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Posts Tagged ‘encephalitis’

Encephalitis Kills Dozens of Children in East India

Posted by feww on June 17, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
SCENARIO 011
DEADLY ENCEPHALITIS SPREADING IN INDIA
.

Encephalitis spreads across east India states of Bihar, West Bengal

At least fifteen children have died in the Indian state of Bihar from suspected encephalitis since Sunday as the disease spreads to new districts, taking the death toll to 92, health officials said.

Thirteen of th victims died from suspected Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) Sunday, and two children died Monday.

Meantime, in the neighboring state of West Bengal, “at least 19 children have died of encephalitis from June 3 to 16. ” said a senor health official.

“The AES is now spreading its tentacles to new areas,” said the health department.

Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES)

Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a clinical condition caused by infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) or other infectious and noninfectious causes.

Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis Virus 

Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, a flavivirus, is closely related to West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. JE virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

The virus is maintained in a cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds. Humans are incidental or dead-end hosts, because they usually do not develop high enough concentrations of JE virus in their bloodstreams to infect feeding mosquitoes.

JE virus transmission occurs primarily in rural agricultural areas, often associated with rice production and flooding irrigation. In some areas of Asia, these conditions can occur near urban centers.

In temperate areas of Asia, JE virus transmission is seasonal. Human disease usually peaks in the summer and fall. In the subtropics and tropics, transmission can occur year-round, often with a peak during the rainy season. —CDC

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WNV Infections Continue Rising

Posted by feww on October 22, 2012

More than 5,000 WNV infections reported to CDC

WNV infections in the U.S. have caused at least 183 deaths thus far in 2012.

At least five thousand one hundred and twenty-two [number of cases to be confirmed] West Nile virus infections have been reported to CDC ArboNET from 48 states as of posting. The cases are from Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

  • About 70 percent of the cases have been reported from 8 states (Texas, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, Illinois, South Dakota, Michigan, and Oklahoma).
  • More than a third of all cases have been reported from Texas.
  • More than 51% of the cases are classified as neuroinvasive disease (such as meningitis or encephalitis).

Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak:

  • 23 dead
  • 285 infected
  • Infections reported across 16 states

NOTE: 282 cases of fungal meningitis, stroke due to presumed fungal meningitis, or other central nervous system-related infection meeting the outbreak case definition, plus 3 peripheral joint infections (e.g., knee, hip, shoulder, elbow). No deaths have been associated with peripheral joint infections, CDC reported.

Spain Earthquake

Large scale groundwater extraction caused a 2011 earthquake in Spain which left at least nine people dead, more than 100 injured and thousands homeless,  researchers said.

  • A 5.1 magnitude  earthquake near the city of Lorca in southeastern Spain occurred at a shallow depth 3 km, causing extensive damage.
  • Researchers found the water table in the Alto Guadalentin Basin had dropped by 250 meters since 1960 due to groundwater extraction.
  • “Modeling results are consistent with a groundwater crustal unloading process, providing a reasonable explanation for the observed fault slip pattern.” They said.

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

GLOBAL WARNING

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West Nile Virus Activity Intensifying

Posted by feww on October 1, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,262 Days Left

[October 1, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016. 

  • SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,262 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

.

Global Disasters/ Significant Events

More than 4,500 West Nile virus infections and 169 deaths reported in 47 states and D.C.

As of October 1, 2012 more than 4,500 human West Nile virus infections including 169 deaths [numbers to be confirmed] have been reported this year in the following states:

  • Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.


As of October 1, 2012, a total of 47 states and D.C. have reported West Nile virus infections in people, birds, or mosquitoes. At least four thousand five hundred (4,500)  human West Nile virus infections including 169 deaths [numbers to be confirmed] have occurred, so far this year. The reported WNV cases include 51% neuroinvasive disease cases (such as meningitis or encephalitis). 

Footnote: The map displays white areas that represent no WNV activity reported, light green areas that represent any WNV activity* , dark green circles that represent disease cases, and dark green triangles that represent presumptive viremic blood donors.

* Includes WNV human disease cases, presumptive viremic blood donors, veterinary disease cases and infections in mosquitoes, birds, and sentinel animals.
† Presumptive viremic blood donors have a positive screening test which has not necessarily been confirmed.

Map shows the distribution of WNV activity* (shaded in light green), human infections (dark green circles), and presumptive viremic blood donors (dark green triangles) occurring during 2012 by state. If West Nile virus infection is reported from any area of a state, that entire state is shaded. Source: CDC/ Vector-Borne Diseases

Non-human West Nile virus infections have been reported to CDC ArboNET from the following states:

  • Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

Other Disasters/ Significant Events

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

GLOBAL WARNING

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Monsoon Rains Destroy 15,000+ Homes Across Pakistan, Killing Many

Posted by feww on September 18, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,275 Days Left

[September 18, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016. 

  • SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,275 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

.

Global Disasters/ Significant Events

Pakistan: Monsoon Rains

  • Monsoon rains have left about 1,000 people killed or injured, destroying more than 15,000 homes, and damaging thousands more, across Pakistan since August 22.

See also: Cloudbursts Kill Dozens in India

United States: West Nile Virus (WNV) – [UPDATED Sept 20, 2012]

  • As of September 18, 2012, 48 states have reported West Nile virus infections in people, birds, or mosquitoes. At least three thousand five hundred and seven  human West Nile virus infections including 134 deaths [to be confirmed] have been reported to CDC ArboNET from Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

West Nile virus (WNV) activity reported to ArboNET, United States, 2012 (Sept 18, 2012)


As of September 18, 2012, 48 states have reported West Nile virus infections in people, birds, or mosquitoes. At least three thousand five hundred and seven (3,507)  human West Nile virus infections including 134 deaths have resulted  from WNV infection across 35 states, so far this year. The reported WNV cases include 52% neuroinvasive disease cases (such as meningitis or encephalitis). Source: CDC/ Vector-Borne Diseases

Footnote: The map displays white areas that represent no WNV activity reported, light green areas that represent any WNV activity* , dark green circles that represent disease cases, and dark green triangles that represent presumptive viremic blood donors.

* Includes WNV human disease cases, presumptive viremic blood donors, veterinary disease cases and infections in mosquitoes, birds, and sentinel animals.
† Presumptive viremic blood donors have a positive screening test which has not necessarily been confirmed.

Map shows the distribution of WNV activity* (shaded in light green), human infections (dark green circles), and presumptive viremic blood donors (dark green triangles) occurring during 2012 by state. If West Nile virus infection is reported from any area of a state, that entire state is shaded.

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

GLOBAL WARNING

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WNV Cases Climb 71%, Deaths Up 89%

Posted by feww on September 6, 2012

2,280 West Nile cases and 87 deaths reported in 2012: CDC

WNV cases have climbed by 71 percent and the deaths by 89 percent since August 21, 2012.

  • WNV cases include 54% neuroinvasive disease cases and 46% nonneuroinvasive disease cases. Three hundred and thirty five WNV presumptive viremic blood donors (PVDs) have been reported as of September 4, 2012, CDC said.
  • About 71  percent of the cases this year have been reported in six states: Texas (45%), South Dakota (6%), Oklahoma (6%), Mississippi (6%), Michigan (5%) and Louisiana (4%).

Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States


At least 87 people have died from WNV infection in the U.S. so far this year. The 2,280 reported WNV cases include 1,069 (54%) neuroinvasive disease cases and 924 (46%) nonneuroinvasive disease cases. Three hundred and thirty five WNV presumptive viremic blood donors (PVDs) have been reported as of September 4, 2012, CDC said.

Data table  [Sourced from CDC]

Two thousand two hundred eighty (2,280) human West Nile virus infections have been reported to CDC ArboNET from Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

Non-human West Nile virus infections have been reported to CDC ArboNET from the following states:

Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

CDC Links

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Related Links

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

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Global Alert: Undiagnosed Deadly Illness in Cambodia

Posted by feww on July 5, 2012

Mysterious new disease kills scores of children in Cambodia: WHO

A mysterious new illness has killed dozens of children in Cambodia, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported.

The symptoms start with high fever, followed by encephalitis, a swelling of the brain, leading to failure of the lungs and death.

  • It takes 24 hours or less from the onset of symptoms to death.
  • The victims were all under 7.
  • Cases have been reported in 14 Cambodian provinces.
  • The disease apparently has a death rate of greater than 98 percent.
  • A Global Health Alert issued by WHO is posted below.

The majority of cases were from the southern part of the country, and the victims were hospitalized in Kantha Bopha children’s hospitals in the capital Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, according to reports.


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a brain with encephalitis. It has resulted in a large lesion (orange). Source: NHS/UK

WHO has issued the following Global Alert:

Global Alert: Undiagnosed illness in Cambodia

4 July 2012 – The Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Cambodia has notified WHO of an outbreak of an undiagnosed illness which has affected 62 children, of which 61 have died since April 2012.

The majority of cases were from the southern part of the country, and were hospitalised in a children’s hospital in Phnom Penh. The symptoms observed are high fever, followed by respiratory and/or neurologic symptoms with rapid deterioration of respiratory functions.

WHO is working with the Ministry and other partners to investigate the outbreak, to identify the cause and source of the illness. Assistance is being provided in the area of field epidemiology and active case finding.

See also:

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Drought Disaster Declared in Montana

Posted by feww on July 5, 2012

Stillwater and Yellowstone counties, Montana, declare drought disasters

Drought conditions created by unseasonably warm temperatures and below average precipitation has stunted crop growth to about 50 percent of normal.

Livestock feed on pasture is reduced by about 50 percent, while dry land hay production has suffered losses of about 85 percent, said an agricultural agent at Yellowstone County.


Total Weekly Precipitation (in)

Worst Drought Conditions Ever Reported

“I’ve never seen anything take hold quite this quickly. We are in mid-September conditions right now,” said Dave Kelsey who’s been farming and ranching in Yellowstone and Stillwater counties for 35 years.

Shrinking Crops

“Dryland hay production is estimated to be 15 percent of normal, and most of the dryland spring wheat is ‘not expected to make a harvestable grain crop,’ Stillwater’s resolution read. ‘Livestock pasture and range conditions are extremely poor due to lack of precipitation, excessive winds and grasshoppers.’” Said a report.

  • Agriculture is Montana’s no. 1 industry.

Montana Wildfires

A dozen large wildfires in Montana have destroyed more than 100 structures and forced at least 1,000 people to flee their homes amid dry conditions in recent days. The fires include

  • Ash Creek Complexhas consumed about 250,000 acres
  • Pony Fire: 5,000 acres
  • Horse Creek Fire:  8,000 acres
  • Dahl Fire: 22,000 acres
  • Bear Trap 2:  15,000 acres

Other Global Disasters/ Significant Events

  • Kansas.  Governor Brownback has updated the Drought Declaration for Kansas counties, amid  worsening drought conditions throughout the Wheat State.
    • The updated drought declaration covers all of the state’s 105 counties. A drought  emergency is in effect for 36 counties, while 55 counties are in a warning status and the remaining 14 in watch status.“Dry, windy and above normal temperatures in Kansas have led to a Drought Emergency declaration for 36 counties,”  said Brownback. “Below normal precipitation patterns are not only depleting available soil moisture, but these types of conditions have resulted in numerous fires as well.”
    • Norton, Kansas, was the hottest location in the U.S. with 118 degrees (47.8ºC) last week, NCDC reported.  Some 22 other locations across the state topped 110 degrees on Thursday June 28.
    • Executive Order 12-08 – Governor Updates Drought Order for Kansas Counties

Kansas Drought Map (June 26, 2012)


Drought has returned to Kansas with 100.00% of the state reporting abnormally dry or drought conditions (D0 – D3) as of June 26, 2012.

  • Florida. Six more counties have been added to the Presidential Major Disaster Declaration for Florida, state officials said. They are Clay, Franklin, Hernando, Highlands Pinellas and Suwanee counties.
    • On Tuesday, the Disaster President declared major disaster areas in Baker, Bradford, Columbia, Pasco and Wakulla counties due to the damage and losses caused by tropical storm DEBBY.
    • DEBBY landed on June 27 in Steinhatchee, Fla, dumping more than a foot of rain in some areas and causing major flooding across the state.
  • Eastern U.S. A massive heat wave continues to affect the eastern two thirds of the U.S., breaking high temperature records from the Midwest to the East Coast, said NWS.


US Weather Hazards Map, July 5, 2012.  Excessive Heat Warnings and
Heat Advisories were in effect throughout or in parts of at least 26 states, as of posting.

Mystery Illness Killing Cambodian Kids

See Global Alert in the next post.

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

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Meningitis and encephalitis swamp refugee camps

Posted by feww on July 19, 2009

Outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis reported in northern Sri Lanka refugee camps

Deadly diseases erupt in refugee camps in northern Sri Lanka

COLOMBO, Jul 19, 2009 (Xinhua via COMTEX) — Meningitis and encephalitis [an acute inflammation of the brain] have erupted in Sri Lanka’s northern Vavuniya district where about 300, 000 Tamils civilians displaced by the last phase of war between the government troops and Tamil Tiger rebels are being housed, a local newspaper said on Sunday.

The Sunday Times reported that 14 new encephalitis cases were detected in the Vavuniya General Hospital over the past week.

Vavuniya-based United Nations staff providing relief services to the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) have been advised to keep away from the hospital due to the outbreak of meningitis and encephalitis, the paper said.

UN officials were quoted by the paper as saying that the hospital employees at Vavuniya had failed to inform the authorities about the outbreak of the two diseases.

The paper said while the fatality rate of meningitis cases treated in all government hospitals in Sri Lanka from 2000 to 2005 had dropped to less than five percent, the fatality rate in the Vavuniya General Hospital is about 50 percent.

UN officials said diarrhea and hepatitis A are still prevalent in some of the IDP camps in Vavuniya.

UN officials also said health care, water distribution and supply of food items still need more attention in the camps because only about 36 percent of the total cost of 270 million U. S. dollars had been distributed.

There is not enough suitable land to build more toilets. The camps currently have only about 9,215 toilets while 15,000 are needed, UN officials said. The UN is warning of the effect the approaching rainy season might have on the camps, especially in low-lying areas.

The government said they need about six months to de-mine the once rebel controlled north and find out hidden Tamil Tiger rebels before the IDPs can return to their original homes.

After nearly 30 years’ struggle for a separate homeland for the minority Tamils in the north and east, the Tamil Tigers came to be wiped off in May as a result of a sustained military crackdown on them by the troops. copyright xinhua.

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