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Posts Tagged ‘East Java’

Frequency of Mt Bromo Tremors Remains High: PVMBG

Posted by feww on December 13, 2015

Bromo volcano spews smoke, ash and strong sulfurous gasses

Seismic activity of Mount Bromo in East Java is still high and the alert status remains at Level III, said head of the Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation Agency (PVMBG).

“Volcanic activity of the 2,329 meter high mountain is still high and tremors are fluctuating with an increasing tendency,” he said.

“Visually the mountain could be seen clearly with clouds. The weather is fine with temperature at between 15 and 22 degrees Celsius and a soft breeze blowing.”

The volcano was spewing a column of smoke and ash to a height of up to  400 meters on Saturday.

PVMBG had issued an exclusion order for the area within 2.5 kilometer radius from the crater, earlier, urging  both the villagers and tourists to refrain from any activity within the banned area.

In addition to the hazards caused by sudden small explosions, strong sulfurous gasses were being emitted from the crater that could cause severe respiratory problems, warned PVMBG.

Bromo Volcano, marked as Tengger Caldera, is seen to the left of Tambora on the map. Tengger Caldera houses five volcanoes: Mt Bromo (2,329m), Mt Batok (2,470m), Mt Kursi (2,580m), Mt Watangan (2,660m) and Mt Widodaren (2,650m).

The Tengger massif in east Java, Indonesia, featuring Mt. Bromo (large smoking crater, ) and Mt. Semeru (background, smoking). The early morning fog surrounds the peaks surrounded by the “Sea of Sand.” Wikipedia CC license.

Malang airport, located about 70km from Mt Bromo was closed on Friday due to the eruption, said the Transportation Ministry.

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State of Emergency Declared in East Java

Posted by feww on January 26, 2015

Outbreak of dengue fever kills dozens across 38 areas in East Java

Authorities in East Java have declared a state of emergency [“an extraordinary situation (KLB) status”] due to an outbreak of dengue fever, which has sickened at least 1,054 people, killing 25 across 38 regencies and cities, said a report.

The state of emergency covers 11 regions in the province including the regencies of Jombang, Banyuwangi, Probolinggo, Kediri, Sumenep, Pamekasan, Nganjuk, Trenggalek, Mojokerto and Madiun as well as Madiun city, said the report.

“Data from the provincial administration show that most cases of dengue fever in the province were recorded in January or December. Of the more than 26,000 cases of dengue fever in 2010, for example, some 5,500 occurred in January,” the report said.

“Similarly, of the nearly 5,500 cases in 2011, more than 1,000 occurred in January, while of the more than 8,000 cases recorded in 2012, more than 1,000 occurred in December.”

East Java, Indonesia’s second most populated province [pop: ~ 40million,] is located on eastern part of island of Java, covering an area of 47,800 km², which is administratively divided into 29 regencies and 9 cities.

Global Impact: Up to 100 million infections reported annually

The incidences of dengue fever infection continue growing globally, especially since 2009, putting at least half of the world’s population at risk.

“In the past few years, there has been a very significant increase of dengue fever infection in tropical areas such as Asia, Africa, and Latin America, including Brazil, which constitutes a tremendous public health challenge. It is estimated that 2 to 5 billion people are under risk of acquiring the infection worldwide, with 50 to 100 million infections reported annually, and approximately 500,000 hospital admissions. Death numbers associated with dengue are difficult to estimate,” said a report.

Aedes aegypti, aka the yellow fever mosquito, is a vector for transmitting several tropical disease viruses including dengue fever, Chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever.

This 2006 photograph depicts a female Aedes aegypti mosquito as she acquires  a blood meal from her human host, the biomedical photographer, James Gathany, at the Centers for Disease Control.  Dengue fever is caused by four virus strains spread by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. (Photo Credit: James Gathany/University of Notre Dame).

Fatal Staphylococcal Infection following Classic Dengue Fever

“Dengue represents an important public health issue in many tropical areas, leading to high morbidity and the employment of substantial health resources. Even though the number of fatalities related to dengue is unknown, several reports warn about the potential occurrence of severe infections and even death. The clinical spectrum of dengue is highly variable, ranging from a mild flu-like syndrome to severe disease, with shock and hemorrhage. The occurrence of bacterial superinfection, or coinfection, in patients with dengue has been noted by some authors, but the available information comes from anecdotic reports. In this study, we show the clinical and anatomopathological data of a patient infected with dengue, who subsequently died of acute multi-organic failure related to Staphylococcus aureus infection. The autopsy revealed a severe disseminated staphylococcal disease and confirmed dengue infection.”

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Mass Evacuations in Indonesia as Mt Kelud Erupts

Posted by feww on February 14, 2014


Volcano alert urged 200,000 people to evacuate before eruption

Ash and other volcanic matter ejected by the 1,730-meter Mt Kelud has covered a vast area, including the major city of Surabaya, more than 130km (80 miles) away.

During its most violent eruption on Thursday night, the volcano ejected ash and volcanic gases to a hight of 17km above the summit crater, according to officials.

Surabaya, Indonesia’s second-largest city with a population of more than 3.5 million (6 million in the metropolitan area), is the capital of East Java province.

The major eruption, which ejected ash in all directions as far as 250-km away, forced the closure of three international airports in Surabaya, Solo and Yogyakarta.

mt kelud java - photo mia puspitasari
Mt Kelud erupts in East Java, Indonesia. Image credit:

Kelud eruption 2014 ash raining in YogyakartaVolcanic ash raining on the city of Yogyakarta (metro Population 2.4 million), Java after Mt Kelud eruption.  Image Credit:Aldnonymous

Officials had urged about 200,000 people in 36 villages within the 10-km radius of the crater to evacuate 90 minutes before the eruption, according to reports.

There are UNCONFIRMED reports of multiple deaths within the evacuation zone.

A Thick Blanket of Volcanic Ash 

“The current conditions are that volcanic ash is now covering the runway, apron and tarmac. We have already measured the thickness of the volcanic ash, which is at  on the runway and tarmac,” said a senior official at the Yogyakarta airport.

Mt Kelud (Kelut) is located in East Java, Indonesia.
Kelud is one of Indonesia’s 130  active volcanoes.  The volcano last erupted in 1990, killing at least 40 people. A powerful explosion in 1919 left more than  5,000 dead.

Indonesian Volcanoes

Indonesian Volcanoes have been responsible for a number of cataclysmic explosions in modern history.

Krakatoa [Krakatau] Cataclysmic Eruption 1883

ashcroft -riv thames
William Ashcroft painting “On the Banks of the River Thames” in London, November 26, 1883 [Exactly three months after Krakatoa’s cataclysmic 1883 eruption.]

The Krakatoa eruption affected the climate driving the weather patterns wild for the next 5 years. Average global temperatures fell by about 1.2 °C in the following years, returning to normal only in 1888.

The eruption ejected about 21 cubic kilometers of volcanic matter and destroyed two-thirds of the Krakatoa island. The explosion also spawned giant tsunamis killing an estimated 40,000 people.

An 1888 lithograph of the 1883 violent explosion of Krakatau.

Based on their models, our colleagues at EDRO forecast that the collapse of Singapore may occur as a result of volcanic activity on the island of Sumatra. However, they have not disclosed any further detail.

Mt Sinabung

Mount Sinabung in North Sumatra province has been erupting since November 2013 forcing the evacuation of more than 30,000 people. During an unexpected eruption earlier this month at least 16 people were killed.

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Lusi Mud Volcano Was Punctured!

Posted by feww on February 12, 2010

News Release: University of California – Berkeley

Strongest evidence to date shows link between exploration well and Lusi mud volcano

Improper removal of drill bit from unstable well led to uncontrolled influx of gas and water

New data provides the strongest evidence to date that the world’s biggest mud volcano, which killed 13 people in 2006 and displaced thirty thousand people in East Java, Indonesia, was not caused by an earthquake, according to an international scientific team that includes researchers from Durham University and the University of California, Berkeley.

The main vent of the Lusi mud volcano taken within a few months of eruption. (Durham University photo).

Drilling firm Lapindo Brantas has denied that a nearby gas exploration well was the trigger for the volcano, instead blaming an earthquake that occurred 280 kilometers (174 miles) away. They backed up their claims in an article accepted this week for publication in the journal Marine and Petroleum Geology, by lead author Nurrochmat Sawolo, senior drilling adviser for Lapindo Brantas, and colleagues.

In response, a group of scientists from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia and Indonesia led by Richard Davies, director of the Durham Energy Institute, have written a discussion paper in which they refute the main arguments made by Nurrochmat Sawolo and document new data that provides the strongest evidence to date of a link between the well and the volcano. That paper has been accepted for publication in the same journal.

Satellite image of the Lusi mud volcano. The white plume in the centre of the picture is steam from the central vent of the volcano. (Ikonos satellite image, copyright CRISP NUS 2007/200)

“The disaster was caused by pulling the drill string and drill bit out of the hole while the hole was unstable,” Davies said. “This triggered a very large ‘kick’ in the well, where there is a large influx of water and gas from surrounding rock formations that could not be controlled.

“We found that one of the on-site daily drilling reports states that Lapindo Brantas pumped heavy drilling mud into the well to try to stop the mud volcano. This was partially successful and the eruption of the mud volcano slowed down. The fact that the eruption slowed provides the first conclusive evidence that the bore hole was connected to the volcano at the time of eruption.”

The Lusi volcano, which first erupted on May 29, 2006, in the Porong sub-district of Sidoarjo, close to Indonesia’s second city of Surabaya, East Java, now covers seven square kilometers – nearly three square miles and is 20 meters (65 feet) thick. The mud flow has razed four villages and 25 factories. Thirteen people have died as a result of a rupture in a natural gas pipeline underneath one of the holding dams. The Lusi crater has been oozing enough mud to fill 50 Olympic size swimming pools every day. All efforts to stem the mud flow have failed, including the construction of dams, levees, drainage channels, and even plugging the crater with concrete balls. Lusi may continue to erupt for decades, scientists believe.

Arguments over the causes of the Lusi volcano have stalled the establishment of liability for the disaster and delayed compensation to thousands of people affected by the mud. The Yogyakarta earthquake that occurred at the time of the volcano was cited by some as a possible cause of the eruption, but the research team rejected this explanation.

Lusi Mud Volcano  [Click images to enlarge]

Original Caption: On May 29, 2006, hot mud began to pour from the ground near a gas exploration well, covering fields and villages in the Sidoarjo region of East Java, Indonesia. Despite efforts to staunch the flow, the mud kept coming, forming the world’s largest and fastest growing mud volcano. By the time the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this false-color image on October 20, 2009, the erupting mud truly resembled a volcano.

Walls contain the mudflow to a rectangular region in the center of the image. The landscape beyond the walls is still covered in plants, which are red in this false-color image. Water, usually dark blue in this type of image, is silvery white from reflected sunlight. The bright squares on the right side of the image are shrimp farms, and the ribbon of white along the bottom of the image is the Kali Porong, a river. Reflecting sunlight also colors the outer edges of the mudflow silver and highlights the texture of the growing mound over the vent at the center of the volcano. The mound was not visible in an ASTER image acquired in late 2008.

Called Lusi, the volcano formed suddenly in May 2006 probably because of drilling at the nearby gas well, say scientists from Indonesia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia. The day before the eruption, pressurized gas and fluid flowed into the well, raising the pressure. The fluid and gas escaped into the surrounding earth, forcing mud to the surface along nearby cracks. As of June 2008, as much as 100,000 cubic meters of mud flowed from the volcano every day. This image shows that the eruption continued into 2009.  Lusi’s formation forced more than 30,000 people from their homes, destroyed more than 10,000 homes, schools, and other structures, and may have a wider impact on coastal and marine ecosystems. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data from NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Caption by Michon Scott, based on interpretation by Geoffrey S. Plumlee, U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team.

Lusi Mud Volcano – Sidoarjo Mud Flow, Indonesia. Image acquired November 11, 2008. Credit:  NASA (see above).

Image of  Sidoarjo, E.J.  Indonesia (prior to Lusi mud eruptions) – Image acquired August 28, 2004 .  Credit:  NASA (see above).

The Durham University-led group of scientists believe that their analysis resolves the cause beyond all reasonable doubt. According to their discussion paper, ‘The pumping of heavy mud caused a reduction in the rate of flow to the surface. The reason for pumping the mud was to stop the flow by increasing the pressure exerted by the mud column in the well and slowing the rate of flux of fluid from surrounding formations.’

“An earthquake trigger can be ruled out because the earthquake was too small given its distance, and the stresses produced by the earthquake were minute smaller than those created by tides and weather,” said co-author Michael Manga, professor of earth and planetary science at the University of California, Berkeley.

The group of scientists has identified five critical drilling errors as the causes of the Lusi mud volcano eruption:

  • having a significant open hole section with no protective casing
  • overestimating the pressure the well could tolerate
  • after complete loss of returns, the decision to pull the drill string out of an extremely unstable hole
  • pulling the bit out of the hole while losses were occurring
  • not identifying the kick more rapidly

“This is the clearest evidence uncovered so far that the Lusi mud volcano was triggered by drilling,” Davies said. “We have detailed data collected over two years that show the events that led to the creation of the Lusi volcano.”

“The observation that pumping mud into the hole caused a reduction in eruption rate indicates a direct link between the wellbore and the eruption,” he added. “The decision was made to pull the drill bit out of the hole without verifying that a stable mud column was in place and it was done while severe circulating mud losses were in progress. This procedure caused the kick.”

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California – Berkeley

Previous Press Release:   Javan mud volcano triggered by drilling, not quake

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Posted in Lapindo Brantas, Lusi Mud Volcano, Nurrochmat Sawolo, Porong, Yogyakarta earthquake | Tagged: , , , , | 1 Comment »

Amazing Images: Kawah Ijen (green crater) Volcano

Posted by feww on July 21, 2008

Kawah Ijen (green crater) Volcano in Eastern Java, Indonesia

Sulfur deposits at Kawah Ijen (green crater) Volcano in Eastern Java, Indonesia. Volcanic gases from the fumaroles in this crater not only deposit the sulfur but make the lake extremely acid — both sulfuric and hydrochloric. Photo copyright R.W. Decker. (Caption: University of Hawai‘i at Hilo). See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

Miners risk health [and life] to collect sulfur from the volcanic Kawah Ijen at Indonesia’s East Java province earning about $7 a day in a rural area where farm laborers make less than $2 a day. Photo taken June 25, 2008. REUTERS/Sigit Pamungk. Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

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