan, said CDC.

California dairy cow had mad cow disease

In 2012, health officials confirmed that a dairy cow in California’s Central Valley had bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly referred to as the mad cow disease, but insisted that the US beef and dairy products were safe.

  • BSE is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that can be easily passed on to humans; it has an incubation period of up to 8 year in cattle and about 12 years in humans.
  • The disease is easily transmitted to humans by eating food contaminated with the brain, spinal cord or digestive tract of infected carcasses.
  • An outbreak of BSE in the United Kingdom killed at least 166 people (an additional 50 known fatalities occurred in other countries) and about 180,000 cattle in the 1980s, and forced the authorities to destroy about 4.5 million cows at cost of more than $7 billion.
  • BSE prion is not destroyed through cooking and can be transmitted to humans who consume contaminated beef products.
  • An estimated half a million cattle infected with BSE entered the human food chain in the 1980s.
  • A second strain of BSE prion, discovered in 2004, may have also entered the food chain.
  • The diseased animal was he first confirmed case of mad cow disease in the U.S. in 6 years.
  • The first known case of BSE infection in North America was reported in Alberta, Canada in 1993.
  • South Korea has suspended sales of U.S. beef on Wednesday.

Update from APHIS Regarding a Detection of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in the United States

On April 24, 2014 USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service confirmed the nation’s 4th case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in an animal that was sampled for the disease at a rendering facility in central California.

Through its continuing epidemiological investigation, APHIS–in collaboration with the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA)–has identified that one progeny born to the positive cow in the last 2 years was stillborn, and another has been located on a site in another state.

Update: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in a U.K. Citizen Who Had Temporarily Resided in Texas, 2001-2005

In November 2005, the U.K. National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Surveillance Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about a probable variant CJD diagnosis in a 30-year-old man who resided in Texas during 2001-2005. The patient had onset of symptoms in early 2005 while in Texas. He then returned to the United Kingdom, where his illness progressed, and a diagnosis of variant CJD was made. This diagnosis was confirmed neuropathologically after the patient’s death.

About BSE [mirrored from CDC site]

BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unusual transmissible agent called a prion. The nature of the transmissible agent is not well understood. Currently, the most accepted theory is that the agent is a modified form of a normal protein known as prion protein. For reasons that are not yet understood, the normal prion protein changes into a pathogenic (harmful) form that then damages the central nervous system of cattle.

Research indicates that the first probable infections of BSE in cows occurred during the 1970’s with two cases of BSE being identified in 1986. BSE possibly originated as a result of feeding cattle meat-and-bone meal that contained BSE-infected products from a spontaneously occurring case of BSE or scrapie-infected sheep products. Scrapie is a prion disease of sheep. There is strong evidence and general agreement that the outbreak was then amplified and spread throughout the United Kingdom cattle industry by feeding rendered, prion-infected, bovine meat-and-bone meal to young calves.

The BSE epizootic in the United Kingdom peaked in January 1993 at almost 1,000 new cases per week. Over the next 17 years, the annual numbers of BSE cases has dropped sharply; 14,562 cases in 1995, 1,443 in 2000, 225 in 2005 and 11 cases in 2010. Cumulatively, through the end of 2010, more than 184,500 cases of BSE had been confirmed in the United Kingdom alone in more than 35,000 herds.

There exists strong epidemiologic and laboratory evidence for a causal association between a new human prion disease called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) that was first reported from the United Kingdom in 1996 and the BSE outbreak in cattle. The interval between the most likely period for the initial extended exposure of the population to potentially BSE-contaminated food (1984-1986) and the onset of initial variant CJD cases (1994-1996) is consistent with known incubation periods for the human forms of prion disease.

Related Links

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