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Posts Tagged ‘enterovirus 71’

HFMD outbreak in Vietnam 7 times deadlier than average

Posted by feww on December 16, 2011

HFMD epidemic kills 160, sickens up to 100,000 in Vietnam

The 2011 HFMD outbreak in Vietnam is more than 7 times deadlier than the previous 3-year average toll. The epidemic has claimed about 160 lives, mostly children, and sickened up to 100,000 others between May and November this year.

Disaster Calendar 2011 – December 16

[December 16, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,552 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Vietnam. A severe outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has claimed about 160 lives, and sickened 100,000 others between May and November this year.
    • The epidemic has claimed 7 times as many lives as the previous 3-year average.
    • “This year’s outbreak is a sharp uptick from recent years. Since 2008, about 10,000 to 15,000 cases were reported per year with about 20 to 30 children dying annually,” AP reported.
    • HFMD is caused by intestinal viruses that belong to the Enterovirus genus (group), with the most common strains being Coxsackie A virus and Enterovirus 71 (EV-71).
    • In rare cases Viral or “aseptic” meningitis or inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) can occur as a result of the disease.


HFMD causes ulcers in the mouth and blisters on the hands and feet. (Source: KK Women’s and Children’s hospital, Singapore.)

Other Disasters

  • The Netherlands. Tens of thousands of Dutch children have suffered sexual abuse in Catholic institutions since 1945, a report said.
    • “Based on a survey of more than 34,000 people, the report estimates that one in five children in Catholic institutions suffered abuse.”
    • “The problem of sexual abuse was known in the orders and dioceses of the Dutch Catholic Church, but the appropriate actions were not undertaken.” AFP quoted the commission as saying.
    • About a third of Dutch population identify themselves as Catholics.
    • One in 10 Dutch children suffered form abuse, rising to one in five among those who attended a Catholic institution, the report said.

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New type of HFMD virus spreading across Vietnam

Posted by feww on June 15, 2011

Dangerous coxsackie B2 kills 17 spreads to Hanoi

A new type of hand-foot-mouth disease virus, identified as coxsackie B2 virus, which is said to be more dangerous than the EV71 strain, has infected about 6,000 patients in 30 provinces, killing 17 of them in the southern and central provinces of Vietnam. The virus is now spreading to the capital to Hanoi, a report said.

Coxsackie B4 virus virions


Using immunoelectron microscopic technique, one is able to discern the morphologic traits of the Coxsackie B4 virus virions.
In addition to the three different polioviruses, there are 61 non-polio enteroviruses that can cause disease in humans. These include the 23 Coxsackie A viruses, 6 Coxsackie B viruses, 28 echoviruses, and 4 other enteroviruses. Source: CDC

HFMD Facts [mirrored from CDC]

Description of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness of infants and children. The disease causes fever and blister-like eruptions in the mouth and/or a skin rash. HFMD is often confused with foot-and-mouth (also called hoof-and-mouth) disease, a disease of cattle, sheep, and swine; however, the two diseases are not related—they are caused by different viruses. Humans do not get the animal disease, and animals do not get the human disease.

Illness

  • The disease usually begins with a fever, poor appetite, malaise (feeling vaguely unwell), and often with a sore throat.
  • One or 2 days after fever onset, painful sores usually develop in the mouth. They begin as small red spots that blister and then often become ulcers. The sores are usually located on the tongue, gums, and inside of the cheeks.
  • A non-itchy skin rash develops over 1–2 days. The rash has flat or raised red spots, sometimes with blisters. The rash is usually located on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet; it may also appear on the buttocks and/or genitalia.
  • A person with HFMD may have only the rash or only the mouth sores.

Cause of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • HFMD is caused by viruses that belong to the enterovirus genus (group). This group of viruses includes polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enteroviruses.
  • Coxsackievirus A16 is the most common cause of HFMD in the United States, but other coxsackieviruses have been associated with the illness.
  • Enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71, have also been associated with HFMD and with outbreaks of the disease.

How Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Is Spread

  • Infection is spread from person to person by direct contact with infectious virus. Infectious virus is found in the nose and throat secretions, saliva, blister fluid, and stool of infected persons. The virus is most often spread by persons with unwashed, virus-contaminated hands and by contact with virus-contaminated surfaces.
  • Infected persons are most contagious during the first week of the illness.
  • The viruses that cause HFMD can remain in the body for weeks after a patient’s symptoms have gone away. This means that the infected person can still pass the infection to other people even though he/she appears well. Also, some persons who are infected and excreting the virus, including most adults, may have no symptoms.
  • HFMD is not transmitted to or from pets or other animals.

Factors That Increase the Chance for Infection or Disease

  • Everyone who has not already been infected with an enterovirus that causes HFMD is at risk of infection, but not everyone who is infected with an enterovirus becomes ill with HFMD.
  • HFMD occurs mainly in children under 10 years old but can also occur in adults. Children are more likely to be at risk for infection and illness because they are less likely than adults to have antibodies to protect them. Such antibodies develop in the body during a person’s first exposure to the enteroviruses that cause HFMD.
  • Infection results in immunity to (protection against) the specific virus that caused HFMD. A second case of HFMD may occur following infection with a different member of the enterovirus group.

Diagnosis of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • HFMD is one of many infections that result in mouth sores. However, health care providers can usually tell the difference between HFMD and other causes of mouth sores by considering the patient’s age, the symptoms reported by the patient or parent, and the appearance of the rash and sores.
  • Samples from the throat or stool may be sent to a laboratory to test for virus and to find out which enterovirus caused the illness. However, it can take 2–4 weeks to obtain test results, so health care providers usually do not order tests.

Treatment and Medical Management of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • There is no specific treatment for HFMD.
  • Symptoms can be treated to provide relief from pain from mouth sores and from fever and aches:
    • Pain and fever can be treated with over-the-counter medications (caution: aspirin should not be given to children).
    • Mouthwashes or sprays that numb pain can be used to lessen mouth pain.
  • Fluid intake should be enough to prevent dehydration (lack of body fluids). If moderate-to-severe dehydration develops, it can be treated medically by giving fluids through the veins.

Prevention of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • A specific preventive for HFMD is not available, but the risk of infection can be lowered by following good hygiene practices.
  • Good hygiene practices that can lower the risk of infection include
    • Washing hands frequently and correctly (see Clean Hands Save Lives! ) and especially after changing diapers and after using the toilet
    • Cleaning dirty surfaces and soiled items, including toys, first with soap and water and then disinfecting them by cleansing with a solution of chlorine bleach (made by adding 1 tablespoon of bleach to 4 cups of water)
    • Avoiding close contact (kissing, hugging, sharing eating utensils or cups, etc.) with persons with HFMD

Vaccination Recommendations

  • No vaccine is available to protect against the enteroviruses that cause HFMD.

Complications of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • Complications from the virus infections that cause HFMD are not common, but if they do occur, medical care should be sought.
  • Viral or “aseptic meningitis can rarely occur with HFMD. Viral meningitis causes fever, headache, stiff neck, or back pain. The condition is usually mild and clears without treatment; however, some patients may need to be hospitalized for a short time.
  • Other more serious diseases, such as encephalitis (swelling of the brain) or a polio-like paralysis, result even more rarely. Encephalitis can be fatal.
  • There have been reports of fingernail and toenail loss occurring mostly in children within 4 weeks of their having hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). At this time, it is not known whether the reported nail loss is or is not a result of the infection. However, in the reports reviewed, the nail loss has been temporary and nail growth resumed without medical treatment.

Trends and Statistics of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • Individual cases and outbreaks of HFMD occur worldwide. In temperate climates, cases occur more often in summer and early autumn.
  • Since 1997, outbreaks of HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 have been reported in Asia and Australia.
  • HFMD caused by coxsackievirus A16 infection is a mild disease. Nearly all patients recover in 7 to 10 days without medical treatment.
  • HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 has shown a higher incidence of neurologic (nervous system) involvement. And fatal cases of encephalitis (swelling of the brain) caused by enterovirus 71 have occurred during outbreaks. However, these serious outcomes are still very rare.

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