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Posts Tagged ‘EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES’

‘Rapid Spread’ of Deadly Plague Threatens Madagascar Capital

Posted by feww on November 22, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DEADLY CONTAGIOUS DISEASES
PLAGUE OUTBREAK
SCENARIOS 993, 797, 444, 080, 011, 01
.

Deadly Plague Outbreak Kills Dozens in Madagascar: WHO

“There is now a risk of a rapid spread of the disease due to the city’s high population density and the weakness of the healthcare system. The situation is further complicated by the high level of resistance to deltamethrin (an insecticide used to control fleas) that has been observed in the country,” said the World Health Organization (WHO).

Plague – Madagascar

On 4 November 2014, WHO was notified by the Ministry of Health of Madagascar of an outbreak of plague. The first case, a male from Soamahatamana village in the district of Tsiroanomandidy, was identified on 31 August. The patient died on 3 September.

As of 16 November, a total of 119 cases of plague have been confirmed, including 40 deaths. Only 2% of reported cases are of the pneumonic form.

Some 16 districts in seven regions throughout the rat-infested island country have so far reported cases of plague infection. “Antananarivo, the capital and largest city in Madagascar, has also been affected with 2 recorded cases of plague, including 1 death,” said a report by WHO.

Background

Plague is a bacterial disease caused by Yersinia pestis, which primarily affects wild rodents. It is spread from one rodent to another by fleas. Humans bitten by an infected flea usually develop a bubonic form of plague, which produces the characteristic plague bubo (a swelling of the lymph node). If the bacteria reach the lungs, the patient develops pneumonia (pneumonic plague), which is then transmissible from person to person through infected droplets spread by coughing. If diagnosed early, bubonic plague can be successfully treated with antibiotics. Pneumonic plague, on the other hand, is one of the most deadly infectious diseases; patients can die 24 hours after infection. The mortality rate depends on how soon treatment is started, but is always very high. [Source: WHO]

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Ebola Outbreak Declared Global Health Emergency

Posted by feww on August 8, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
DEADLY EBOLA HF EPIDEMIC
EBOLA OUTBREAK IN WEST AFRICA
GLOBAL HEALTH EMERGENCY
SCENARIOS 797, 444, 080, 011
.

The largest ever Ebola outbreak continues spreading

The World Health Organization (WHO) on Friday declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa a ‘Public Health Emergency of International Concern,’ under the International Health Regulations.

Earlier this week, the organization released the following statistics concerning the deadly outbreak:

  • No of reported infection: 1,779 cases (including confirmed and probable cases)
  • No of mortalities: At least 960
  • Cases reported in Nigeria, the most recent country to be affected

The WHO director-general called the outbreak the “most complex outbreak in the four decades of this disease.”

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF)

EHF is a highly contagious virus that spreads via close personal contact and kills up to 90% of the victims.

Five subspecies of Ebolavirus have so far been found. Four of those have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans, according to CDC.

  • Symptoms include high fever, bleeding and damage to central nervous system.
  • There are  no known cure or vaccine for the Ebola virus.
  • Incubation period is from two to 21 days.

In Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have previously been reported in the following countries:

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

The current outbreak  is the first known occurrence of Ebola HF in Guinea.

“The natural reservoir host of ebolaviruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa; no case has been reported in the United States,” said CDC.

Ebola_2_thumb_colorized
Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a “bowl of spaghetti.” Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.  Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Affected Countries [August 4, 2014]

Guinea

Liberia

Nigeria

Sierra Leone

12 deadly pathogens could spread into new regions aided by climate change

A report by Wildlife Conservation Society released on October 7, 2008 lists 12 deadly pathogens that could spread globally as a result of climate change. “All have potential impacts to both human and wildlife health as well as global economies.” Report said.

Titled ‘The Deadly Dozen: Wildlife Diseases in the Age of Climate Change,’ the report illustrates examples of diseases that could spread due to temperatures changes and variations in regional precipitation levels.

The “Deadly Dozen” list [ABC order]

  1. Avian influenza
  2. Babesia
  3. Cholera
  4. Ebola
  5. Intestinal and external parasites
  6. Lyme disease
  7. Plague
  8. Red tides
  9. Rift Valley fever
  10. Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
  11. Tuberculosis
  12. Yellow fever

Related Links

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Encephalitis Kills Dozens of Children in East India

Posted by feww on June 17, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
SCENARIO 011
DEADLY ENCEPHALITIS SPREADING IN INDIA
.

Encephalitis spreads across east India states of Bihar, West Bengal

At least fifteen children have died in the Indian state of Bihar from suspected encephalitis since Sunday as the disease spreads to new districts, taking the death toll to 92, health officials said.

Thirteen of th victims died from suspected Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) Sunday, and two children died Monday.

Meantime, in the neighboring state of West Bengal, “at least 19 children have died of encephalitis from June 3 to 16. ” said a senor health official.

“The AES is now spreading its tentacles to new areas,” said the health department.

Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES)

Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a clinical condition caused by infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) or other infectious and noninfectious causes.

Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis Virus 

Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, a flavivirus, is closely related to West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. JE virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

The virus is maintained in a cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds. Humans are incidental or dead-end hosts, because they usually do not develop high enough concentrations of JE virus in their bloodstreams to infect feeding mosquitoes.

JE virus transmission occurs primarily in rural agricultural areas, often associated with rice production and flooding irrigation. In some areas of Asia, these conditions can occur near urban centers.

In temperate areas of Asia, JE virus transmission is seasonal. Human disease usually peaks in the summer and fall. In the subtropics and tropics, transmission can occur year-round, often with a peak during the rainy season. —CDC

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Whooping Cough Epidemic Declared in California

Posted by feww on June 15, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
SCENARIO 011
HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS RESPIRATORY DISEASES
PERTUSSIS [WHOOPING COUGH]
STATEWIDE EPIDEMIC DECLARED
.

3,458 reported cases, two infant deaths, prompt authorities to declare statewide Pertussis Epidemic in Calif.

The Golden State has reported 3,458 cases of the disease including two infant deaths, so far this year.  The figure is reportedly on track to reach or surpass the 9,163 cases reported in 2010—the last epidemic year.

California health authorities have declared a pertussis epidemic after a 20-folds increase in the number of infections was reported over that last two weeks. Statewide cases soared from about 90 per month to more than 800 since June 1, a two-week period.

Meantime, director of the California Department of Public Health has urged “all pregnant women to get vaccinated.” He has also urged “parents to vaccinate infants as soon as possible.”

Infants aged 12 months or younger face the greatest risk of illness or death from pertussis infection, said CDC.

What’s Pertussis (Whooping Cough) – sourced from CDC

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis.

These bacteria attach to the cilia (tiny, hair-like extensions) that line part of the upper respiratory system. The bacteria release toxins, which damage the cilia and cause inflammation (swelling).

Pertussis is known for uncontrollable, violent coughing which often makes it hard to breathe. After fits of many coughs, someone with pertussis often needs to take deep breathes which result in a “whooping” sound.

infannt diagnosed with pertussis
A female infant diagnosed as pertussis. Pertussis is a highly communicable, vaccine-preventable disease due to Bordetella pertussis, a gram-negative coccobacillus, lasting for many weeks and typically afflicts children with severe coughing, whooping, and posttussive vomiting.

Transmission [sourced from CDC]

Pertussis is a highly contagious disease found in humans and is spread from person to person by coughing or sneezing while in close contact with others. Many infants who get pertussis are infected by older siblings, parents or caregivers who might not even know they are carrying the bacteria. Symptoms of pertussis usually develop within 7–10 days after being exposed, but sometimes not for as long as 6 weeks.

While pertussis vaccines are the most effective tool available to prevent this disease, no vaccine is 100% effective. If pertussis is circulating in the community, there is a chance that a fully vaccinated person, of any age, can catch this very contagious disease. For those vaccinated, the infection is usually less severe.

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Sierra Leone “Quarantines” Ebola Affected Area

Posted by feww on June 14, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
DEADLY EBOLA HF
SCENARIO 011
.

Sierra Leone quarantines Ebola affected area as death toll mounts

Authorities in Sierra Leone have declared an emergency in the Ebola affected district of Kailahun, near Gueckedou, Guinea, ordering closure of all schools.

“All public gatherings and cultural activities are banned and cross-border trade fairs halted until the Ebola virus is contained, ” the health authorities said.

Ebola HF has  killed at least 19 people in Sierra Leone, with 117 suspected cases, CDC reported.

Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone [CDC]

Highlights
As of June 10, 2014, the Guinea Ministry of Health announced a total of 376 suspect and confirmed cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), including 241 fatal cases, in the districts of Conakry, Guéckédou, Macenta, Kissidougou, Dabola, Djingaraye, Télimélé, Boffa, and Kouroussa (see map).

233 cases across Guinea have been confirmed by laboratory testing to be positive for Ebola virus infection.
In Conakry, 75 suspect cases are reported to meet the clinical definition for EHF, including 32 fatal cases.

June 9, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone reported 43 laboratory confirmed cases of EHF from 3 districts: Kailahun, Kambia, and Port Loko.

An additional 117 suspect cases and 19 fatal cases were also reported in Sierra Leone on June 9.

The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia reported 1 new laboratory confirmed case and one death on June 7, 2014. This is the first case reported since early April.

Genetic analysis of the virus indicates that it is closely related (97% identical) to variants of Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus) identified earlier in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon (Baize et al. 2014External Web Site Icon).

The Guinean Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone, and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia are working with national and international partners to investigate and respond to the outbreak.

Guinea at a Glance

Suspected and Confirmed Case Count: 376
Suspected Case Deaths: 241
Laboratory Confirmed Cases: 233

Liberia at a Glance

Suspected and Confirmed Case Count: 13
Suspected Case Deaths: 9
Laboratory Confirmed Cases: 6

Sierra Leone at a Glance

Suspected and Confirmed Case Count: 160
Suspected Case Deaths: 19
Laboratory Confirmed Cases: 43

Outbreak Update
June 11, 2014

On June 10, 2014, The Ministry of Health (MoH) of Guinea reported 376 suspect and confirmed cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), including 241 fatal cases and 233 laboratory confirmed cases. New cases were reported in Gueckedou, Telimele, and Boffa districts and follow-up investigations continue in Conakry, Boke, and Dubreka districts in the west, and Macenta, and Kouroussa districts in the south (see map).

The Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone reported 117 suspect cases, 19 fatal cases, and 43 laboratory confirmed cases on June 9, 2014. Confirmed cases have been reported from the Kailahun district, near Gueckedou, Guinea, and for the first time in Kambia and Port Loko districts in northwest Sierra Leone. Reports of and investigations of suspect cases continue in Kailahun, Kenema, Kono, Bo, Moyamba , Kambia, Koinadugu, Port Loko, Tonkolili, Bombali, and Western area districts. Laboratory testing is being conducted in Kenema city. Sierra Leone and WHO have sent experts to aid in the response and investigation.

On June 7, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia reported 1 laboratory confirmed EHF case and 1 new death in the Foya District of Liberia. This is the first reported case since April 6, 2014.

Possible Outbreak in Senegal and Gambia

News of a possible outbreak in Senegal may have been suppressed. As of early April, Gambia had placed at least two people with suspected EHF under quarantine.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever(EHF)

EHF is a highly contagious virus that spreads via close personal contact and kills up to 90% of the victims.

Five subspecies of Ebolavirus have so far been found. Four of those have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans, according to CDC.

There are  no known cure or vaccine for the Ebola virus.

In Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have previously been reported in the following countries:

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

The current outbreak  is the first known occurrence of Ebola HF in Guinea.

“The natural reservoir host of ebolaviruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa; no case has been reported in the United States,” said CDC.

Ebola_2_thumb_colorized
Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a “bowl of spaghetti.” Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.  Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

12 deadly pathogens could spread into new regions aided by climate change

A report by Wildlife Conservation Society released on October 7, 2008 lists 12 deadly pathogens that could spread globally as a result of climate change. “All have potential impacts to both human and wildlife health as well as global economies.” Report said.

Titled ‘The Deadly Dozen: Wildlife Diseases in the Age of Climate Change,’ the report illustrates examples of diseases that could spread due to temperatures changes and variations in regional precipitation levels.

The “Deadly Dozen” list [ABC]

  1. Avian influenza
  2. Babesia
  3. Cholera
  4. Ebola
  5. Intestinal and external parasites
  6. Lyme disease
  7. Plague
  8. Red tides
  9. Rift Valley fever
  10. Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
  11. Tuberculosis
  12. Yellow fever

RELATED LINKS

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