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Posts Tagged ‘Dengue fever’

FIRE-EARTH Alert: Mosquitoes

Posted by feww on September 27, 2017

All Groups

FIRE-EARTH ALERT: Mosquitoes

[Issued by FIRE-EARTH Science Team and affiliated colleagues.]

  • Details via FIRE-EARTH PULSARS.

 

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State of Emergency Declared in Hawaii over Dengue Fever

Posted by feww on February 9, 2016

Dengue Fever and ZIKV share the same vector: mosquitoes of Aedes species

Hawaii County has declared a state of emergency amid the growing dengue fever outbreak in the state.

“A state of emergency for Hawaii County is authorized in order to prevent the continued spread of this outbreak and to eliminate the dengue fever virus from Hawaii Island,” said the mayor.

The state Health Department had confirmed 251 cases of dengue fever on Hawaii Island, including two potentially infectious individuals.

“The decision to issue an emergency proclamation is one made by professionals,” said Hawaii Gov. Ige. “There is a continuous conversation about it, as we proceed through an event and identify a course of action.”

Dengue Fever and Zika virus (ZIKV) share the same vector, mosquitoes of Aedes species (A. Aegypti & A. albopictus), and public health officials are concerned ZIKV could make its way to the Aloha State.

The same mosquitoes are also responsible for the spread chikungunya viruses.

 

Dengue Outbreak 2015 – 2016

Dengue Fever – Hawaii Island Outbreak

The Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) is investigating a cluster of locally-acquired cases of dengue fever on Hawaii Island (the Big Island). Dengue is not endemic to Hawaii. However, it is intermittently imported from endemic areas by infected travelers. This is the first cluster of locally-acquired dengue fever since the 2011 outbreak on Oahu.  The Big Island and the rest of Hawaii remain safe destinations for visitors and residents.

  • As of February 8, some 227 of the confirmed cases are Hawaii Island residents and 24 are visitors.
  • 206 cases have been adults; 45 have been children (<18 years of age). Onset of illness has ranged between 9/11/15 – 2/1/16.
  • A total of 1,124 reported potential cases have been excluded based on test results and/or not meeting case criteria (!)

 

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Latest Dengue Fever Outbreaks

Posted by feww on January 20, 2016

Brazil reported record number of dengue cases in 2015

Brazil registered 1.6 million cases of dengue fever in 2015, up from the previous record of 1.4 million cases in 2013, the Health Ministry reported.

  • Peak incidence of dengue infection rates occurred in April, with 229.1 cases for every 100,000 people.
  • Dengue-related fatalities reached 863 in 2015, also a record high.
  • Two other diseases transmitted by the Aedes mosquito, the Zika virus and chikungunya fever, are also spreading rapidly across the country.Transmission of the Dengue Virus [CDC]

Cambodia

Cambodia reported 15,412 cases of dengue fever in 2015, a rise 314 percent from the previous year.

  • “The incident rate was 93.5 cases out of 100,000 people,” said a senior health official. “Some 71 percent of the patients were children aged between 5 and 14 years old.”
  • At least 38 children were killed by the infection in 2015, a rise of 81 percent.

Taiwan

Tiwan reported 43,259 cases of dengue infection in 2015, which killed at least 212 people across the island, the worst outbreak on record.

  • In 2014, the country reported 15,732 cases, compared with the previous annual average of 2,000 cases.

Paraguay

Authorities and citizens alike in the Latin American country are concerned that another epidemic of dengue fever could “easily start up following December’s rains, which in Asuncion flooded entire neighborhoods and forced some 100,000 residents to evacuate their homes,” the Paraguayan Health Ministry said.

More than 150,000 people were infected in a 2013 dengue epidemic, which killed 252 people,  Agencia EFE reported.

Stats from WHO

  • Cases across the Americas, South-East Asia and Western Pacific exceeded 1.2 million in 2008 and over 3 million in 2013 (based on official data submitted by Member States). Recently the number of reported cases has continued to increase. In 2013, 2.35 million cases of dengue were reported in the Americas alone, of which 37 687 cases were of severe dengue.
  • Not only is the number of cases increasing as the disease spreads to new areas, but explosive outbreaks are occurring. The threat of a possible outbreak of dengue fever now exists in Europe and local transmission of dengue was reported for the first time in France and Croatia in 2010 and imported cases were detected in 3 other European countries. In 2012, an outbreak of dengue on the Madeira islands of Portugal resulted in over 2000 cases and imported cases were detected in mainland Portugal and 10 other countries in Europe.
  • In 2013, cases have occurred in Florida (United States of America) and Yunnan province of China. Dengue also continues to affect several South American countries, notably Costa Rica, Honduras and Mexico. In Asia, Singapore has reported an increase in cases after a lapse of several years and outbreaks have also been reported in Laos. In 2014, trends indicate increases in the number of cases in the People’s Republic of China, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Malaysia and Vanuatu, with Dengue Type 3 (DEN 3) affecting the Pacific Island countries after a lapse of over 10 years. Dengue was also reported in Japan after a lapse of over 70 years. In 2015 an increase in the number of cases was reported in Brazil and several neighbouring countries. The Pacific island countries of Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia have continued to record cases.
  • [At least] 500 000 people with severe dengue require hospitalization each year, a large proportion of whom are children. About 2.5% of those affected die.

Epidemiology of dengue [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Dengue is currently regarded globally as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. A history of symptoms compatible with dengue can be traced back to the Chin Dynasty of 265–420 AD. The virus and its vectors have now become widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly over the last half-century. Significant geographic expansion has been coupled with rapid increases in incident cases, epidemics, and hyperendemicity, leading to the more severe forms of dengue. Transmission of dengue is now present in every World Health Organization (WHO) region of the world and more than 125 countries are known to be dengue endemic. The true impact of dengue globally is difficult to ascertain due to factors such as inadequate disease surveillance, misdiagnosis, and low levels of reporting. Currently available data likely grossly underestimates the social, economic, and disease burden. Estimates of the global incidence of dengue infections per year have ranged between 50 million and 200 million; however, recent estimates using cartographic approaches suggest this number is closer to almost 400 million.

Introduction

Dengue is an acute mosquito-borne viral infection that places a significant socioeconomic and disease burden on many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is currently regarded as the most important arboviral disease internationally as over 50% of the world’s population live in areas where they are at risk of the disease, and approximately 50% live in dengue endemic countries.

Dengue virus

There are four distinct dengue virus serotypes, all of which originate from the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. The serotypes are termed DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4, and infection with any of the four viruses results in lifelong immunity to that specific serotype. Each of the four serotypes has been individually found to be responsible for dengue epidemics and associated with more severe dengue. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3753061/

Female Aedes aegypti mosquito

With a newly-obtained fiery red blood meal visible through her transparent abdomen, the now heavy female Aedes aegypti mosquito took flight as she left her host’s skin surface. Photo Credit: James Gathany/ CDC

 

Transmission of the Dengue Virus [CDC]

Dengue is transmitted between people by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are found throughout the world.  Insects that transmit disease are vectors.  Symptoms of infection usually begin 4 – 7 days after the mosquito bite and typically last 3 – 10 days.  In order for transmission to occur the mosquito must feed on a person during a 5- day period when large amounts of virus are in the blood; this period usually begins a little before the person become symptomatic.  Some people never have significant symptoms but can still infect mosquitoes.  After entering the mosquito in the blood meal, the virus will require an additional 8-12 days incubation before it can then be transmitted to another human. The mosquito remains infected for the remainder of its life, which might be days or a few weeks.

In rare cases dengue can be transmitted in organ transplants or blood transfusions from infected donors, and there is evidence of transmission from an infected pregnant mother to her fetus.  But in the vast majority of infections, a mosquito bite is responsible.

In many parts of the tropics and subtropics, dengue is endemic, that is, it occurs every year, usually during a season when Aedes mosquito populations are high, often when rainfall is optimal for breeding.  These areas are, however, additionally at periodic risk for epidemic dengue, when large numbers of people become infected during a short period.  Dengue epidemics require a coincidence of large numbers of vector mosquitoes, large numbers of people with no immunity to one of the four virus types (DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, DENV 4), and the opportunity for contact between the two.  Although Aedes are common in the southern U. S., dengue is endemic in northern Mexico, and the U.S. population has no immunity, the lack of dengue transmission in the continental U.S. is primarily because contact between people and the vectors is too infrequent to sustain transmission.

Dengue is an Emerging Disease

The four dengue viruses originated in monkeys and independently jumped to humans in Africa or Southeast Asia between 100 and 800 years ago.  Dengue remained a relatively minor, geographically restricted disease until the middle of the 20th century.  The disruption of the second world war – in particular the coincidental transport of Aedes mosquitoes around the world in cargo –  are thought to have played a crucial role in the dissemination of the viruses.  DHF was first documented only in the 1950s during epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand.  It was not until 1981 that large numbers of DHF cases began to appear in the Carribean and Latin America, where highly effective Aedes control programs had been in place until the early 1970s.

Dengue is endemic in at least 125 countries

Dengue is endemic in more than 125 countries in Asia, the Pacific, the Americas, Africa, and the Caribbean.

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Baby Born with Brain Damage in Hawaii Infected by Zika Virus

Posted by feww on January 17, 2016

CDC confirms baby born in Hawaii with microcephaly

A baby born with birth defect in an Oahu hospital has tested positive for the Zika virus (ZKIV), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has confirmed.

The infant suffers from microcephaly, a rare condition that affects the brain, retarding its growth and leaving the skull size abnormally small.

The baby’s mother acquired the virus while living in Brazil in May 2015 and the baby was likely infected in the womb, said Hawaiian state health officials and the CDC.

The news comes as the Hawaii struggles to contain its largest ever dengue fever outbreak. Most of the infection cases, also transmitted through mosquito bites, have been reported in the Big Island of Hawaii.

CDC has already Issued Travel Warnings as Zika Virus Epidemic Continues to Spread in  Latin America and Caribbean countries.

Zika, a dangerous tropical disease linked to birth defects, is spreading in Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

Countries with past or current evidence of Zika virus transmission


Countries that have past or current evidence of Zika virus transmission (See below for list)

Countries that have past or current evidence of Zika virus transmission

AFRICA: Angola*, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt*, Ethiopia*, Gabon, Gambia*, Kenya*, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone*, Somalia*, Tanzania*, Uganda and Zambia*.
AMERICAS: Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Suriname and Venezuela.

OCEANIA/PACIFIC ISLANDS: Cook Islands, Easter Island, Federated States of Micronesia, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.

ASIA: Cambodia, India*, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan*, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam*.

[*For these countries, the only evidence of Zika virus transmission is from studies that detected Zika virus antibodies in healthy people.  These studies cannot determine where the people were infected or if they were infected with Zika virus because the antibodies may have resulted from infections with other closely related viruses, such as dengue virus.]

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Dengue Fever Kills 204 in Taiwan

Posted by feww on December 16, 2015

Taiwan confirms nine new deaths from dengue fever; 204 killed since May

Heath authorities in Taiwan have confirmed nine new deaths from dengue fever, raising the death toll to 204 since May this year, a report quoted the country’s disease control agency as saying.

On average, the patients died within 6 days of showing symptoms, the agency reported.

The latest fatalities occurred in Kaohsiung city, south Taiwan. The victims, five male and four female, were aged between 55 and 82.

The total number of dengue fever cases has climbed to 41,947  with the majority recorded in Kaohsiung and Tainan, two of the largest cities in south Taiwan, said the report.

The outbreak is said to be the worst ever recorded. Last year, 15,732 cases and 28 deaths were reported, an eight-fold rise compared with previous numbers of about 2,000 cases annually.

Epidemiology of dengue [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Dengue is currently regarded globally as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. A history of symptoms compatible with dengue can be traced back to the Chin Dynasty of 265–420 AD. The virus and its vectors have now become widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly over the last half-century. Significant geographic expansion has been coupled with rapid increases in incident cases, epidemics, and hyperendemicity, leading to the more severe forms of dengue. Transmission of dengue is now present in every World Health Organization (WHO) region of the world and more than 125 countries are known to be dengue endemic. The true impact of dengue globally is difficult to ascertain due to factors such as inadequate disease surveillance, misdiagnosis, and low levels of reporting. Currently available data likely grossly underestimates the social, economic, and disease burden. Estimates of the global incidence of dengue infections per year have ranged between 50 million and 200 million; however, recent estimates using cartographic approaches suggest this number is closer to almost 400 million.

Introduction

Dengue is an acute mosquito-borne viral infection that places a significant socioeconomic and disease burden on many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is currently regarded as the most important arboviral disease internationally as over 50% of the world’s population live in areas where they are at risk of the disease, and approximately 50% live in dengue endemic countries.

Dengue virus

There are four distinct dengue virus serotypes, all of which originate from the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. The serotypes are termed DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4, and infection with any of the four viruses results in lifelong immunity to that specific serotype. Each of the four serotypes has been individually found to be responsible for dengue epidemics and associated with more severe dengue. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3753061/

Transmission of the Dengue Virus [CDC]

With a newly-obtained fiery red blood meal visible through her transparent abdomen, the now heavy female Aedes aegypti mosquito took flight as she left her host’s skin surface. Photo Credit: James Gathany/ CDC

Dengue is transmitted between people by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are found throughout the world.  Insects that transmit disease are vectors.  Symptoms of infection usually begin 4 – 7 days after the mosquito bite and typically last 3 – 10 days.  In order for transmission to occur the mosquito must feed on a person during a 5- day period when large amounts of virus are in the blood; this period usually begins a little before the person become symptomatic.  Some people never have significant symptoms but can still infect mosquitoes.  After entering the mosquito in the blood meal, the virus will require an additional 8-12 days incubation before it can then be transmitted to another human. The mosquito remains infected for the remainder of its life, which might be days or a few weeks.

In rare cases dengue can be transmitted in organ transplants or blood transfusions from infected donors, and there is evidence of transmission from an infected pregnant mother to her fetus.  But in the vast majority of infections, a mosquito bite is responsible.

In many parts of the tropics and subtropics, dengue is endemic, that is, it occurs every year, usually during a season when Aedes mosquito populations are high, often when rainfall is optimal for breeding.  These areas are, however, additionally at periodic risk for epidemic dengue, when large numbers of people become infected during a short period.  Dengue epidemics require a coincidence of large numbers of vector mosquitoes, large numbers of people with no immunity to one of the four virus types (DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, DENV 4), and the opportunity for contact between the two.  Although Aedes are common in the southern U. S., dengue is endemic in northern Mexico, and the U.S. population has no immunity, the lack of dengue transmission in the continental U.S. is primarily because contact between people and the vectors is too infrequent to sustain transmission.

Dengue is an Emerging Disease

The four dengue viruses originated in monkeys and independently jumped to humans in Africa or Southeast Asia between 100 and 800 years ago.  Dengue remained a relatively minor, geographically restricted disease until the middle of the 20th century.  The disruption of the second world war – in particular the coincidental transport of Aedes mosquitoes around the world in cargo –  are thought to have played a crucial role in the dissemination of the viruses.  DHF was first documented only in the 1950s during epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand.  It was not until 1981 that large numbers of DHF cases began to appear in the Carribean and Latin America, where highly effective Aedes control programs had been in place until the early 1970s.

Dengue is endemic in at least 125 countries

Dengue is endemic in more than 125 countries in Asia, the Pacific, the Americas, Africa, and the Caribbean.

Related Links

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State of Emergency Declared in East Java

Posted by feww on January 26, 2015

Outbreak of dengue fever kills dozens across 38 areas in East Java

Authorities in East Java have declared a state of emergency [“an extraordinary situation (KLB) status”] due to an outbreak of dengue fever, which has sickened at least 1,054 people, killing 25 across 38 regencies and cities, said a report.

The state of emergency covers 11 regions in the province including the regencies of Jombang, Banyuwangi, Probolinggo, Kediri, Sumenep, Pamekasan, Nganjuk, Trenggalek, Mojokerto and Madiun as well as Madiun city, said the report.

“Data from the provincial administration show that most cases of dengue fever in the province were recorded in January or December. Of the more than 26,000 cases of dengue fever in 2010, for example, some 5,500 occurred in January,” the report said.

“Similarly, of the nearly 5,500 cases in 2011, more than 1,000 occurred in January, while of the more than 8,000 cases recorded in 2012, more than 1,000 occurred in December.”

East Java, Indonesia’s second most populated province [pop: ~ 40million,] is located on eastern part of island of Java, covering an area of 47,800 km², which is administratively divided into 29 regencies and 9 cities.

Global Impact: Up to 100 million infections reported annually

The incidences of dengue fever infection continue growing globally, especially since 2009, putting at least half of the world’s population at risk.

“In the past few years, there has been a very significant increase of dengue fever infection in tropical areas such as Asia, Africa, and Latin America, including Brazil, which constitutes a tremendous public health challenge. It is estimated that 2 to 5 billion people are under risk of acquiring the infection worldwide, with 50 to 100 million infections reported annually, and approximately 500,000 hospital admissions. Death numbers associated with dengue are difficult to estimate,” said a report.

Aedes aegypti, aka the yellow fever mosquito, is a vector for transmitting several tropical disease viruses including dengue fever, Chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever.


This 2006 photograph depicts a female Aedes aegypti mosquito as she acquires  a blood meal from her human host, the biomedical photographer, James Gathany, at the Centers for Disease Control.  Dengue fever is caused by four virus strains spread by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. (Photo Credit: James Gathany/University of Notre Dame).

Fatal Staphylococcal Infection following Classic Dengue Fever

“Dengue represents an important public health issue in many tropical areas, leading to high morbidity and the employment of substantial health resources. Even though the number of fatalities related to dengue is unknown, several reports warn about the potential occurrence of severe infections and even death. The clinical spectrum of dengue is highly variable, ranging from a mild flu-like syndrome to severe disease, with shock and hemorrhage. The occurrence of bacterial superinfection, or coinfection, in patients with dengue has been noted by some authors, but the available information comes from anecdotic reports. In this study, we show the clinical and anatomopathological data of a patient infected with dengue, who subsequently died of acute multi-organic failure related to Staphylococcus aureus infection. The autopsy revealed a severe disseminated staphylococcal disease and confirmed dengue infection.”

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Global Health Emergencies

Posted by feww on July 31, 2013

State of emergency declared in Honduras as dengue fever death toll rises

Honduras government has declared a state of emergency after a dengue fever outbreak that has killed 16 people and infected more than 12,000 others, local media reported.

The mosquito-borne  disease has infected more than half of the municipalities in the country.

The Health Minister has declared a national priority to control mosquitoes.

It is very difficult to control or eliminate Ae. aegypti mosquitoes because they have adaptations to the environment that make them highly resilient, or with the ability to rapidly bounce back to initial numbers after disturbances resulting from natural phenomena (e.g., droughts) or human interventions (e.g., control measures). One such adaptation is the ability of the eggs to withstand desiccation (drying) and to survive without water for several months on the inner walls of containers. For example, if we were to eliminate all larvae, pupae, and adult Ae. aegypti at once from a site, its population could recover two weeks later as a result of egg hatching following rainfall or the addition of water to containers harboring eggs. [CDC]

Of the 12,135 reported cases, some 1,839 are suspected to be of the potentially fatal Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which can lead to internal bleeding and shock -like state.

-oOo-

Philippines

One new case of HIV/AIDS reported in the Philippines every 2 hours

One new case of HIV/AIDS infection has been reported every two hours in the Philippines so far this year, according to the Department of Health’s National Epidemiology Center (DOH-NEC).

Since 2007,  a steady increase in HIV cases has been recorded by the center. “In 2000, there was one case registered every three days; in 2011, this number grew to one case every three hours.”

In May 2013 some 415 new HIV cases were recorded, with 55 percent of cases being among people aged 20-29.

In June, 431 new HIV cases were registered, bringing the total number for the first half of this year to 2,323, the center said.

The June total was 46 percent higher than a year ago and the “highest number of cases reported in a month,” said DOH-NEC.

Since 1987, when HIV was first discovered in the Philippines, DOH-NEC has recorded 13,594 cases.

“Tip of the iceberg”

Many consider this official number is just the “tip of the iceberg” because less than 1 percent of the general population are tested for HIV, so officially registered cases are unlikely to accurately reflect the epidemic, said UN-OCHA.

“We project that the number of infected will reach 39,000-50,000 by 2015,” said the executive director of The Library Foundation Sexuality, Health and Rights Educators Collective, Inc., an NGO member of the Philippine National AIDS Council (PNAC), the country’s central advisory body on HIV/AIDS.

-oOo-

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Dengue Fever Outbreak Prompts State of Emergency in Brazil City

Posted by feww on January 21, 2013

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,146 Days Left 

[January 21, 2013] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.

  • SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,146 Days Left to the most Fateful Day in Human History
  • Symbolic countdown to the ‘worst day’ in human history began on May 15, 2011 …

.

Global Disasters/ Significant Events

State of emergency declared in Brazil’s Campo Grande as dengue fever infection becomes epidemic

Thousands of people have contracted dengue fever, a mosquito-born viral infection, in Brazilian cities of Campo Grande, in the southern state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and Vitoria, in Espiritu Santo state.

  • Thousands of suspected cases have been also been reported in Paraguay, especially across the border from Mato Grosso do Sul state, where the disease has killed about a dozen people.
  • Brazil health authorities say recent extreme rains events have increased the reproduction of the Aedes mosquito which transmits the potentially lethal disease.

Global Impact: The incidence of dengue fever infection continues growing globally, especially since 2009, putting at least half of the world’s population at risk.

Aedes aegypti, aka the yellow fever mosquito, is a vector for transmitting several tropical disease viruses including dengue fever, Chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever.


This 2006 photograph depicts a female Aedes aegypti mosquito as she acquires  a blood meal from her human host, the biomedical photographer, James Gathany, at the Centers for Disease Control.  Dengue fever is caused by four virus strains spread by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. (Photo Credit: James Gathany/University of Notre Dame).

Related Links

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Mutant Mosquito Swarms to Be Unleashed in Florida

Posted by feww on December 8, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,190 Days Left 

[December 8, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.

  • SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,190 Days Left to the most Fateful Day in Human History
  • Symbolic countdown to the ‘worst day’ in human history began on May 15, 2011 ...

.

Global Disasters/ Significant Events

Genetically Modified Mosquitoes? What could possibly go wrong?!

Aedes aegypti, aka the yellow fever mosquito, is a vector for transmitting several tropical disease viruses including dengue fever, Chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever.


This 2006 photograph depicts a female Aedes aegypti mosquito as she acquires  a blood meal from her human host, the biomedical photographer, James Gathany, at the Centers for Disease Control.  Dengue fever is caused by four virus strains spread by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. (Photo Credit: James Gathany/University of Notre Dame).

  • Dengue fever is a virus-caused tropical disease that is spread by mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.
  • Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are an invasive, domestic species with tropical and subtropical worldwide distribution that originated in Africa.
  • The mosquito aquatic cycle, the life cycle from egg to larvae, pupae, and to an adult mosquito, takes 7-8 days and occurs in water.
  • The life span for adult mosquitoes is about 3-4 weeks.
  • Only the female mosquito bites for blood, which she needs to produce eggs.
  • Female mosquitoes lay dozens of eggs up to 5 times during their life time.
  • Florida scientists have proposed to unleash swarms of genetically modified male mosquitoes into the ecosystem in the hope that the mutant mosquitoes, ‘dubbed Frankenflies,’ would mate with healthy females and pass on their lab-engineered deadly birth defects.
  • A Florida Keys resident has posted a petition, “Say No to Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Release in the Florida Keys,” on Change.org.
    • “Even though the local community in the Florida Keys has spoken – we even passed an ordinance demanding more testing – Oxitec is trying to use a loophole by applying to the FDA for an ‘animal bug’ patent. This could mean these mutant mosquitoes could be released at any point against the wishes of locals and the scientific community. We need to make sure the FDA does not approve Oxitec’s patent.” The petition says.“Nearly all experiments with genetically-modified crops have eventually resulted in unintended consequences: superweeds more resistant to herbicides, mutated and resistant insects also collateral damage to ecosystems. A recent news story reported that the monarch butterfly population is down by half in areas where Roundup Ready GM crops are doused with ultra-high levels of herbicides that wipe out the monarch’s favorite milkweed plant.”

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

GLOBAL WARNING

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Disaster Calendar – 18 June 2012

Posted by feww on June 19, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,367 Days Left

[June 18, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,367 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History…

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

Posted in global change, Global Climate Extremes, global deluge, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2012, Global Food Shortages, global health catastrophe | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Disaster Calendar – 17 June 2012

Posted by feww on June 17, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,368 Days Left

[June 17, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,368 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History…

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

Posted in global change, Global Climate Extremes, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2012, Global Food Shortages | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Disaster Calendar – 15 June 2012

Posted by feww on June 15, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,370 Days Left

[June 15, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,370 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History…

  • Vietnam. At least 60,000 people contracted hand-foot-and-mouth disease or were infected with dengue fever in Vietnam between January and May this year,  and dozen died.

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

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State of emergency in Marshall Islands as dengue outbreak spirals

Posted by feww on October 29, 2011

Warmer, wetter weather boosting spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases

Marshall Islands declare state of emergency as dengue fever outbreak spreads

Health officials in Majuro, Marshall Islands have declared a state of emergency as the outbreak of dengue fever cases doubles in two days.

Disaster Calendar 2011 – October 29

[October 29, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,600 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Majuro, Marshall Islands. The first case of dengue fever, an infectious tropical disease, was diagnosed at Majuro Hospital last week. The reported cases have now spiraled to at least 63, doubling in the past two days.
    • Dengue fever is a virus-caused disease that is spread by mosquitoes.
    • The disease’s flu-like symptoms include fatigue, fever, headache, nausea, swollen lymph nodes, vomiting, muscle aches, joint pains and a skin rash that resembles measles.
    • The infection can develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, or result in dengue shock syndrome, leading to dangerously low blood pressure.
    • Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe, potentially deadly infection spread by certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus).
    • Symptoms of DHF are similar to  to those of dengue fever, but after several days the symptoms are followed by a shock -like state.
    • Shock could cause death.
    • DHF has killed hundreds of people in Pakistan, India, China and other SE Asian countries this year so far.
    • Increases in temperature, precipitation, and humidity are exponentially boosting vector abundance and disease incidences throughout the world.
  • Lahore, Pakistan. At least 31,036 cases of dengue fever have been recorded in Lahore alone, a report said.
    •  Pakistan’s Health Department has “confirmed four deaths, including two from Lahore, due to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) during the last 24 hours, which brought total figure of deaths to 290 in Punjab and 253 in Lahore.”
    • “The dengue fever claimed four more lives on Friday, which brought the death count to 317 in the provincial metropolis.” Said the report.
  • USA. Mosquito-Borne Dengue Fever Threat Spreading in the Americas: Dengue Fever Vulnerability in the United States


Dengue vulnerability in the United States. Among the social and environmental factors that increase community vulnerability to dengue and other infectious diseases are poor municipal infrastructure and frequent storm damage to homes. Red areas of the map show U.S. counties that have reported the presence of one or both of the mosquito species (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) that can potentially transmit dengue fever; blue regions highlight the area encompassing most of the positive counties. Numbers of suspected cases of dengue infection reported from 1995–2005, inclusive, are shown below each state name. Reported counts of suspected dengue fever cases are also included for the six Mexican states that border the United States. Source: NRDC

  • Global Impact. Dengue fever and its complications cause about 100 million infections, resulting in  500,000 hospitalizations and 22,000 deaths annually in over 100 countries.
    • Dengue incidences have multiplied by 30-fold in less than 5 decades globally.
    • The worst hit areas are India, Pakistan, South America, Central America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia and Africa.
    • Currently, about 2.5 people are at risk of for dengue because of climate change.
    • “Epidemic outbreaks during 2007 in Brazil, Mexico, Honduras, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Bolivia, and Guyana affected hundreds of thousands,” NRDC report said.
    • About 56 percent of Americans (175 million people, as of posting) live in counties where one or both of the mosquito species that can transmit dengue fever have become established.

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Iron Range death toll from mesothelioma rises

Posted by feww on October 18, 2011

82 Iron Rangers die from rare form of lung cancer

At least 19 more people have died from the deadly lung cancer mesothelioma since the 63 reported by Minnesota state health officials in 2010.

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Disaster Calendar 2011 – October 18

[October 18, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,611 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Iron Range (Minnesota), USA. At least 19 more people have died from mesothelioma, a rare and always fatal form of lung cancer, since the 63 reported by Minnesota state health officials last year.
    • Caused only by exposure to asbestos fibers, mesothelioma takes about 30 years after exposure to show up.
    • Previously it was believed that the Iron Range mesothelioma cases were caused by exposure to commercial asbestos, however, researchers now say that asbestos-like fibers from mining taconite rocks may be responsible for the  fatal disease.
    • “Early results also show that 1,681 taconite workers, of about 46,000 who ever worked in the industry, developed some sort of lung cancer. Again, it’s not clear if that rate is higher than normal, and it may never be clear if the cancers were caused by exposure to taconite dust, smoking or a combination of factors.” Said a report.
    • “It’s estimated about 80,000 workers have been involved in mining since the first operations began in Minnesota in the late 1800s. Researchers are focusing on the roughly 46,000 people born since 1920 who worked in the production of taconite — a low-concentrate iron ore that has been mined and processed in Minnesota since the 1950s.”

Other Disasters

  • Punjab, Pakistan. Death toll from dengue fever in Lahore has climbed to 274, a report said.
    • About 28,400 cases of dengue have been reported in Punjab, with more than 17,000 in Lahore alone, the report said.
    • Currently more than 330 cases of infection are reported daily.
  • Bangkok, Thailand. Death toll from flooding in Thailand has climbed to at least 315, amid growing fears that flood barriers protecting the capital Bangkok will fail, reports said.
    • Flooding has affected about half a million square kilometer of Thailand (total area: 513,115 sq km).
    • More than a million homes have been destroyed or damaged by flooding, affecting up to 10 million people in 61 of Thailand’s 77 provinces.
    • Floodwaters have also inundated “14,172 factories in 20 provinces, affecting 663,218 workers,” according to a senior official.
    • Floods have forced about 10 large industrial parks employing a total of more than a million to close.
    • About 270,000 workers and residents have been evacuated from the Navanakorn industrial park, located north of Bangkok, after flood protection barriers failed swamping the large estate. The industrial estate was declared “safe” by the authorities on Monday.
  • Vietnam. Death toll from has climbed to at last 55 from devastating floods in central and southern provinces of Vietnam, with dozens of people reported injured.
    • Record flooding caused by the Mekong river have inundated about 200,000 buildings, “damaging 1,455 km of dykes and 1,300 km of roads,” and destroying tens of thousands of hectares of rice paddies, aquatic farms, sugarcane fields and other cropland, reports said.
    • At least 50,000 people have been evacuated from various provinces.
  • Central America. Two separate low-pressure weather systems are wreaking havoc across Central America, one moving from the Pacific and the other from the Caribbean. The combined reported death toll from torrential rains, flooding and mudslides in Central America  (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua) and Mexico is reaching 100.
    • At least 750,000 people have been displaced as up to 120cm (~ 47 inches) of rain is dumped over the region since last week.
  • Honduras. Honduran government has declared a state of emergency in the southern portion of the country.
  • Nicaragua. Nicaraguan President has declared a state of emergency as 130,000 people are evacuated. The capital Managua is threatened by flooding as Lake Xolotlan continues to overflow.
  • Guatemala. Reported death toll from flooding in Guatemala has climbed to at least 38. The toll is expected to rise, officials said.
  • El Salvador. About 40 people are reported dead or missing, with 35,000 others evacuated so far as the government declares a “major emergency.”

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Dengue fever toll climbs to 162

Posted by feww on October 4, 2011

Death toll in Punjab’s dengue outbreak rises to 162 with about 1,300 patients hospitalized

About 550 new cases of dengue virus infection reported for the day in the provincial capital Lahore alone.

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Disaster Calendar 2011 – October 4

[October 4, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,625 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Punjab province, Pakistan. Death toll in Punjab’s dengue outbreak has risen to at least 162 with about 1,300 patients  hospitalized.
    • About 550 new cases of dengue virus infection reported per day in the provincial capital Lahore alone.
    • Punjab is Pakistan’s most populated province, home to about 57% of the nation’s population.
  • South Africa. The tornado-stricken town of Duduza, southeast of Johannesburg is being declared a disaster area, said a report.
    • The tornado killed at least one and injured more than 160 others, destroying up to a thousand homes.
    • “Earlier on Sunday, a nine-year-old boy was killed and 42 people injured in a tornado in Ficksburg in the Free State.” Said the report.
  • USA. Death toll from listeria-tainted Colorado cantaloupes has climbed to at least 18, with more than 100 people sickened across 19 states in the deadliest U.S. foodborne illness outbreak this century.
  • Philippines. Death toll from typhoon NESAT [“Pedring”] has climbed to at least 66, leaving dozens injured and many still missing.
    • The typhoon has affected about 3 million people in  more than 3,300 villages in 30 towns and 41 cities across 34 provinces, a report quoted the country’s National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council as saying.
    • The typhoon destroyed about 6,300 homes and damaged about 38,000 more.
    • More than 200,000 people remain in 500 evacuation centers.
    • The typhoon also damaged or destroyed more than 60 bridges, dozens of roads and 300 schools.
  • Mogadishu, Somalia. Death toll from a truck bomb in Somalia’s capital Mogadishu has climbed to at least 70, reports said.
    • At least 42 others were wounded when a truck laden with explosives blew up in front of the Ministry of Education, AP reported officials as saying.
  • Guizhou province, China. A gas explosion in a coalmine in  Guizhou province, SW China, has killed at least 16 miners with two others reported as missing, according to local officials.
    • In 2010 at more than 2,433 people were killed in coalmine accidents in China, according to official statistics, the report said.
  • Auckland, New Zealand. The latest measles outbreak in Auckland, New Zealand’s most polluted city, has infected at least 24 new victims, many of them children, in the past week.
    • More than 200 cases of the infectious disease have been confirmed in Auckland since May, a report said.
    • “You are more likely to get it in New Zealand now than you have been in the past 14 years.” Auckland’s Medical Officer of Health said.
    • “Two-thirds of the cases have been in babies, infants, children and teenagers, and the disease has struck everywhere from early childhood centres to tertiary institutions.” Said the report.

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73 Illinois Counties Declared Disaster Areas

Posted by feww on September 23, 2011

Illinois suffered major crop losses from severe flooding in the first half of 2011

The fourth-wettest January to June period on record destroyed about half a million acres of crops.

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Disaster Calendar 2011 – September 23

[September 23, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,636 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Illinois, USA. The U.S. Department of Agriculture has designated 46 counties in Illinois as natural disaster areas (27 other counties are contiguous) due to losses caused by excessive rain, flooding and flash flooding that occurred April 1 to July 31, 2011.
    • The 46  counties declared primary disaster areas are: Alexander, Brown, Calhoun, Carroll, Cass, Clay, Crawford, Edwards, Effingham, Fayette, Franklin, Gallatin, Greene, Hamilton, Hardin, Henry, Jackson, Jefferson, Jersey, Jo Daviess, Johnson, Knox, Lawrence, Lee, Madison, Marion, McDonough, Mercer, Monroe, Perry, Pope, Pulaski, Randolph, Richland, Rock Island, Saline, Schuyler, Scott, St. Clair, Stephenson, Union, Wabash, Washington, Wayne, White and Williamson.
    • The 27 contiguous counties in Illinois that were designated as contiguous disaster areas are: Adams, Bond, Bureau, Clark, Clinton, Cumberland, DeKalb, Fulton, Hancock, Henderson, Jasper, LaSalle, Macoupin, Mason, Massac, Menard, Montgomery, Morgan, Ogle, Peoria, Pike, Sangamon, Shelby, Stark, Warren, Whiteside and Winnebago counties.
    • Additionally, the following counties in Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri and Wisconsin were also included in the disaster designation they are contiguous:
      • Indiana: Gibson,Knox, Posey, Sullivan
      • Iowa: Clinton, Dubuque, Louisa, Scott, Des Moines, Jackson, Muscatine,
      • Kentucky: Ballard, Crittenden, Livingston, McCracken, Union
      • Missouri: Cape Girardeau, Lincoln, Perry, Scott, St. Louis,  Jefferson, Mississippi, Pike, St. Charles, Ste. Genevieve
      • Independent city: St. Louis
      • Wisconsin: Grant, Green, Lafayette

Other Global Disasters

  • Punjab, Pakistan. An outbreak of dengue fever in Pakistan’s Punjab province has claimed 25 more lives, “including a former cabinet secretary and a college professor,” raising the estimated death toll to at least 80, a report said.
    • “On an average, 600 to 1,000 dengue patients have been registered every day in Lahore alone for the past three weeks.”
    • Southern Sindh province. Dengue Surveillance Cell has reported more than 200 cases of infection in the flood-stricken southern Sindh province so far this year, most of them in Karachi, a report said.
  • Japan. Death toll from typhoon ROKE which struck Japan last week has climbed to at least 11, with 5 people still unaccounted for, Kyodo News reported.

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Pakistan Floods: 6 Million Affected, 2 Million Sickened, 300 Dead

Posted by feww on September 15, 2011

Flood-Related Diseases Plague Pakistan’s Sindh Province

At least two million people in Pakistan’s Sindh province are hit by water-borne diseases spread by torrential rains and severe flooding including  malaria and diarrhea.

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Disaster Calendar 2011 – September 15

[September 15, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,644 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Pakistan. Torrential rains and flooding in Pakistan have affected six million people, reports said.
    • The death toll has climbed to 300, while millions have are reported homeless.
    • At least two million people in Pakistan’s Sindh province are hit by water-borne diseases spread by torrential rains and severe flooding including  malaria and diarrhea, officials said.
    • “More than 7,000 people are being treated for snake bites.
    • More than half a million children under the age of five are especially at risk, the UN children’s agency spokesman in Pakistan said.
    • “This is another huge flood that has hit Pakistan in less than a year so it’s really a double disaster. We have assessed 16 out of 22 districts and roughly 1.8 million people have left their homes and 750,000 are living in temporary sites.”
    • More than 4.5 million acres of land have been affected by the torrential rain and flooding.
    • About 60,000 cattle have died or disappeared.
    • At least 400,000 homes have been completely destroyed, with up to a million more damaged.
    • Sindh province was devastated by 2010 floods, which affected up to 25 million people, inundating about a fifth of the country and killing at least 2,000 people.
  • Botswana. Death toll in Botswana’s diarrhea epidemic has climbed to 67, reports said.
  • India. At least 26 people have died, 12 are reported as missing and 200,000 others have been evacuated following severe flooding in the eastern Indian state of Orissa, government officials said.
    • Some 2.5 million people have been affected by the flooding.
    • “The flood has inflicted damage on 31,000 houses in 13 districts. As many as 2.15 million people in 4,096 villages of 95 blocks and 16 urban local bodies have been affected by the current flood,” a report said.
  • Joplin, Missouri, USA. Death toll from Joplin Tornado has climbed to 162. The devastating EF-5 tornado leveled Joplin on May 22, 2011, destroying about 9,000 homes and businesses.
  • Lahore, Pakistan. Death toll in the Dengue fever outbreak in Lahore has climbed to 33, reports said.
    • “So far more than 10,000 cases of dengue have been reported from Punjab, out of which over 4,400 are from Lahore …”
  • USA. Seasonal Drought Outlook

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Hurricane IRENE wreaks havoc across the Caribbean

Posted by feww on August 24, 2011

IRENE destroys/damages hundreds of homes in U.S. Virgin Islands

[August 24, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,666 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

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Disaster Calendar 2011 – August 24 Entry

  • Puerto Rico. IRENE has destroyed/damaged hundreds of homes across the Caribbean, killing at least 2 people, downing  trees and causing widespread power outages in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
    • The governor of Puerto Rico has declared a state of emergency.
    • The White House declares a state of emergency in Puerto Rico.
    • Thousands of tourists and residents have been evacuated.
  • Virginia, USA. A state of emergency has been declared in Culpeper County after a magnitude 5.9 earthquake hit Mineral, VA. The Town of Culpeper is 36 miles from Mineral, reports said.
  • Wisconsin, USA. Gov. Scott Walker has declared a state of emergency in 3 Wisconsin counties, Burnett, Douglas and Washburn because of hundreds of thousands of downed trees, a report said.
    • “Severe storms in July and early August left nearly 2 million cords of wood on the ground. Local governments and the timber industry are racing to clean up the mess before the wood rots or catches fire.”
  • Texas, USA. As Dallas-Fort Worth area set a record high of 107 degrees, the Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Inc. (ERCOT), initiated Energy Emergency Alert Level 2B, which might lead to rotating outages, reports said.
    • “Until we get a break in this extreme heat and record drought, we appreciate consumers and businesses conserving electricity as they are able, especially between 3 and 7 pm,” an ERCOT VP said.  “We also appreciate all the state agencies, school districts, businesses and residents who have taken steps to get the word out about the importance of conservation during these extreme weather conditions.”
  • Iowa, USA. The White House has declared a major disaster exists in the State of Iowa following the widespread damage caused by severe storms, straight-line winds, and flooding during the period of July 9-14, 2011.
  • New York, USA. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has designated eight New York counties as primary disaster areas following widespread damage and crop losses caused by torrential rain, flash flooding, high winds, lightning and below normal temperatures during the period of March 1 – June 1, 2011, USDA said.
    • The primary disaster areas: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Clinton, Cortland, Ontario, Tompkins, Wayne  and Yates counties.
    • Contiguous disaster areas: Broome, Chemung , Essex, Madison, Schuyler, Tioga, Cayuga, Chenango, Franklin, Monroe  Seneca, Wyoming, Chautauqua, Erie, Livingston, Onondaga and Steuben counties.

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Global Disasters: Death Tolls Climb

Posted by feww on August 24, 2011

Disaster Calendar 2011 – August 23 Entry

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[August 23, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,667 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Sudan. Death toll in clashes between rival tribes in Southern Sudan has climbed to 700 in two separate clashes, with about a thousand others reported injured. The clashes started on August 18 after about 36,000 head of cattle were stolen from villages in Jonglei state, the United Nations said.
    • Some 200 children have also been abducted, and 14 villages partially burnt down, including the Payam headquarters and offices of MSF Belgium, an official said.
  • Libya. The loss of many lives in Libya could have been avoided had NATO stayed out of the Libyan crisis, South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma has said.
  • Syria. The death toll in Syria’s forced regime change has climbed to about 2,200, reports say.
  • Philippines. Death toll from dengue fever in the Philippines has climbed to at least 77 in Metro Manila since January, reports said.

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First Came the Rains …

Posted by feww on August 18, 2010

Then the Mosquitoes followed …

Dengue fever infects 50,000 Thais, killing at least 63

Dengue fever infection, spread by the bite of infected female mosquitoes, has flu-like symptoms, which can easily cause death through a complication called dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Many of the victims live in the slum areas of Tegucigalpa city, Thailand a report said.

EEE in Florida

Meanwhile, 4 Florida residents have reportedly died from Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), a mosquito-borne disease that normally afflicts horses, a report said.


This colorized transmission electron micrograph (TEM) depicts a salivary gland that had been extracted from a mosquito, which was infected by the Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, which has been colorized red; magnified 83,900x.

The Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a member of the family Togaviridae, and genus Alphavirus. EEE is a mosquito-borne viral disease. As the name suggests, it occurs in the eastern half of the US. Due to the high case fatality rate, it is regarded as one of the more serious mosquito-borne diseases in the United States. This virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. The main transmission cycle is between birds and mosquitoes. Several species of mosquitoes can become infected with the EEE virus. The most important mosquito in maintaining the enzootic (animal-based, in this case bird-mosquito-bird) transmission cycle is Culiseta melanura. Horses can become infected with, and die from EEE virus infection. Source: CDC/ Fred Murphy; Sylvia Whitfield (1968).

“EEE and West Nile virus have been detected in 43 of Florida’s 67 counties, while dengue cases have been confirmed in two south Florida counties, Monroe and Broward, according to the state Department of Health.”

‎Two of the EEE victims, a viral disease that causes brain inflammation, lived in Tampa-area, a third in the state capital of Tallahassee and one in Sopchoppy, NW Florida.

“The dengue virus began showing up in Florida in 2009 after an absence since its last major outbreak in 1934. At least 28 confirmed cases of domestically transmitted dengue fever have been reported in Florida this year, along with 67 foreign-acquired cases. The disease is more prevalent in Central and South America,” the report said.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only a few cases are reported in the United States each year. Most cases occur in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast states (see map). Most persons infected with EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin with the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then progress into disorientation, seizures, or coma. EEE is one of the most severe mosquito-transmitted diseases in the United States with approximately 33% mortality and significant brain damage in most survivors. There is no specific treatment for EEE; care is based on symptoms. You can reduce your risk of being infected with EEEV by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors while mosquitoes are most active. If you think you or a family member may have EEE, it is important to consult your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis.


An illustration of a Culiseta melanura mosquito. Common characteristics of Culiseta melanura include a long and curved proboscis, a dark-scaled abdomen, and slightly enlarged dark scales on the outer wing. This mosquito is a vector of the eastern equine encephalitis virus in bird populations. Source: CDC

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