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Posts Tagged ‘dengue hemorrhagic fever’

Global Health Emergencies

Posted by feww on July 31, 2013

State of emergency declared in Honduras as dengue fever death toll rises

Honduras government has declared a state of emergency after a dengue fever outbreak that has killed 16 people and infected more than 12,000 others, local media reported.

The mosquito-borne  disease has infected more than half of the municipalities in the country.

The Health Minister has declared a national priority to control mosquitoes.

It is very difficult to control or eliminate Ae. aegypti mosquitoes because they have adaptations to the environment that make them highly resilient, or with the ability to rapidly bounce back to initial numbers after disturbances resulting from natural phenomena (e.g., droughts) or human interventions (e.g., control measures). One such adaptation is the ability of the eggs to withstand desiccation (drying) and to survive without water for several months on the inner walls of containers. For example, if we were to eliminate all larvae, pupae, and adult Ae. aegypti at once from a site, its population could recover two weeks later as a result of egg hatching following rainfall or the addition of water to containers harboring eggs. [CDC]

Of the 12,135 reported cases, some 1,839 are suspected to be of the potentially fatal Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which can lead to internal bleeding and shock -like state.

-oOo-

Philippines

One new case of HIV/AIDS reported in the Philippines every 2 hours

One new case of HIV/AIDS infection has been reported every two hours in the Philippines so far this year, according to the Department of Health’s National Epidemiology Center (DOH-NEC).

Since 2007,  a steady increase in HIV cases has been recorded by the center. “In 2000, there was one case registered every three days; in 2011, this number grew to one case every three hours.”

In May 2013 some 415 new HIV cases were recorded, with 55 percent of cases being among people aged 20-29.

In June, 431 new HIV cases were registered, bringing the total number for the first half of this year to 2,323, the center said.

The June total was 46 percent higher than a year ago and the “highest number of cases reported in a month,” said DOH-NEC.

Since 1987, when HIV was first discovered in the Philippines, DOH-NEC has recorded 13,594 cases.

“Tip of the iceberg”

Many consider this official number is just the “tip of the iceberg” because less than 1 percent of the general population are tested for HIV, so officially registered cases are unlikely to accurately reflect the epidemic, said UN-OCHA.

“We project that the number of infected will reach 39,000-50,000 by 2015,” said the executive director of The Library Foundation Sexuality, Health and Rights Educators Collective, Inc., an NGO member of the Philippine National AIDS Council (PNAC), the country’s central advisory body on HIV/AIDS.

-oOo-

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Dengue Fever Outbreak Prompts State of Emergency in Brazil City

Posted by feww on January 21, 2013

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,146 Days Left 

[January 21, 2013] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.

  • SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,146 Days Left to the most Fateful Day in Human History
  • Symbolic countdown to the ‘worst day’ in human history began on May 15, 2011 …

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Global Disasters/ Significant Events

State of emergency declared in Brazil’s Campo Grande as dengue fever infection becomes epidemic

Thousands of people have contracted dengue fever, a mosquito-born viral infection, in Brazilian cities of Campo Grande, in the southern state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and Vitoria, in Espiritu Santo state.

  • Thousands of suspected cases have been also been reported in Paraguay, especially across the border from Mato Grosso do Sul state, where the disease has killed about a dozen people.
  • Brazil health authorities say recent extreme rains events have increased the reproduction of the Aedes mosquito which transmits the potentially lethal disease.

Global Impact: The incidence of dengue fever infection continues growing globally, especially since 2009, putting at least half of the world’s population at risk.

Aedes aegypti, aka the yellow fever mosquito, is a vector for transmitting several tropical disease viruses including dengue fever, Chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever.


This 2006 photograph depicts a female Aedes aegypti mosquito as she acquires  a blood meal from her human host, the biomedical photographer, James Gathany, at the Centers for Disease Control.  Dengue fever is caused by four virus strains spread by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. (Photo Credit: James Gathany/University of Notre Dame).

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State of emergency in Marshall Islands as dengue outbreak spirals

Posted by feww on October 29, 2011

Warmer, wetter weather boosting spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases

Marshall Islands declare state of emergency as dengue fever outbreak spreads

Health officials in Majuro, Marshall Islands have declared a state of emergency as the outbreak of dengue fever cases doubles in two days.

Disaster Calendar 2011 – October 29

[October 29, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,600 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Majuro, Marshall Islands. The first case of dengue fever, an infectious tropical disease, was diagnosed at Majuro Hospital last week. The reported cases have now spiraled to at least 63, doubling in the past two days.
    • Dengue fever is a virus-caused disease that is spread by mosquitoes.
    • The disease’s flu-like symptoms include fatigue, fever, headache, nausea, swollen lymph nodes, vomiting, muscle aches, joint pains and a skin rash that resembles measles.
    • The infection can develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, or result in dengue shock syndrome, leading to dangerously low blood pressure.
    • Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe, potentially deadly infection spread by certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus).
    • Symptoms of DHF are similar to  to those of dengue fever, but after several days the symptoms are followed by a shock -like state.
    • Shock could cause death.
    • DHF has killed hundreds of people in Pakistan, India, China and other SE Asian countries this year so far.
    • Increases in temperature, precipitation, and humidity are exponentially boosting vector abundance and disease incidences throughout the world.
  • Lahore, Pakistan. At least 31,036 cases of dengue fever have been recorded in Lahore alone, a report said.
    •  Pakistan’s Health Department has “confirmed four deaths, including two from Lahore, due to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) during the last 24 hours, which brought total figure of deaths to 290 in Punjab and 253 in Lahore.”
    • “The dengue fever claimed four more lives on Friday, which brought the death count to 317 in the provincial metropolis.” Said the report.
  • USA. Mosquito-Borne Dengue Fever Threat Spreading in the Americas: Dengue Fever Vulnerability in the United States


Dengue vulnerability in the United States. Among the social and environmental factors that increase community vulnerability to dengue and other infectious diseases are poor municipal infrastructure and frequent storm damage to homes. Red areas of the map show U.S. counties that have reported the presence of one or both of the mosquito species (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) that can potentially transmit dengue fever; blue regions highlight the area encompassing most of the positive counties. Numbers of suspected cases of dengue infection reported from 1995–2005, inclusive, are shown below each state name. Reported counts of suspected dengue fever cases are also included for the six Mexican states that border the United States. Source: NRDC

  • Global Impact. Dengue fever and its complications cause about 100 million infections, resulting in  500,000 hospitalizations and 22,000 deaths annually in over 100 countries.
    • Dengue incidences have multiplied by 30-fold in less than 5 decades globally.
    • The worst hit areas are India, Pakistan, South America, Central America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia and Africa.
    • Currently, about 2.5 people are at risk of for dengue because of climate change.
    • “Epidemic outbreaks during 2007 in Brazil, Mexico, Honduras, Paraguay, Costa Rica, Bolivia, and Guyana affected hundreds of thousands,” NRDC report said.
    • About 56 percent of Americans (175 million people, as of posting) live in counties where one or both of the mosquito species that can transmit dengue fever have become established.

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First Came the Rains …

Posted by feww on August 18, 2010

Then the Mosquitoes followed …

Dengue fever infects 50,000 Thais, killing at least 63

Dengue fever infection, spread by the bite of infected female mosquitoes, has flu-like symptoms, which can easily cause death through a complication called dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Many of the victims live in the slum areas of Tegucigalpa city, Thailand a report said.

EEE in Florida

Meanwhile, 4 Florida residents have reportedly died from Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), a mosquito-borne disease that normally afflicts horses, a report said.


This colorized transmission electron micrograph (TEM) depicts a salivary gland that had been extracted from a mosquito, which was infected by the Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, which has been colorized red; magnified 83,900x.

The Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a member of the family Togaviridae, and genus Alphavirus. EEE is a mosquito-borne viral disease. As the name suggests, it occurs in the eastern half of the US. Due to the high case fatality rate, it is regarded as one of the more serious mosquito-borne diseases in the United States. This virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. The main transmission cycle is between birds and mosquitoes. Several species of mosquitoes can become infected with the EEE virus. The most important mosquito in maintaining the enzootic (animal-based, in this case bird-mosquito-bird) transmission cycle is Culiseta melanura. Horses can become infected with, and die from EEE virus infection. Source: CDC/ Fred Murphy; Sylvia Whitfield (1968).

“EEE and West Nile virus have been detected in 43 of Florida’s 67 counties, while dengue cases have been confirmed in two south Florida counties, Monroe and Broward, according to the state Department of Health.”

‎Two of the EEE victims, a viral disease that causes brain inflammation, lived in Tampa-area, a third in the state capital of Tallahassee and one in Sopchoppy, NW Florida.

“The dengue virus began showing up in Florida in 2009 after an absence since its last major outbreak in 1934. At least 28 confirmed cases of domestically transmitted dengue fever have been reported in Florida this year, along with 67 foreign-acquired cases. The disease is more prevalent in Central and South America,” the report said.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only a few cases are reported in the United States each year. Most cases occur in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast states (see map). Most persons infected with EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin with the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then progress into disorientation, seizures, or coma. EEE is one of the most severe mosquito-transmitted diseases in the United States with approximately 33% mortality and significant brain damage in most survivors. There is no specific treatment for EEE; care is based on symptoms. You can reduce your risk of being infected with EEEV by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors while mosquitoes are most active. If you think you or a family member may have EEE, it is important to consult your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis.


An illustration of a Culiseta melanura mosquito. Common characteristics of Culiseta melanura include a long and curved proboscis, a dark-scaled abdomen, and slightly enlarged dark scales on the outer wing. This mosquito is a vector of the eastern equine encephalitis virus in bird populations. Source: CDC

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