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Posts Tagged ‘Foot-and-mouth Disease’

Egypt’s FMD outbreak reaches Gaza, threatening entire Middle East

Posted by feww on May 2, 2012

Outbreak of SAT2 strain of FMD virus in Egypt and Libya reaches Gaza Strip

Sick animals detected in Rafah, a Gaza Strip town bordering Egypt, have tested positive for the SAT2 strain of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, following the February outbreak in Egypt and Libya, FAO said.

“The SAT2 variant is new to the region, meaning that animals do not have any acquired resistance to it.”

FMD Virus. Source: Virginia Bioinformatics Institute.

FMD  is  highly infectious and affects all cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep, cattle, buffalo, goats and pigs, causing serious production losses, and can be lethal, especially in younger animals.

When this shorthorn heifer in the United Kingdom became afflicted with foot-and-mouth disease, (a) she began to drool, and (b) virus-filled blisters developed in her mouth and at the junction where skin connects with the hoof walls.
Source: LLNL

“Diseases simply do not respect international boundaries, and if FMD SAT2 reaches deeper into the Middle East it could spread throughout vast areas, threatening the Gulf countries – even southern and eastern Europe, and perhaps beyond” said Juan Lubroth, FAO’s Chief Veterinary Officer and head of the organization’s Animal Health Service.

About 10-million sheep, pigs, and cows were slaughtered during the 2001 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom, which caused more than $5 billion in losses to the food and agriculture sector and even greater losses in tourism.

The foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus consists of a single strand of RNA packed inside a tough protein coat. The hardy virus can live 28 days in cool soil and up to 180 days in a slurry of cow dung. It can be spread directly from animal to animal, or it can be transported indirectly by a person or vehicle traveling from one farm to another—for example, with mud containing the virus caked on boots or tires. Livermore’s Pam Hullinger, a foreign animal disease diagnostician and veterinary epidemiologist, notes that FMD is so contagious, an animal can become infected after contact with as few as 10 virus particles.
Although the U.S. has not had an FMD outbreak since 1929, it is endemic in many parts of the world. In 2000 and 2001 a Pan-Asian strain caused outbreaks in Korea, Japan, Russia, Mongolia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, France, and the Netherlands. Source: LLNL

A SAT2 virus strain was recently reported in cattle in Bahrain’s quarantine center, FAO reported.

FMD Related Links

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

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Major FMD Outbreak in Egypt Threatens N Africa, Mideast

Posted by feww on March 26, 2012

FMD has killed thousands of animals, sickened tens of thousands more in Lower Nile Delta region

A major outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt is threatening to spread throughout North Africa and the Middle East, the U.N. Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) has warned.

Disaster Calendar 2012 – March 26

[March 26, 2012]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,451 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Egypt. A major outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt has killed more than 4,600 farm animals, mostly calves, and sickened more than 40,000 in the Lower Nile Delta region.
    • The disease is threatening to spread throughout North Africa and the Middle East, the U.N. Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) has warned.
    • The new strain of  the FMD virus known as SAT2 is currently circulating throughout the region.
    • Livestock have no immune protection against SAT2 and vaccines currently available in Egypt are said to be ineffective against the new strain.
    • “The area around the Lower Nile Delta appears to be severely affected,” said FAO’s Chief Veterinary Officer.
    • “Vaccines are in limited supply for the FMD virus now present in Egypt. The country has some reserves of its own vaccines, but these do not protect against the SAT2 strain,” said FAO.
    • Milk, meat and other food products from sick animals are unsafe for consumption mainly because they contaminate the food chain.
    • Some 6.3 million buffalo and cattle and 7.5 million sheep and goats are at risk in Egypt, according to FAO’s livestock census data.
    • FMD  is  highly infectious and affects all cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep, cattle, buffalo, goats and pigs, causing serious production losses, and can be lethal, especially in younger animals.

FMD in mouth. Ruptured oral vesicle in a cow with Foot-and-mouth disease. Photo source: USDA

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

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Kiwifruit disease plagues New Zealand

Posted by feww on November 15, 2010

At least 13 kiwifruit orchards covering 500 hectares infected

Outbreak of a bacterial disease is destroying New Zealand’s kiwifruit industry, with an estimated turnover of NZ$1.5 billion [$1.1 billion.]

Italian orchards have been devastated by PSA in the past two seasons. Photo: Stuff NZ. Image may be subject to copyright.

The pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) bacteria has been found on at least 13 major orchards, covering 500 hectares, in the Bay of Plenty, an area which produces about 80 percent of the country’s crop, according to reports.

Colonization of vascular tissues by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae can result in foliar wilting at the beginning of the season (A. chinensis cv. Hort 16 A). Courtesy: Plant Protection Service of Emilia-Romagna region (IT). Source and more images.

An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease on top of the PSA could spell the economical collapse of the toxic country.

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Japan’s Foot-and-mouth Disease “Out of Control”

Posted by feww on June 12, 2010

Foot-and-mouth Disease Threatens Japan’s Livestock

Foot-and-mouth epidemic is spreading throughout Japan’s Miyazaki Prefecture like a wildfire.

The country’s agricultural authorities have failed to deal promptly with the spread of the highly contagious disease, causing unprecedented damage since WWII to the livestock.

Thousands of heads of cattle are being culled and buried in Miyakonojo, Miyazaki Prefecture (state) in Japan. Image cerdit: AFP. Image may be subject to copyright. See Fire-Earth Fair Use Notice.

More cattle in Miyazaki, Saito and Hyuga that prefectures (states) that were suspected of carrying the disease have now tested positive, local reports say.

As of now about 158,600 animals have been infected, according to the agriculture ministry’s animal health division.

“We’ve reached a critical point, a perilous point,” Japan’s new Prime Minister Naoto Kan said. “I understand that an immediate response is of paramount importance and would like to tackle the problem with a sense of urgency.”

“The latest weekly animal hygiene report of the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries introduces cases in which sterilizing work has not been properly carried out after vaccinations have been performed. If that’s true, there may be a connection with the latest infections. There’s a need to provide thorough sterilization once again,” Hiroomi Akashi, a professor of  veterinary virology at the University of Tokyo said.


Foot-and-mouth disease has also persisted in Korea since at least January this year.  “The Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MIFAFF) said Tuesday that it found four infected cows in a farm in Cheongyang, South Chungcheong Province. The ministry decided to cull all 54 cows at the farm, which is 6.5 kilometers away from the Livestock and Veterinary Research Institute where infected cases were discovered last month,” a report said.


“The foot-and-mouth disease outbreak that originated in Ganghwa County of Incheon might have been spread by a farmer who recently visited China,” a report dated May 18, 2010 said.

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Posted in Livestock, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki Prefecture, Naoto Kan, vaccination | Tagged: , , , , | 1 Comment »