Fire Earth

Earth is fighting to stay alive. Mass dieoffs, triggered by anthropogenic assault and fallout of planetary defense systems offsetting the impact, could begin anytime!

Posts Tagged ‘Ash’

Bezymianny Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula erupts

Posted by msrb on August 20, 2008

PETROPAVLOVSK-KAMCHATSKY. The Bezymianny Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula has erupted, Itar-Tass reported.

During the period of unrest, it emitted an ash column with a diameter of about 100 km.

The eruption was forecast prior to the unrest. The Bezymianny Volcano (2,800m high) is one of 28 active volcanoes on the peninsula. Bezymianny erupts explosively once or twice each year. The eruptions can last up to several days.

During its most powerful eruption in 1956, Bezymianny dome exploded collapsing about 280m of its summit (reduced from 3080 to 2800m). It ejected about one cubic kilometer volcanic debris in a very short time. [See VEI below.]

Bezymianny Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula. Photo: Itar-Tass. Image may be subject to copyright. See Fair Use Notice!

More …

Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)

The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaiʻi in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.

VEI and ejecta volume correlation. Credit: USGS (Via Wikipedia)

Posted in environment, food, health, Natural Disaster, Tourism, Travel | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Llaima Volcano Erupts Again!

Posted by feww on July 2, 2008

Chile’s Llaima Volcano, one of the largest and most active volcanoes in South America renews activity!

The Llaima volcano dribbles lava. Cherquenco town July 2, 2008. REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado. Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

Llaima volcano, a stratovolcano, is spewing lava, Chilean Govt said, issuing an evacuation order which imposed a 15 km exclusion zone. The lava, flowing towards the Calbuco River, has reached about 1 km from the crater.

Llaima volcano eruption viewed from Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) January 1, 2008

Source: Flickr (; License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0; via Wikimedia Commons,

Llaima volcano erupted on New Year’s Day and spewed ash and smoke on february. The volcano’s last major eruption occurred in 1994. On January 1, 2008, another eruption forced hundreds of residents from nearby villages and tourists in the national parkto evacuate the are. A column of smoke reaching 3000 m high spewed above the volcano. The volcanic ash expelled by Llaima reached Argentina.

It is feared that that the lava could cause an abrupt melting of snow and producing waves of lahars that could bury the nearby villages.

The snow-capped Llaima’s renewed activity starts just two months after the eruption of the Chaiten volcano about 525 km further south.

The top of Llaima rises about 3, 120 meters above the sea level and consists of two summits. Pichillaima, the lower summit is about 2,920 meters high. The ski center Las Araucarias lies on Llaima’s western slopes.

Llaima is located about 85 km northeast of Temuco and 665 km southeast of Santiago, within the borders of Conguillío National Park, and overloks the Sierra Nevada and the Conguillío Lake. Llaima’s slopes are drained by the rivers Captrén, Quepe and Trufultruful.

Related News Links:

Related Links:

Posted in Climate Change, energy, environment, food, health | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments »

Mt. Kurikoma Coughs, Still Comatose!

Posted by feww on June 18, 2008

The Year of Volcanoes, Too?

Steam, hot volcanic plumes rise near Mt. Kurikoma

Japan’s Self-Defense Forces personnel observed Monday hot volcanic plumes about seven kilometers southwest of the summit of Mt. Kurikoma, a 1,627-meter-high volcano located on the border of Miyagi, Iwate and Akita prefectures, Yomiuri Shimbun reported.

Aerial observation from a helicopter showed plumes rising from several spots near both Hanayama in Kurihara, and Yu no Hama hot-spring spa.

Sadato Ueki of Tohoku University’s Research Center for the Prediction of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions said the plumes might be volcanic gases rising to the surface, or steam coming from underground hot water channels whose course was diverted by the powerful Mw 6.8 quake Saturday. The Iwate quake struck about 22km NW of the Mt. Kurikoma summit.

“There’s a possibility that volcanic gases that had been confined below ground are gushing out through fissures in the mountain created by the earthquake,” he said. However, he ruled out increased volcanic activity on Mt. Kurikoma, because the plumes were very far from the volcano’s summit.

Kurikoma volcano last erupted in 1950.

MT. KURIKOMA is a dormant stratovolcano stretching across three prefectures (states) of Miyagi, Iwate and Akita, standing high at an altitude of 1,627.7m.

Kurikoma volcano seen from the SSE with its summit at the right-center, the satellitic cone of Daichimori on the left, and Higashi-Kurikoma on the right. On the opposite side of the volcano, the summit is cut by a 4-km-wide caldera breached to the north that is partially filled by the Tsurugi-dake central cone, once mined for sulfur. (Caption: Source) Image Copyright: Shingo Takeuchi (Japanese Quaternary Volcanoes database, RIODB, See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

Coordinates: 38° 57′ 0″ N, 140° 46′ 48″ E
Decimal: 38.95°, 140.78°

Related Links:

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Soputan volcano erupts

Posted by feww on June 8, 2008

Lava from Mount Soputan flows 2 km from crater

Indonesia’s Vulcanology Survey raised alert level for Soputan volcano located on Sulawesi island to level IV, the highest level, after it began ejecting hot lava and clouds of ash. Pyroclastic flows were extending about 2 km from Mount Soputan’s summit, but haven’t reached the foot of the mountain.

The authorities placed a 6-km exclusion zone around the volcano. Climbers are not allowed in the danger zone which also covers camping areas in the eastern part of the mountain about 4 km from the summit. According to a report, 6 volcanic earthquakes struck Mount Soputan on June 6.

People from a district in Minahasa look at columns of ash spewed from Mount Soputan, in Indonesia’s North Sulawesi province June 6, 2008. REUTERS/Stringer. Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

“Stronger explosion may happen, which can emit dangerous materials from the crater,” Saut Simatupang, head of Indonesia’s Vulcanology Survey said.

The volcano has been erupting since Friday, spewing ash and debris to a height of about 2 km and covering an 8-km radius area around the crater.

“There is no need to displace the villagers. The frequency of the eruption has decreased since 2 a.m. Saturday,” he said.

Although no casualties have been reported, an eye witness in the village of Molompar in the Tombatu subdistrict in Southeast Minahasa, reported that a number of houses in Lobu, Silian, and Tombatu villages had collapsed as a result of volcanic ash deposits that had accumulated on the roofs.

Mount Soputan, a stratovolcano, is one of Indonesia’s 130 or so active volcanoes, which previously erupted 24–30 October 2007. In a 2004 eruption lava extended its southwest slope, but no fatalities were reported.

Related Links:

Related Video:

Posted in energy, environment, food, health, politics, Tourism, Travel | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Semeru Volcano: Alert Level III

Posted by feww on May 22, 2008

Mount Semeru Volcano Restive, Alert Level III

May 22, 2008

Jakarta – Indonesian authorities on Thursday urged residents living around the slopes of Mount Semeru in Indonesia’s crowded East Java province to keep their distance from the active volcano, which appears to be heating up.

Vulcanologists upgraded the alert status of Mount Semeru volcano to level three, one level below a full state of alert, after the 3,676-metre-high volcano on Wednesday sent hot lava as much as 3,000 metres down its slopes.

Villagers and farmers were urged ‘not to conduct activity at a radius of 4 kilometres from the crater, especially around the south-east of the volcano’s slopes,’ said Surono, head of Indonesia’s Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation at the directorate general of volcanology.

Surono, who like many Indonesians goes only by one name, appealed to residents living on the riverbanks along three different rivers to be cautious of threats posed by lava streams.

However, no immediate evacuation is being considered for residents living in a number villages in the potential danger zone, he said, adding that a team of experts is intensively monitoring Mount Semeru’s activity round-the-clock.

The Mount Semeru volcano, 780 kilometres east of Jakarta, is a popular tourist destination, especially for hikers. Semeru is one of Indonesia’s most active volcanoes.

The Indonesian archipelago, straddling the seismically active ‘Ring of Fire,’ has the world’s highest density of volcanoes. Of its 500 volcanoes, 128 are active and 65 are listed as dangerous. (Source) Copyright respective author or news agency.

The climb to the summit of Semeru is a 2-3 day walk. The mountain stages minor eruptions (like in the photograph) every 20 – 40 minutes. The photo was taken in late afternoon (August 2003) and simply involved walking from the campsite at the base of the climb to the summit around to the west so that the sun was at my back, then waiting for the eruption to start. The most striking aspect of the photo is the colour caused by the almost perpendicular rays of the sun hitting the cloud of dust and steam escaping a couple of thousand metres into the sky from the crater. The photo typifies the fact that Indonesia sits in the middle of the “Ring of Fire”. The many spectacles presented by the landscapes, the festivals and the people of Indonesia never cease to truly amaze me. Photo and caption credit: Campbell Bridge (via Trek Earth at:

Semeru: The Most Active Volcano of Java

Semeru also Gunung Semeru is the highest and one of most active volcanoes of Java. Known also as Mahameru (Great Mountain), it is very steep and rises abruptly above the coastal plains of eastern Java. Maars containing crater lakes have formed along a line through the summit. Semeru lies at the south end of the Tengger Volcanic Complex. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Semeru’s eruptive history is extensive. Since 1818, at least 55 eruptions have been recorded (10 of which resulted in fatalities) consisting of both lava flows and pyroclastic flows. More than 500 people have been killed by Semeru’s eruptions during the last 30 years. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967. (Source 1 and 2 )

Semeru is one of many volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Graphic courtesy of Darwin VAAC.

Semeru, a stratovolcano, has erupted at least 55 times since 1818. The eruptions are commonly moderate to moderately large (VEI of 2 to 3) and explosive. This photo, taken November 4, 1982, shows a small cloud associated with a Strombolian eruption (relatively low-level volcanic eruptions) . Photo by Jack Lockwood, U.S. Geological Survey. (Source)

Strombolian eruptions are relatively low-level volcanic eruptions, named after the Italian volcano named Stromboli, where such eruptions consist of ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs to altitudes of tens to hundreds of meters. They are small to medium in volume, with sporadic violence. (Source). Credit: Wolfgang Beyer GNU Free Documentation license, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation.

Semeru eruptions are commonly moderate to moderately large (VEI of 2 to 3). Some of the eruptions produced lahars (a type of mudflow composed of pyroclastic material and water that flows down from a volcano). Semeru’s most recent eruption began in 1967 and has continued to the present. In August of 1994, explosions occurred at 15-20 minute intervals. In February of 1995, pyroclastic avalanches traveled about 0.6 mile (1 km) from the summit.

Semeru, 1985. A USGS Photo.

Related News:

Related Links:

Posted in Climate Change, environment, food, health, Tourism, Travel | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Philippines Taal Volcano Could Erupt Anytime!

Posted by feww on May 19, 2008

UPDATE: Latest From TAAL and other Philippines Volcanoes

Taal May Erupt at Anytime

FEWW team believes there is a strong probability that the Taal Volcano, a Pelean-type active volcano on the island of Luzon, might erupt this month. Taal volcano is designated as one of the 16 Decade Volcanoes by International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI). Located about 50 km south of the capital, Manila, Taal is surrounded by populated areas.

Taal has erupted violently several times (the last eruption was in 1977). The current death toll caused by its activities stands at about 6,000.

More seismic activities in the region should be expected.

Taal Volcano Seen through Lake Taal (Photo: Jhun Taboga)

A cinder cone in an acidic lake on Taal Volcano (Credit: JG Moore of the US Geological Survey)

Major volcanoes of the Philippines

Pacific Ring of Fire

The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes. Ninety percent of the world’s earthquakes and 80% of the world’s largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire is a direct result and consequence of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates. (Source)

Plate Tectonics

World’s 14 major tectonic plates plus the Scotia plate. Mapped in the second half of the 20th century to explain the observed evidence for large scale motions of the Earth’s lithosphere. The lithosphere is broken up into tectonic plates. The surface of the Earth consists of a further 38 [40] minor plates.

The largest of the major plates are

  • African Plate, containing Africa – Continental plate
  • Antarctic Plate, containing Antarctica – Continental plate
  • Australian Plate, containing Australia (fused with Indian Plate about 50 million years ago) – Continental plate
  • Eurasian Plate containing Asia and Europe – Continental plate
  • North American Plate containing North America and north-east Siberia – Continental plate
  • South American Plate containing South America – Continental plate
  • Pacific Plate, covering the Pacific Ocean – Oceanic plate

See also

Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along plate boundaries. The lateral movement of the plates is typically at speeds of 5 – 10 cm/yr. (Read more …)

Recent Earthquakes [Kurile through Kermadec trenches]

[Time at epicenter]

  • Magnitude 4.8; Depth of 48.7 km; SOUTHEAST OF THE LOYALTY ISLANDS; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 10:03:52 PM
  • Magnitude 5.6; Depth of 35 km; SOUTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA; May 18, 2008 at 07:17:24 PM
  • Magnitude 4.6; Depth of 74.1km; MINDORO, PHILIPPINES; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 07:24:17 PM
  • Magnitude 4.9; Depth of 10 km; SABAH, MALAYSIA; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 02:26:41 PM
  • Magnitude 4.9; Depth of 31.3 km; NIAS REGION, INDONESIA; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 09:59:59 AM
  • Magnitude 4.4; Depth of 242.4 km;KYUSHU, JAPAN; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 07:15:06 AM
  • Magnitude 5.2; Depth of 127.1 km, MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES, Saturday, May 17, 2008 at 10:17:30 PM
  • Magnitude 5.1; Depth of 151.2 km; SOUTH OF THE KERMADEC ISLANDS; Saturday, May 17, 2008 at 02:23:17 PM
  • Magnitude 5.3; Depth of 150.4 km; NEW BRITAIN REGION, PAPUA NEW GUINEA; Saturday, May 17, 2008 at 03:35:14 AM
  • Magnitude 5.4; Depth of 35 km; SOUTH OF THE KERMADEC ISLANDS; Friday, May 16, 2008 at 11:06:51 PM
  • Magnitude 5.3; Depth of 41 km; SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS REGION; Friday, May 16, 2008 at 09:19:07 AM
  • Magnitude 4.9; Depth of 606.3 km; FIJI REGION; Thursday, May 15, 2008 at 10:46:02 AM
  • Magnitude 5.1; Depth of 35 km; TONGA; Friday, May 16, 2008 at 03:06:15 AM
  • Magnitude 5.0; Depth of 25.8 km; KURIL ISLANDS; Wednesday, May 14, 2008 at 08:20:43 AM
  • Magnitude 5.2; Depth of 52.5 km; LUZON, PHILIPPINES; Wednesday, May 14, 2008 at 05:48:32 AM
  • Magnitude 5.2; Depth of 40.8 km; LUZON, PHILIPPINES; Depth of 40.8 km; Tuesday, May 13, 2008 at 10:14:30 PM
  • Magnitude 5.4; Depth of 35 km; NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA; Tuesday, May 13, 2008 at 05:29:19 PM
  • Magnitude 5.0; Depth of 36.7 km; TAIWAN REGION; Tuesday, May 13, 2008 at 06:57:46 AM
  • Magnitude 4.6; Depth of 509 km; SOUTH OF THE FIJI ISLANDS; Monday, May 12, 2008 at 04:34:05 AM

[Source: USGS]

Global earthquake epicentres, 1963–1998 (Image: NASA)

Philippines Other Major Volcanoes: Mayon Volcano

Mayon Volcano as viewed from Lingñon Hill in Daraga, Albay. Mayon, located between the Eurasian and the Philippine Plate, is a convergent plate boundary. It is the most active volcano in the Philippines, having erupted over 47 times in the past 400 years. Last eruption: 2006. (Copyrigh by Tam3rd via Wikimedia)

Canlaon Volcano

Canlaon, a stratovolcano, is located in the north central part of the island of Negros.
Last eruption: 2006.

Weather clouds drape the sparsely vegetated summit of Kanlaon volcano (also spelled Canlaon). Kanlaon is the most active of the central Philippines and forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The massive 2435-m-high stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano. Photo courtesy of PHIVOLCS. Caption GVP

Ragang volcano

Ragang volcano (above and to the right of the center of image) is located in central Mindanao. Last eruption: 1916. Thanks mainly to the Filipino government and its education authorities, no other image of Ragnag Volcano could be found at the time of writing. NASA Space Shuttle image STS61A-40-71, 1985 (

There are 22 active volcanoes in the Philippines: Babuyan Claro, Banahaw, Bulusan, Mount Biliran, Bud Dajo, Cagua, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Hibok-Hibok, Iraya, Mount Iriga, Mount Kanlaon, Leonard Kniaseff, Makaturing, Matutum, Mayon, Musuan, Mount Parker (Cotabato), Pinatubo, Ragang, Smith Volcano, Taal.

See also: List of volcanoes in the Philippines

Related Links:

Posted in Climate Change, environment, food, health, Tourism, Travel | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 20 Comments »

Philippines Taal Volcano Could Erupt Anytime!

Posted by feww on May 18, 2008

Page Updated:

Philippines Taal Volcano Could Erupt Anytime!

Posted in environment, food, health, Tourism, Travel | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Tropical storm Halong pounds northern Philippines

Posted by feww on May 18, 2008

Halong triggers floods and landslides

Tropical storm Halong lashes northern Philippines with 95 km per hour winds on Sunday, triggering floods and landslides.

Rescuers are seen pushing their jeep through a street submerged by floodwaters in Iloilo City, central Philippines, on May 15. Tropical storm Halong battered the northern Philippines on Sunday with powerful winds triggering floods and landslides and displacing about 6,000 people, relief officials said.
(AFP/File/Tara Yap)
Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

Large areas of the northwestern coast of Luzon, the main Philippine island, experienced a blackout while about 6,000 people were displaced. Residents of low-lying areas and those living near mountain slopes throughout Luzon were urged to “take all the necessary precautions against possible flashfloods and landslides,” as the storm was intensifying the seasonal southwest monsoon winds. (Source)

Related Links:

Posted in acidic lake, Asia, environment, food, health, Lake Taal | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Volcanoes, Santorini Eruption and Crops Failure in China

Posted by feww on May 14, 2008

*** Breaking News: May 19, 2008 Philippines Taal Volcano Could Erupt Anytime!

A New Era of Intense Volcanic Unrest May Have Begun

Where Could The Next Supervolcanic Eruption Occur?

1. Pico del Teide?
2. Mauna Loa?
3. Mount Vesuvius?

4. Mount Rainier?
5. Taal?
6. Thera?


A volcano is an opening in a planet’s crust that allows ash, gases and molten rock to escape from below the surface.

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates converge or divrge. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by “divergent tectonic plates” pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by “convergent tectonic plates” coming together.

Author:MesserWoland via Wikimedia Commons.This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike license versions 2.5, 2.0, and 1.0

Cross-section through a stratovolcano:

1. Large magma chamber ◊ 2. Bedrock ◊ 3. Conduit (pipe) ◊ 4. Base ◊ 5. Sill ◊ 6. Branch pipe ◊ 7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano ◊ 8. Flank ◊ 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano ◊ 10. Throat ◊ 11. Parasitic cone ◊ 12. Lava flow ◊ 13. Vent ◊ 14. Crater ◊ 15. Ash cloud

Eruption Types

There are many different kinds of volcanic activity and eruptions: phreatic eruptions (steam-generated eruptions), explosive eruption of high-silica lava (e.g., rhyolite), effusive eruption of low-silica lava (e.g., basalt), pyroclastic flows, lahars (debris flow) and carbon dioxide emission. All of these activities can pose a hazard to humans. Earthquakes, hot springs, fumaroles, mud pots and geysers often accompany volcanic activity. (Source)

Image by USGS

The concentrations of different volcanic gases can vary considerably from one volcano to the next. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other principal volcanic gases include hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. A large number of minor and trace gases are also found in volcanic emissions, for example hydrogen, carbon monoxide, halocarbons, organic compounds, and volatile metal chlorides.

Large, explosive volcanic eruptions inject water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and ash (pulverized rock and pumice) into the stratosphere to heights of 16–32 kilometres (10–20 mi) above the Earth’s surface. (Source)

Decade Volcanoes

The Decade Volcanoes are 16 volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas. The Decade Volcanoes project encourages studies and public-awareness activities at these volcanoes, with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the volcanoes and the dangers they present, and thus being able to reduce the severity of natural disasters. They are named Decade Volcanoes because the project was initiated as part of the United Nations sponsored International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. (Source)

The 16 current Decade Volcanoes

Mount St. Helens shortly after the eruption of May 18, 1980

1 km steam plume ejected from Mount St. Helens photo taken by USGS on May 19, 1982 [Mount St. Helens is located in Skamania County, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.]

Mount St. Helens is most famous for its catastrophic eruption on May 18, 1980, which was the deadliest and most economically destructive volcanic event in the history of the United States. Fifty-seven people were killed; 250 homes, 47 bridges, 24 km of railways, and 300 km of highway were destroyed. The eruption caused a massive debris avalanche, reducing the elevation of the mountain’s summit from 2,950 to 2,550m and replacing it with a 1.5 km-wide horseshoe-shaped crater. The debris avalanche was up to 2.9 km³ in volume (VEI = 5). (Source)

A large eruption at Mount Etna, photographed from the International Space Station

Mount Etna, Sicily . Last Eruption 2007. [Photo Credit: Josep Renalias, via Wikimedia commons]
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.5

Koryaksky Volcano seen in the background. Last Eruption: 1957. GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version. See file detail.

Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station.

Mount Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga Mountains, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. [The main crater is 250 m deep, 2 km wide and sometimes contains a lava lake. Nyiragongo and nearby Nyamuragira are together responsible for 40% of Africa’s historical volcanic eruptions. (Source: USGS) Last Eruption: 2008 (continuing)

The three summits of Mount Rainier: Liberty Cap, Columbia Crest, and Point Success [Last Eruption 1854]

The snow-capped summit of Pico del Teide in December 2004 – Active but dormant volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Last eruption 1909. Photo: M. D. Hill. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License.

An aerial photo of Vesuvius. last Eruption 1944 [Author: Pastorius? Via Wikimedia Commons. ] This file is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License

Taal Volcano seen from across Taal Lake on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Last Eruption: 1977.

Supervolcanoes: Nature’s “Thermonuclear” Arsenal

Satellite image of Thera, November 21, 2000. The Minoan caldera is at the lower part of the image and formed in the Minoan eruption 1630 and 1600 BCE. The whole caldera is formed of three overlapping calderas.

The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption or Santorini eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption (VEI = 6, DRE = 60 km3) which is estimated to have occurred in the mid second millennium BCE. The eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history. The eruption destroyed most of the island of Thera, including the Minoan settlement at Akrotiri as well as communities and agricultural areas on nearby islands and on the coast of Crete. The eruption contributed to the collapse of the Minoan culture.

The eruption caused significant climatic changes in the eastern Mediterranean region, Aegean Sea and much of the Northern Hemisphere. There is also evidence that the eruption caused failure of crops in China, inspired certain Greek myths, contributed to turmoil in Egypt, and influenced many of the biblical Exodus stories. It has been theorized that the Minoan eruption and the destruction of the city at Akrotiri provided the basis for or otherwise inspired Plato’s story of Atlantis. (Source)

Volcanic craters on Santorini. This file is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License [ photo: Rolfsteinar, via Wikimedia Commons]

Lake Taupo is a lake situated in the North Island of New Zealand. It has a perimeter of approximately 193km, a deepest point of 186 m and a surface area of 616 square km.

The lake lies in a caldera created following a huge volcanic eruption (see supervolcano) approximately 26,500 years ago. According to geological records, the volcano has erupted 28 times in the last 27,000 years. It has predominantly erupted rhyolitic lava although Mount Tauhara formed from dacitic lava.

The largest eruption, known as the Oruanui eruption, ejected an estimated 1,170 km³ of material and caused several hundred square kilometres of surrounding land to collapse and form the caldera. The caldera later filled with water, eventually overflowing to cause a huge outwash flood.

NASA satellite photo of Lake Taupo

Several later eruptions occurred over the millennia before the most recent major eruption, which occurred in 180 CE. Known as the Hatepe eruption, it is believed to have ejected 120 km³ of material, of which 30 km³ was ejected in the space of a few minutes. This was one of the most violent eruptions in the last 5,000 years (alongside the Tianchi eruption of Baekdu at around 1000 and the 1815 eruption of Tambora), with a Volcanic Explosivity Index rating of 7. The eruption column was twice as high as the eruption column from Mount St. Helens in 1980, and the ash turned the sky red over Rome and China. The eruption devastated much of the North Island and further expanded the lake. Unlike today, the area was uninhabited by humans at the time of the eruption, since New Zealand was not settled by the Māori until several centuries later. Taupo’s last known eruption occurred around 210 CE, with lava dome extrusion forming the Horomatangi Reefs. (Source)

Related Links:

Posted in energy, environment, food, Global Warming, health, Nature's Thermonuclear Arsenal, new zealand, VEI | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 10 Comments »

Chaitén Volcano Still Active

Posted by feww on May 14, 2008

*** Breaking News: May 19, 2008 Philippines Taal Volcano Could Erupt Anytime!

Update #2 Chaitén Volcano –

Chile President: Ash-Covered Towns Could Be Permanent Ghost Towns

A segment of the pyroclastic tower ejected from the Chaitén volcano has fallen on the surroundings areas amid the eruptive activities that began 8 days ago.

Chilean President Michelle Bachelet warned that towns surrounding Chaitén Volcano could become permanently uninhabitable. Bachelet’s remarks follows a report by National Geologic and Mining Service (SERNAGEOMIN) which forecast probability the volcano’s collapse at more than 50 percent.

The increased build-up of pyroclastic material in the magma dome made it prone to collapse, SERNAGEOMIN said. An implosion could result in the “complete destruction of everything within a 15 kilometer radius around the peak, an area which encompasses Chaitén, Santa Barbara, and several rural farming villages.”

According to vulcanologist Luis Lara Chaitén volcano could implode releasing a streams of red-hot pyroclastic material which would destroy everything in its path. (Source)

What goes up must come down! Ash from eruption settles on the surrounding area
Photo by Victor Gonzalez, Partido Humanista
. Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice.

“Right now, everything is grey,” said Futaleufu Mayor. “We’ve got a huge layer of ash that a passing rain has turned into cement-hard” (Photo: AP) Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice.

Chaiten and other towns in the area are covered in ash (Photo courtesy of Victor González, Partido Humanista) Source: Patagonia Times. Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice.

Pyroclastic ash spewed two miles into the air (Source Dailymail UK). Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice.

A dead cow lies covered by ashes from the Chaiten volcano at a road leading to Argentina near Chaiten, Chile. (Photo and caption FoxNews!) Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice.

Related Links:


Posted in agirculture, air pollution, air soil and water pollutions, environment, food, health, new zealand, Tourism, Travel, uninhabitable, unliveable, war agaist nature | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | 9 Comments »