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Posts Tagged ‘eyjafjalla’

Lava finally flows from Icelandic scientific band

Posted by feww on April 25, 2010

Lava flows northwards from the Eyjafjallajökull crater, melting the glacial ice: Report

The local experts do not believe large-scale flooding could occur from the melt water, but then again …

Oh, and if you are wondering why everyone in Iceland is suddenly speaking about lava flow in the past tense, you’re not alone. The rascals didn’t tell anyone lava had started flowing 4 days ago!

Notice: The following updates were issued by various Icelandic organizations. Unlike the govt organizations in the US, nearly all of the  information broadcast by government organizations and educational outlets in Iceland and most European countries may be subject to copyright. If your use of their data goes beyond the educational use/ fair use, be sure to contact the authors for copyright clarification/ permission.

Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management -Media team

Specialists from the Institute of the Earth Sciences (http://www.earthice.hi.is/ ) and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (http://www.vedur.is) flew over the eruption site in Eyjafjallajökull late yesterday. The lava flow seems to be of similar volume as in recent days (20-40 tons per second). The quantity of the volcanic plume is slowly decreasing. The flow of lava is most likely to have started near noon on April 21 when water started flowing continuously from Gígjökull. Steam plumes rose from the northern edges of the caldera after noon on that day and could be seen from a helicopter. Deflation associated with the volcanic tremor was noticed at the same time. There are no signs of melting or flow of water to the south. There are also no indications that the eruption is coming to an end.

There are still disruptions in domestic and international flights, according to information from ISAVIA, and passengers are therefore strongly advised to seek further information from air carriers and at: http://www.textavarp.is/ .

Icelandic Met Office Report

Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

Indications of lava flow to the north – 25 April 11:30

Yesterday evening, geophysicists from the Institute of the Earth Sciences found indications of lava flow from the eruption site. The risk of sudden melt water flow is, however, minor. Following is their description:

“North of crater a roughly 300 m long and wide depression has been melted out in the last three days. Steam plumes rise from the depression, especially at the margins. This is explained by lava flowing northwards from the crater with the steam rising where lava meets ice … Flow of lava is considered to have begun around noon on Wednesday 21 April.”

Icelandic Meteorological Office and Institute of Earth Sciences, UoI

Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull – status report 25 April 2010 at 1800

Eruption plume:
Height( a.s.l):  Unknown, not seen above cloud cover at 5.3 km.
Heading:  NW
Tephra fallout:  Minor (light fallout detected at two farms 10 km NW of vents)

Conditions at eruption site: Overall activity similar as yesterday.  Eruption seen from west in the morning – north crater still active.  External water has not affected vent activity much since 18 April.  Geologists field observations (2-10 km from vents) show that explosivity is magmatic and that the tephra produced since 18 April is much coarser than during first four days.  Explosions heard at Fljótshlíð, 10-15 km NW of vents.   Meltwater discharge suggest similar lava activity.  Processing of data obtained yesterday shows that lava had advanced 400-500 m northwards from crater, forming an ice depression extending some 700 m from vents.

Overall assessment:  Magma flow rate has remained at similar level over the last few days.  Plume activity is gradually declining.  Flow continues flowing towards north.  No signs of melting or meltwater discharge towards south.  No signs of termination of eruption.Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull – status report 24 April 2010 at 1700
Eruption plume: Height( a.s.l): 13000 feet (4 km)
Tephra fallout: Minor (plume dark but no reports of fallout in districts around volcano)
Meltwater: 100-120 m3/s, based on gauge at old Markarfljót bridge and a rough estimate of base flow.
GPS deformation: Indicates slow subsidence towards the center of the volcano.
Magma flow: Eruption plume: less or equal to 10 tonnes/s.
Lava flow: 10-30 tonnes/s
Total magma flow: 20-40 tonnes/s

For additional details see: Institute of the Earth Sciences

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Posted in eyjafjalla, Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjallajökull glacier, eyjafjallajoekull volcano, Eyjafjöll, Iceland volcano, Icelandic volcano | Tagged: , , , , , , , | 3 Comments »

Eyjafjallajökull Eruption – UPDATE 24 April

Posted by feww on April 24, 2010

Comparative Calm Before Explosive Storm?

A Powerful Earthquake May Strike Iceland

The Plume at Eyjafjallajökull Rises to a Height of about 7,000m Sporadically, Idling Mostly at 4,000m

Fire Earth Moderators believe the volcano is spewing more ash than it did 2-3 days ago, despite the local reports.


Webcam at Valahnúk. Image recorded at 13:15UTC on April 24, 2010. Click Image to enlarge.


Hvolsvelli View [best image available all day from the webcam. Reduced visibility caused  by volcanic ash, fumes, dust and clouds.]

Icelandic mat office said:

Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland -Update on activity
Little changes – 24 April 2010 11:15

Volcanic tremor has been similar as the last 2-3 days.
Ash fall may be expected to the west and northwest from the eruption, minor in the Reykjavik area.
Water level in Markarfljót river is slightly higher than yesterday.

The Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, Media team, released the following bulletin earlier today:

News Release, 24 April 2010, 06:30

According to the Hvolsvöllur police, this was a quiet night. A little ash has fallen on Hvolsvöllur, and it is visible as a very fine dust on cars. The Weather Bureau expects strong winds from the northeast and the east along the southern coast, elsehwhere the winds will be softer and there will not be much precipitation. The ashen mist will probably move to the west and the northwest of the volcano, even reaching Reykjavík, but only in slight quantities

In a news release from the Chief Epidemiologist yesterday, it appears that wen ash mist occurs, or an increase in suspended particulates in the atmosphere, those who suffer from a dormant heart og lung disease are advised to remain indoors, but there is no call for using masks. It is expected that the eruption-related suspended particulates pollution in the capital area might be close to a similar pollution caused by traffic, and the warnings issued by health authorities will be in accordance with such pollution. The public should keep track of news and information and instruction on the websites of the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, http://www.almannavarnir.is, and of the Environment Agency, http://www.ust.is .

According to information from the airports, air traffic is limited to and from Keflavík, Reykjavík and Akureyri at the moment. No IFR-permissions are issued for Akureyri Airport, but the Egilsstaðir Airport is open to all flight traffic. Further information will be released later this morning.

The information centre for the media at Hvolsvöllur (tel. 847-4846) will remain open during he week-end. A press representative will be there, but there will be no meeting with specialists at 8 am. On the other hand, such meetings will be held at the information centre in Skógarhlíð from 08:00 til 09:00 am, Saturday and Sunday. Today, geophysicist Sigurlaug Hjaltadóttir, from Iceland Weather Bureau, Árni Snorrason, director of the Weather Bureau, and Árni Birgisson, director of the airport and guiding dept. of  Isavia, will answer questions conveyed by the media and press agents.

Detailed Map of eruption Site [The Institute of Earth Science Nordic Volcanological Center]


Click on image to get larger map (pdf-file)
Prepared by: Ásta Rut Hjartardóttir (astahj@hi.is), Páll Einarsson (palli@hi.is)

See also

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Posted in eyjafjalla, Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Eyjafjallajökull glacier, Eyjafjöll, Iceland volcano, Icelandic volcano | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Eyjafjallajokull Volcano: ASTER data

Posted by feww on April 24, 2010

ASTER data of Eyjafjallajokull Volcano

The following data have been acquired by the ASTER instrument on the NASA Terra satellite, and posted on Internet by University of Pittsburgh volcanologist Michael Ramsey. The data were collected both day and night. ASTER acquires data in the visible/near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) during day time overpasses and in the TIR at night. The VNIR images are at 15 m/pixel resolution and the TIR are 90 m/pixel (each image covers approximately 60 km by 60 km).


Eyjafjallajokull Eruption Day time visible/near infrared image (13.5 MB) dated April 19, 2010.

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Posted in eyjafjalla, Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland volcano, iceland volcanoes, magma, Volcano Hazards, Volcanology | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Eyjafjallajökull Eruption – UPDATE 23 April

Posted by feww on April 23, 2010

Ash Fall from Eyjafjallajökull Eruption Closes Icelandic Airports

Iceland’s Keflavík International Airport was closed earlier today due to volcanic ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull eruption.

The wind direction had reportedly changed pushing the ash cloud in southern Iceland in a southwesterly  direction; however,  little or no ash fall was forecast in the capital Reykjavik, Icelandic Review reported.

The closure of Keflavík airport was expected to affect all international flights to and from Iceland.

Webcam views of Eyjafjallajökull eruption recorded at 11:40UTC on April 23, 2010 – Click images to enlarge

Hvolsvelli View

Thórólfsfelli (Þórólfsfelli) View

The Institute of Earth Science Nordic Volcanological Center

Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull

Eruption update 22 April
Similar situation as yesterday (see 21 April report)

Seismic tremor recorded by the Icelandic Meteorological Office: Some fluctuations, with a peak shortly after midnight 22 April related to a small flood of meltwater. Since the onset of the explosive eruption the tremor has overall been gradually increasing, with superimposed fluctuations.

Visual observations yesterday: Regular explosions at intervals of few minutes were observed in afternoon, with fluctuations in intensity and tephra content. Previous entries …

The following two images are from Frettabldid-Island and may be subject to copyright.

Electric Eyjafjallajokull


Prime Real Estate

Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland – Current events Report by Icelandic Met Office

Status as of:  23 April 2010 10:45(UTC)

Volcanic tremor has been similar the last 24 hours. GPS stations around Eyjafjallajökull showed deflation associated with the eruption.

The plume could be seen on IMO’s radar till 04:00. This morning it rose up to 16.000 feet, ca 4.8 km, and ash is blowing towards west.

Water in Markarfljot river increased slightly yesterday, probably due to continuous flow from the eruption area (Gigjökull).

Eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland as seen by RADARSAT-2 (Canadian Space Agency)


Left: RADARSAT-2 image of April 9 – RADARSAT-2 Multi-Look Fine, beam 4 – April 9, 2010, 07:34 :48 UTC, Descending orbit – Nominal resolution: 8 m.
Right: RADARSAT-2 image of April 20 – RADARSAT-2 Extended High, beam 4 – April 20, 2010, 07:13 :53 UTC, Descending orbit -Nominal resolution: 25 m.
Click image to enlarge.

Image Notes and Observations:

  • New volcano craters are evident on April 20 image (Right).
  • Glacial lake on the north slope of the volcano is now filled with volcanic sediments.
  • Local drainage network is swamped by the melt water.
  • The radar backscatter has changed drastically, probably caused by the melted ice and by the presence of ash and dust on the ice.
  • Agricultural land on the south slope of the volcano covered by volcanic ash and debris.
  • The wavelength used by RADARSAT-2 is only slightly affected by the  ash and airborne particles.
  • For larger images click here

Iceland’s Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management – Media team

News Release: # 22 – April 23, 2010, 06:30(UTC)

A little after midnight, the volcanic cloud became quite dark, according to the police, and the wind turned during the night.

The Weather Bureau expects southeasterly winds today, and the wind force will gradually increase. An ashen mist is expected towards the north-east of the volcano, and small quantities of ash might even reach Reykjavík. The terms “ashen mist” refer to a view impaired by the ash, according to the Weather Bureau. Some ash is falling in the direction of Fljótshlíð and will continue to do so in a northwesterly direction from the volcano.

Flights to and from the airports of Keflavík and Reykjavík are being cancelled and travellers are requested to follow the news and the websites of the flight operators and Keflavík Airport.

According to the police at Hvolsvöllur, no traffic is permitted in the vicinity of the volcano. The area closed to traffic encompasses the Eyjafjallajökull glacier, its slopes, the Fimmvörðuháls pass and Mýrdalsjökull glacier. Please respect these restrictions.

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Eyjafjallajökull Eruption – UPDATE 22 April

Posted by feww on April 22, 2010

Volcanic tremors continue unabated, Eyjafjallajökull ash plume stays low

The explosive activity at Eyjafjallajökull is less vigorous, with only one of two main craters in the summit caldera remaining active.

Webcam views of Eyjafjallajökull eruption recorded at 15:23UTC on April 22, 2010 – Click images to enlarge

Hvolsvelli View

Thórólfsfelli (Þórólfsfelli) View

“Eruption rate is inferred to have declined over last few days and now be an order of magnitude smaller than during the initial 72 hours of the eruption. Present eruption rate is estimated to less than 30 m3/s of magma, or 75 tonnes/s , with a large uncertainty.” The Institute of Earth Science Nordic Volcanological Center said.

The eruptive style was reported as: “Phreatomatic explosive activity” with “lava spatter” at the summit craters, with the plume height reaching 3,000 m asl.

Seismic tremor showed some fluctuations but remained mostly stable, said the Icelandic Meteorological Office. “Tremor is not decreasing and does not reflect the decline as inferred from the eruption rate.”


Freeze frame from a video of Eyjafjallajökull Eruption shot by Icelandic Coast Guard.

The Institute of Earth Science Nordic Volcanological Center said:

Tephra dispersal: local towards the south

Meltwater: minor, but what is melted flows down into Markarfljót, no signs of water accumulation in craters

GPS-measurements: indicate continuing small pressure decrease under the volcano at a similar rate.

Composition of erupted material: Samples collected April 19 show same composition as early in the explosive phase, but fluorine content is higher. Samples collected 19 April have 850 mg/kg (initially it was 25-35 mg/kg). This is due to the change in eruptive style – tephra is now not washed to the same extent by water in the eruptive plume.

Amount of erupted material: Uncertain but on the order of 100 millon cubic meters. Tephra next to craters is 20-30 m thick.

Iceland’s Civil Protection Office confirmed that the ash emissions had been considerably reduced. “The volcanic cloud is quite low and not visible on radars. The ash is not expected to reach an altitude of 20.000 feet (6 – 7 km) for the nex few days. The ashes will continue falling on the area south and south-east of the glacier today, yet the wind will turn and blow from the north-easterly today, and the ashes will start falling to the south-west tonight. The wind is expected to be mild. That, and a lessened ash emission, will cause the ashes to fall near the eruption site. There is no cause to believe that the ashes will fall on the south-western regions of Iceland.”

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Eyjafjallajökull Eruption – UPDATE 21 April

Posted by feww on April 21, 2010

Eyjafjallajökull Rumbling, Churning out Magma

Eyjafjallajökull has entered a Strombolian-like phase of explosive of  activity, producing magma splatters, but less ash and smoke than the previous days.The plume, however, is till rising to a height of about 3,500m.

The magma in Eyjafjallajökull cauldron seems to be more viscous  than in its neighboring Fimmvörðuháls fissure,  the Icelandic  Met Office reported, adding that the interaction of magma with ice and melt water had decreased.

Icelandic Met Office:  Update on activity
Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland
Current events
Deflation – 20 April 2010 13:30 [22:30UTC]

Latest available results from GPS stations around Eyjafjallajökull showed deflation associated with the eruption. This suggested that the volume of eruptive material which has been ejected already, relieves pressure off the volcano.

No movements associated with the Katla volcano are presently observed. END

Thórólfsfelli (Þórólfsfelli) View

Hvolsvelli View

Valahnúk View

Latest webcam images of Eyjafjallajökull show the volcano is still petty much active. Frames frozen at 08:42UTC on April 21, 2010. Click images to enlarge.

There is no sign of lava flow as yet, but the situation could change rapidly.

“It seems that the ice cauldrons over the eruption site have coalesced to form a larger cauldron. In spite of magma splatters, no lava flow has been detected yet.”

“Heavy sound blasts have been heard and found near Eyjafjallajökull, especially south and east of the mountain. The viscosity of the magma from Eyjafjallajökull is higher than on Fimmvörðuháls and this enhances the explosive sound effect which can be heard over long distances.” it said.

Nearly all of the European airports have now reopened, however, the travel chaos with an unprecedented backlog of about 100,000 flight cancellations continues. The 6-day flight ban has cost the airlines more than one billion dollars. The actual cost to the unsustainable economies of Europe may be even larger.


Eldgosið í Fimmvörðuhálsi var undanfari eldgossins í Eyjafjallajökli. Árni Sæberg. Source: MBL-Island. Image may be subject to copyright.

A Silver Lining to the Ash Cloud?

University students in Britain have estimated the amount of carbon dioxide released by  Eyjafjallajökull Eruption  at 150,000 metric tons per day. The figure compares with 510,000 tons of CO2 per day emitted as a result of the planes flying normally over Europe. Their estimates seem to imply a ‘saving’ of 360,000 tons of CO2 per day as a result of the flight restriction over Europe. Source:  Reuters report.


ASTER on NASA’s Terra satellite acquired the above image at 1:50 p.m. local time on April 19. The image shows both the eruption plume and the heat signature of lava at the volcano’s summit and at nearby Fimmvörduháls fissure. Source: NASA. Click image to enlarge.

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Posted in Eyjafjallajökull eruption, eyjafjallajokull map, iceland ash cloud, Iceland volcano, magma | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | 8 Comments »

Eyjafjallajökull Eruption: Flight Ban Lifted

Posted by feww on April 21, 2010

How Prepared Are YOU for a Major Disaster?

Eyjafjallajokull volcano is producing more lava, ash plume smaller:  Icelandic Scientists

Eyjafjallajökull Activity Easing for Now: Europe’s skies are open, but there are too many stranded passengers to deal with

Here’s a summary of what’s happening in Europe right now:

Flight bans are lifted in Europe after nearly a week of restrictions caused by volcanic ash clouds drifting from Eyjafjallajökull glacial volcano.

Since last Thursday, April 15, some 100,000 flights from and to European destinations were canceled, stranding an estimated 18 million passengers worldwide, most of them in Europe. The cancellations came into effect a day after Eyjafjallajökull erupted, ejecting massive plumes of ash into the air, which drifted towards UK and rest of Europe.


Scale of disruption to the flights over Europe April 21, 2010. Image sourced from BBC World News, and may be subject to copyright. See Fire-Earth Fair Use Notice for details. Click image to enlarge.

From “NO Tolerance” to “Tolerance” in a few threats

The UK Met Office, which is the North-west European Volcanic Ash Advisory Center with responsibility for issuing the Volcanic Ash Advisories for volcanoes erupting in that area, had previously said that it would support decision-making by the UK’s National Air Traffic Service (NATS), the country’s Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and other aviation authorities.

“It is for the aviation industry and regulator to set thresholds for safe ash ingestion. Currently, world-wide advice from ICAO is based on engine and airframe manufacturers stating that aircraft should not be exposed to any volcanic ash.” It said in a statement.

So the Airports and airlines went knocking angrily on the plane manufacturers doors:

“The major barrier to resuming flight has been understanding tolerance levels of aircraft to ash,” the CAA said in a statement

“Manufacturers have now agreed increased tolerance levels in low ash density areas.”

“Transport Secretary Lord Adonis, who made the initial announcement, denied the decision to reopen airspace was the result of pressure from the airline industry.” BBC reported.

“The issue at stake here has been the assessment of the safety authorities as to what is the safe way in which planes can fly when there is a presence of ash.” He said.

“The fact which has changed in the last week is we have had a volcanic eruption and having to assess safe levels of ash content in the atmosphere within which planes can fly has been an urgent issue which the safety authorities have had to deal with.”

The fact that some of the airplanes may fall out of the sky in 3 months time, without anyone revealing what exactly caused the crash(s) is entirely irrelevant to his Lordship’s falsity.

“This solution has been reached as a result of the close working between the government, the Civil Aviation Authority, airlines and the manufacturers, and will allow the thousands of UK citizens stranded abroad to return home to their families.” The UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown said. [The safety of passengers has never been a paramount issue.]

“We will of course continue to monitor the situation closely; as we have said throughout safety is our primary concern,” he added. [You mean when when a BA plane crashes? More likely, you’d probably help cover up what caused it, if that happened.]

DO NOT FLY PLANES THAT HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO VOLCANIC ASH!

How Prepared Are YOU for a Major Disaster? More on this later.

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