Fire Earth

Earth is fighting to stay alive. Mass dieoffs, triggered by anthropogenic assault and fallout of planetary defense systems offsetting the impact, could begin anytime!

Posts Tagged ‘fracking’

Fracking in Lancashire, UK Suspended after M1.1 Tremor –Report

Posted by feww on October 29, 2018

AMR – 102902

Refer to Einstein’s Definition of Insanity!

Fracking at the UK’s shale gas site in Lancashire was stopped for a third time following a 1.1 magnitude tremor, the largest tremor recorded there so far.

The 1.1 magnitude tremor at the site in Preston New Road, Little Plumpton, was the strongest since work began at the site two weeks ago.

It followed two seismic movements of 0.8 on Friday and Saturday.

Fracking firm Cuadrilla said Monday’s tremor was no cause for concern, but it would halt fracking for 18 hours.

Drilling for shale gas at the site started on 15 October after a legal challenge failed.

“A 2.3 magnitude tremor on the Fylde coast seven years ago was probably caused by shale gas test drilling, a study found.”

 

 

 

 

Posted in News Alert | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Fracking in N.D. Contaminated Soil & Water with Elev. Levels of NORM

Posted by feww on May 11, 2016

Fracking in Bakken, ND leaves 9,700 wells producing 119million m³ of wastewater: Study

Unconventional oil and gas production from hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling in the Bakken region in North Dakota has been rising significantly since 2007. Some 9,700 unconventional wells have produced an estimated 119 million cubic meters of oil and gas wastewater (OGW), according to a new study.

Bakken region spills 2007-2015
Map of western North Dakota that includes well density (number of wells per 5 km radius), reported brine spills from 2007 to 2015 (red circles), and sampling sites of samples collected in July 2015 (green triangles). Note the association between spill locations and well density, with higher occurrences of spills in areas of high well density. Spill data were compiled from the North Dakota Department of Health and include both contained and uncontained brine spills. Oil well data were downloaded from the North Dakota Industrial Commission, Oil and Gas Division. [Image source]

“In 2014, the Bakken region was producing an average of over 1 million barrels of oil per day, compared to production levels that consistently lingered at approximately 100 thousand barrels per day before 2007. This rapid rise in production has been made possible by intense development of oil and gas infrastructure in western North Dakota, including approximately 9700 unconventional wells that have produced an estimated 31.4 × 10 9 gallons (118.9 × 10 9 L) of oil and gas wastewater (OGW).”

In addition to the elevated concentrations of major elements—Na, Cl, Br—the study found Bakken brines are rich in “metals, metalloids and other potential contaminants” including Se, V, Sr, Li, B, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb, Ra, NH4, all of which have “human and ecological health implications.”

NORM in the Bakken Brines and Impact on Spill Sites

Produced waters can have elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), primarily the long-lived radium isotopes 228Ra. Read More…

The study Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota was conducted by the Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

Posted in News Alert | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Federal Govt Asked to Revoke Oklahoma Oil, Gas Leases

Posted by feww on May 9, 2016

Sent by a reader in PSC

You would have thought the first requirement for serving as a senior government official is minimal common sense! Or was it integrity!

Seismicity in the “Popcorn State” is 600 times greater than it was prior to 2008

Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) has asked the U.S. Interior Secretary to revoke Oklahoma Oil, Gas Leases.

CBD Press Release: Interior Secretary Asked to Revoke Oklahoma Oil, Gas Leases  

The Center for Biological Diversity today requested that the Bureau of Land Management pull 11 public fossil fuel leases sold last month in Oklahoma and Kansas over concerns that fracking and underground injection of oil wastewater could increase the risk of earthquakes in these areas, threatening the physical safety and homes of tens of thousands of residents.

In today’s letter to Interior Secretary Sally Jewell, the conservation group called on the BLM to withdraw the leases, covering more than 2,300 acres of federal oil and gas reserves in Oklahoma and Kansas, that were auctioned off April 20 in Santa Fe, N.M. Despite scientific evidence of skyrocketing injection-induced earthquakes in Oklahoma in recent years, the group points out, the BLM failed even to mention the problem of increased risk of human caused earthquakes in its Environmental Assessment for the lease auction, which violates the National Environmental Policy Act and could put people and property in harm’s way.

A new video posted on the Center’s website illustrates the recent spike in oil wastewater-induced earthquakes in Oklahoma on a statewide map. Initially, small circles representing seismic activity pop up sporadically, but then rapidly explode all over central and northern Oklahoma with increasing speed and size. A ticker counting the earthquakes also accelerates with time, tallying a total count of 6,116 earthquakes between May 2005 and April 2016.  

“It’s clear that these man-made practices are increasing the amount of earthquake activity near and around drilling sites,” said Wendy Park of the Center. “Let’s not wait for an event that damages property or risks lives before acting to protect Oklahoma and Kansas residents. These dangerous seismic risks to communities are yet another reason for keeping dirty federal fossil fuels in the ground.”

Scientists say injections of oil wastewater can lubricate faults, triggering damaging earthquakes. A recent study by the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the risk of damage from both natural and induced earthquakes in Oklahoma and other states, and the results show a startling rise in seismic activity since the region’s fracking boom began. The agency’s assessment suggests that there is a 5 percent to 10 percent chance of damaging shaking from mainly induced earthquakes in a swath of Oklahoma and Kansas.  Read  more…

 

Posted in News Alert | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Australian River on Fire in Mining Area

Posted by feww on April 23, 2016

Massive fracking fires in the river burn for over an hour: Australian MP

Massive flames erupt from methane gas bubbling to the surface of the Condamine River in Quessland, Australia due to ongoing coal seam gas mining [fracking] in the region, according to locals.

[Hydraulic Fracturing of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs, also known as coal seam gas mining releases coalbed methane, or coal seam gas (CSG), a method of gas production popular in Australia, Canada, United States, and several other countries.]

River on Fire in Queensland, Ausralia!

“Large bubbles of the gas gurgle along the surface of the river before [Australia] Greens MP Jeremy Buckingham waves a kitchen lighter over the side of a tinny boat,” said a report.

“I was shocked by the force of the explosion when I tested whether gas boiling through the Condamine River, Qld was flammable,” Buckingham said.

“So much gas is bubbling through the river that it held a huge flame for over an hour.”

“Over the last few years there more and more patches of bubbles have appeared on the river and the pressure of the gas has increased to the point where it is like an over-sized spa bath. It’s a river, it shouldn’t be doing that,” said local resident John Jenkyn, who lives next to the gas field.

Read more…

Posted in News Alert | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

‘Hammhead’ Oil CEO Wanted Quake Scientists Fired

Posted by feww on May 16, 2015

Sent by a reader in Oklahoma

Harold couldn’t give a ham about Oklahoma

The billionaire CEO of Oklahoma-based Continental Resources Inc., Harold (hammhead) Hamm, told a dean at the University of Oklahoma last year that he wanted several seismologists there dismissed because they were researching links between oil and gas activity and the state’s nearly 400-fold increase in earthquakes, Bloomberg reported on Friday citing the dean’s e-mail recounting the conversation.


Harold Hamm is Founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Continental Resources. He co-founded and serves as Chairman of the Domestic Energy Producers Alliance.  Forbes Magazine has ranked Mr. Hamm No. 24 on “The Forbes 400” list of the richest people in America and No. 96 out of 1,826 on its list of “The World’s Billionaires.” Source: Continental Resources, Inc.

[Mitt Romney, the 2012 presidential candidate, named Hamm as his energy adviser, prompting Hamm to make substantial monetary and advisory contributions to the failed election effort. —Editor]

Hamm, the billionaire founder and CEO of Oklahoma City-based Continental Resources, who is a major donor to the university, also the home of the Oklahoma Geological Survey, has vigorously disputed the report that he tried to pressure the survey’s scientists. “I’m very approachable, and don’t think I’m intimidating,” Hamm was quoted as saying in an interview with EnergyWire, an industry publication, that was published on May 11. “I don’t try to push anybody around.”

Researchers have discovered the re-injection of drilling and fracking wastewater into disposal walls is most probably causing the 400-fold increase in Oklahoma earthquakes.

“Mr. Hamm is very upset at some of the earthquake reporting to the point that he would like to see select OGS staff dismissed,” wrote Larry Grillot, the dean of the university’s Mewbourne College of Earth and Energy, in a July 16, 2014, e-mail to colleagues at the university. Hamm also expressed an interest in joining a search committee charged with finding a new director for the geological survey, according to Grillot’s e-mail. And, the dean wrote, Hamm indicated that he would be “visiting with Governor [Mary] Fallin on the topic of moving the OGS out of the University of Oklahoma.”   Read more…

Editor’s Notes

  • For slightly less obvious reasons, it took everyone involved about 10 months to report the incident.
  • It’s also becoming increasingly more obvious to everyone concerned why  corporation and wealthy individuals are paying Google and WordPress to suppress (filter, bury and block) content published on this blog.

 Related Links

Posted in News Alert | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Statement on Oklahoma Seismicity: OGS

Posted by feww on April 24, 2015

Seismic shift: Oklahoma earthquakes caused by wastewater injection

Oklahoma geologists say they now believe the majority of the state’s earthquakes are triggered by the oil and gas industry’s disposal of massive amounts of water underground.

They have measured the seismicity rate which is now more than 600 times greater than the background seismicity rate, and therefore highly unlikely to be the result of a natural process.

[They have missed a number of key details, including the “signature depth” at which the majority of the quakes are occurring. FEWW Scientific Team]

The government scientists at Oklahoma Geological Survey have issued the following statement:

Statement on Oklahoma Seismicity

Based on observed seismicity rates and geographical trends following major oil and gas plays with large amounts of produced water, the rates and trends in seismicity are very unlikely to represent a naturally occurring process. Historically, the Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS) recorded on average about 1 ½, magnitude three or greater (M3+) earthquakes each year, within Oklahoma. During 2013, the OGS observed on average about 2, M3+ earthquakes each week on average, and this rate continued to increase during 2014. Currently, the OGS is reporting on average about 2 ½, M3+ earthquakes each day. The OGS considers it very likely that the majority of recent earthquakes, particularly those in central and north-­‐central Oklahoma, are triggered by the injection of produced water in disposal wells.

The primary suspected source of triggered seismicity is not from hydraulic fracturing, but from the injection/disposal of water associated with oil and gas production. Produced water is naturally occurring water within the Earth that is often high in salinity and co-­‐ exists with oil and gas in the subsurface. As the oil and gas is extracted/produced, so is the water. This water is then separated from the oil and gas and re-­‐injected into disposal wells, often at greater depth from which it was produced. However, it is often stated that disposed water is wastewater from hydraulic fracturing. While there are large amounts of wastewater generated from hydraulic fracturing, this volume represents a small percentage of the total volume of wastewater injected in disposal wells in Oklahoma.

The observed seismicity of greatest concentration, namely in central and north-­‐central Oklahoma, can be observed to follow the oil and gas plays characterized by large amounts of produced water. Seismicity rates are observed to increase after a time-­‐delay as injection volumes increase within these plays. In central and north-­‐central Oklahoma, this time-­‐delay can be weeks to a year or more.

The OGS can document the following geological and geophysical characteristics related to the recent earthquake activity within Oklahoma.

  • The seismicity rate in 2013 was 70 times greater than the background seismicity rate observed in Oklahoma prior to 2008. While unlikely, this rate could have been potentially explained by natural variations in earthquake rates from naturally occurring swarms. The seismicity rate is now about 600 times greater than the background seismicity rate, and is very unlikely the result of a natural process.
  • The majority of earthquakes in central and north-­‐central Oklahoma occur as earthquake swarms and not in the typical foreshock-­‐mainshock-­‐aftershock sequences that are characteristic of naturally occurring earthquake sequences throughout the world in a variety of tectonic settings. However, it is recognized that naturally occurring earthquake swarms do occur and have occurred within the region.
  •  These earthquakes swarms are occurring over a large area, about 15% of the area of Oklahoma, that has experienced significant increase in wastewater disposal volumes over the last several years.
  • The earthquakes are primarily occurring on faults that are optimally and sub-­‐ optimally oriented within Oklahoma’s tectonic stress regime.
  • Both triggered and naturally occurring earthquakes release accumulated tectonic stress on these faults.
  • Most of the earthquakes in Oklahoma are occurring within crystalline basement, deeper than most oil and gas operations. However, reactivation of deeper basement faults from water injection/disposal at shallower depths is often observed in cases of triggered seismicity.
  • The majority of wastewater disposal is targeted for injection in the Arbuckle formations, which closely overlie the crystalline basement.
  • As a result of high bulk permeability within sections of the Arbuckle, pressure from water injection/disposal may be transmitted several miles from an injection site.
  • The high density of injection wells in central and north-­‐central Oklahoma combined with the high permeabilites within the Arbuckle makes identifying relationships between specific wells and seismic activity difficult.

The OGS endeavors to accurately document seismicity within Oklahoma, and is increasing its capability to improve earthquake monitoring and data products. This includes the addition of staff, as well as updating and adding seismic equipment to improve seismic monitoring coverage throughout the state. In addition, the OGS is compiling a database of known fault locations within Oklahoma from published scientific literature and voluntarily fault data contributions from the Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA). The OGS also participates in projects with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and other researchers worldwide in the ongoing investigation of Oklahoma seismicity.

The OGS also works closely with the Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) to provide information on Oklahoma seismicity and research publications on triggered and induced seismicity. The OGS collaborates with the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission and Ground Water Protection Council States First Initiative Workgroup on Induced Seismicity in multi-­‐state efforts to better understand the problem and develop a regulatory framework.

The OGS continues to make its data and data products publicly available in a timely manner, and to contribute to research and the public discussion of earthquakes in Oklahoma. As communicated in the joint USGS/OGS statement dated May 2, 2014, the earthquake hazard in Oklahoma has increased due to the increased rate of seismicity. It is important for Oklahomans to learn what to do during a significant earthquake, and be prepared. The OGS and the Oklahoma Office Emergency Management provide such information on their respective websites.

Oklahoma Geological Survey
Richard D. Andrews, Interim Director and State Geologist
Dr. Austin Holland, State Seismologist
April 21, 2015

Posted in News Alert | Tagged: , , , , , | 2 Comments »

California Drought: Brown Orders First Ever Statewide Water Cutbacks

Posted by feww on April 2, 2015

UPDATED

EXTREME CLIMATIC EVENTS
CRIPPLING DROUGHT IN CALIFORNIA
NEAR ZERO SNOWPACK WATER CONTENT
WATER FAMINE
CROP DISASTERS
STATE OF EMERGENCY
.

Statewide water content of Sierra snowpack drops to 5 percent of April 1st average

Worsening drought has forced California governor to implement the first mandatory water cutbacks in the parched state’s history, ordering residents and businesses to cut water use by 25 percent.

At just five percent of average for April 1, the snowpack water content  is at its lowest level since records began, reported California Department of Water Resources.

On April 1, 2015, the California Department of Water Resources measured the statewide water content of Sierra snowpack at five percent of average for April 1st. These levels are lower than any year in records going back to 1950. The April 1 snowpack measurement is crucial because this is when the snowpack is normally at its peak and begins to melt into streams and reservoirs. Snowpack, through runoff, provides about one-third of the water used by California’s cities and farms.

California’s 2014 Water Year, which ended September 30, 2014, was the third driest in 119 years of record. It also was the warmest year on record.

calif--folsom-lake-drought-Jan2014
Located at the base of the Sierra foothills in Northern California’s Placer, El Dorado, and Sacramento Counties, Folsom Lake Reservoir is one of California’s most popular recreation areas with more than 2.5 million visitors annually. Releases from the reservoir, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation as part of the Central Valley Project, go to the nearby American River for urban use, flood control, hydropower, fish and wildlife, and water quality purposes. USGS Image by David Pratt. 

“We are standing on dried grass, and we should be standing in five feet of snow,” said Mr Brown, speaking in the Sierra Nevada mountains.

“People should realize we’re in a new era. The idea of your nice little green grass getting lots of water everyday—that’s going to be a thing of the past,” he said, adding that the cutbacks would save about 1.5 million acre-feet (~ 1.85 cubic kilometer) of water this year.

Mr Brown declared a statewide drought state of emergency on January 17, 2014.

California Snow Water Equivalent: Statewide Summary

Data For: 01-Apr-2015
Number of Stations Reporting: 97
Average snow water equivalent: 1.4″ (3.5 cm)
Percent of April 1 Average: 5%
Percent of normal for this date: 5%

Oil Industry in California Wastes 2 Million Gallons of Water Each Day

“Each day, the oil and gas industry uses more than 2 million gallons of water on average in California on dangerous extraction techniques such as fracking, acidizing, and cyclic steam injection. At a time when California is facing the worst drought on record, when farmers and cities are both struggling to find ways to conserve water, the oil and gas industry continues to use, contaminate, and dispose of staggering amounts of precious water resources each day,” says the environmental activist group Californians Against Fracking.

Brown’s order, however, neither requires the frackers to cut their water usage, nor calls for a freeze, at least temporarily, on the tremendously water intensive process of fracking say the activists.

Related Links

Posted in News Alert | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

The 837th Quake Strikes Oklahoma in 2014

Posted by feww on August 9, 2014

SEISMIC HAZARD
HEIGHTENED SEISMICITY IN OKLAHOMA
SCENARIOS 09, 08, 07
.

‘It feels like the earth is opening up and you are falling’

At least 837 earthquakes measuring magnitude  2.5 or greater have struck the state of Oklahoma, so far this year, according to the USGS archives.

At least 285 of the quakes measured 3.0Mw, or greater. This compares with only 277 quakes that occurred during the previous 14 years.

“The houses are bouncing. It is frightening,” said the information manager for the Oklahoma Corporations Commission, the state regulator for the oil and gas industry.

Fracking Oklahoma to Death

More than 90 percent of Oklahoma produces oil and gas, and the industry’s wastewater is injected into thousands of disposal wells, usually old gas wells, around the state, said a report. “Scientific studies have shown wastewater activity may cause quakes when occurring near geologic faults.”

However, regulators still claim ignorance concerning the link between the disposal wells, and the spike in the seismic activity.

“It feels like the earth is opening up and you are falling,” said a resident in Guthrie, a town of about 11,000 people, located 40km west of Oklahoma City, which has been hit by at least 11 quakes M3.0 or greater, so far this month. “It’s scary.”

Related Links

Posted in Global Disaster watch, global disasters, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , | 2 Comments »

State of Emergency Declared in Ohio amid Major Health Threat

Posted by feww on August 3, 2014

WATER CONTAMINATION
SCENARIOS 797, 05
.

Toxins Contaminate Toledo Water

Toxins, either from algae formed on Lake Erie or released during fracking, have contaminated the water supply of Toledo, Ohio’s fourth-largest city, forcing the governor to declare a state of emergency and the officials to warn residents not to drink the water.

Residents have been warned not to cook using tap water or use the contaminated water for bathing children. They have also been told not to boil the tap water because it will only increase the toxin’s concentration.

“The city advised about 400,000 residents in Toledo, most of its suburbs and a few areas in southeastern Michigan not to brush their teeth with or boil the water because that would only increase the toxin’s concentration. The mayor also warned that children should not shower or bathe in the water and that it shouldn’t be given to pets,” said a report.

“We don’t really want to speculate on this,” Gov Kasich told the AP. “When it comes to this water, we’ve got be very careful.”

“What’s more important than water? Water’s about life,” he said. “We know it’s difficult. We know it’s frustrating.”

“The state emergency operations center has been activated in response to the water contamination issue affecting the Toledo area,” said Ohio EMA.

Stores in Toledo area have run out of bottled water as residents rushed to stock up supplies.

“These organisms are capable of producing a number of toxins that may pose a risk to human and animal health,” officials said in a press release.

Consuming the contaminated water could result in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and other health problems.

Related Links

Posted in Climate Change, ecological catastrophe, environment, Global Disaster watch, global health catastrophe, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Two More Significant Quakes Strike Near OK City

Posted by feww on June 2, 2014

SEISMIC HAZARD
HEIGHTENED GLOBAL SEISMICITY
SCENARIO 08
.

Earthquakes Continue to Rattle Oklahomans

At least 11 quakes measuring magnitude 2.5 or greater have struck Oklahoma since May 27, 2014.  See below for a list of the reported quakes.

Ok quakes 2jun14
Oklahoma Earthquakes, 7 Days, Magnitude 2.5 or greater. Source: USGS/EHP

12 earthquakes in map area

M3.7 2km E of Choctaw, Oklahoma 2014-06-01 19:54:18 UTC at a depth of 10.3 km
M2.7 2km E of Choctaw, Oklahoma 2014-06-01 15:17:02 UTC at a depth of 6.4 km
M3.0 7km SSW of Boley, Oklahoma 2014-06-01 05:50:09 UTC at a depth of 5.0 km
M2.7 9km NNW of Caldwell, Kansas 2014-06-01 00:38:37 UTC at a depth of 6.2 km
M2.8 16km WSW of Pawnee, Oklahoma 2014-05-31 15:45:46 UTC at a depth of 5.0 km
M3.9 2km ESE of Choctaw, Oklahoma 2014-05-31 10:18:06 UTC at a depth of 5.0 km
M3.2 9km NNW of Enid, Oklahoma 2014-05-30 22:44:56 UTC at a depth of 2.3 km
M2.8 8km NNW of Caldwell, Kansas 2014-05-30 22:00:49 UTC at a depth of 3.6 km
M3.5 6km NW of Helena, Oklahoma 2014-05-30 21:42:02 UTC at a depth of 3.7 km
M3.3 3km WSW of Medford, Oklahoma 2014-05-30 14:32:16 UTC at a depth of 2.4 km
M2.8 6km NNE of Medford, Oklahoma 2014-05-27 17:56:32 UTC at a depth of 1.3 km
M2.7 16km W of Stillwater, Oklahoma 2014-05-27 02:49:32 UTC at a depth of 6.5 km

[NOTE: Some of the recent earthquakes that have occurred in Oklahoma may have been downgraded/ omitted. Editor]

Related Links

Posted in Global Disaster watch, Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Another Swarm of Earthquakes Strikes Oklahoma

Posted by feww on May 9, 2014

SEISMIC HAZARD
HEIGHTENED GLOBAL SEISMICITY
SCENARIO 08
.

19 Quakes Strike OK in 6 Days

The events include at least 6 earthquakes measuring 2.5Mw or greater in the last 24 hours with the largest quake measuring 3.5Mw.

Centered at  36.566°N, 97.616°W the M3.5 quake struck at a depth of about 4.3km (2.6mi) on May 8, at 20:40:32 UTC.

  • 6 earthquakes measuring 2.5Mw or greater have struck OK since yesterday
  • The largest quake measured 3.5Mw
  • 50 Percent of the quakes measured 3.0 or greater.
  • At least 19 quakes measuring M2.5 or greater have struck the state of Oklahoma in the past 6 days.
  • More than 108 quakes have occurred in the state during the past 30 days.

USGS Acknowledges Heightened Seismicity in OK!!

“The rate of earthquakes in Oklahoma has increased by about 50 percent since October 2013, significantly increasing the chance for a damaging quake in central Oklahoma,” a report quoted USGS as saying earlier this week.

However, there was no mention of WHAT, WHY, HOW, WHERE, or WHEN!

  • WHY would the smaller quakes lead to a major quake?
  • HOW, WHERE, or WHEN would a major quake occur?
  • WHAT would be the magnitude of the forecast earthquake?

USGS has correctly identified what is NOT the cause of hundreds of quakes that have rattled Oklahomans in the last year or so.

“The recent earthquake rate changes [in Oklahoma] are not due to typical, random fluctuations in natural seismicity rates,” said USGS.

OK quakes 7-Days
Earthquake Location map. At least 9 quakes measuring M2.5 or greater have struck the state of Oklahoma in the past 6 days. Map sourced from USGS/EHP.

FIRE-EARTH EQ Forecast

The next detailed FIRE-EARTH Earthquake Forecast will be released together with Bulletin NO. 96 on May 11, 2014.


FIRE-EARTH Earthquake Forecasts for California and Japan

Due to the reasons explained previously on this blog, FIRE-EARTH Science Team has suspended its research on California and Japan seismicity.


Related Links

Drilling Related Earthquakes

Fracking-Related

Posted in Global Disaster watch, Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Fracking Methane Emissions Hugely Underestimated by EPA: Study

Posted by feww on April 17, 2014

ENVIRONMENTAL HOLOCAUST
CRIMES AGAINST NATURE
.

Methane emissions 1,000 higher than EPA estimates

Using an airborne laboratory for atmospheric research, researchers identified and quantified large sources of methane emissions over southwestern Pennsylvania in June 2012. They discovered that emissions rates were up to 1,000 times higher than those estimated by the EPA during the same time period.

“We identified a significant regional flux of methane over a large area of shale gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania in the Marcellus formation and further identified several pads with high methane emissions,” said the study others. “These shale gas pads were identified as in the drilling process, a preproduction stage not previously associated with high methane emissions.”

The original sampling area (OSA) encompasses all of Green County, PA, most of Washington County, PA, and parts of Fayette County, PA, Marshall County, WV, and Ohio County, WV, for a total area of 2,844 km², the authors reported.

The authors identified 57,673 wells (see gray dots in below diagram) across the counties of interest.

“It is particularly noteworthy that large emissions were measured for wells in the drilling phase, in some cases 100 to 1,000 times greater than the inventory estimates,” said one of the report authors. “This indicates that there are processes occurring—e.g. emissions from coal seams during the drilling process—that are not captured in the inventory development process. This is another example pointing to the idea that a large fraction of the total emissions is coming from a small fraction of shale gas production components that are in an anomalous condition.”

The comparative impact of methane on climate change is more than 20 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period, according to EPA.

Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development

Dana R. Caulton, doi: 10.1073/pnas.131654611

Significance

We identified a significant regional flux of methane over a large area of shale gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania in the Marcellus formation and further identified several pads with high methane emissions. These shale gas pads were identified as in the drilling process, a preproduction stage not previously associated with high methane emissions. This work emphasizes the need for top-down identification and component level and event driven measurements of methane leaks to properly inventory the combined methane emissions of natural gas extraction and combustion to better define the impacts of our nation’s increasing reliance on natural gas to meet our energy needs.

ch4 ppm
Regional enhancement of methane at ∼240 m above ground level (AGL) on the morning of June 21. The dashed orange box represents the original sampling area (OSA), and the gray dots show well locations. Credit: Caulton et al. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/short/1316546111

Abstract

The identification and quantification of methane emissions from natural gas production has become increasingly important owing to the increase in the natural gas component of the energy sector. An instrumented aircraft platform was used to identify large sources of methane and quantify emission rates in southwestern PA in June 2012. A large regional flux, 2.0–14 g CH4 s−1 km−2, was quantified for a ∼2,800-km2 area, which did not differ statistically from a bottom-up inventory, 2.3–4.6 g CH4 s−1 km−2. Large emissions averaging 34 g CH4/s per well were observed from seven well pads determined to be in the drilling phase, 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than US Environmental Protection Agency estimates for this operational phase. The emissions from these well pads, representing ∼1% of the total number of wells, account for 4–30% of the observed regional flux. More work is needed to determine all of the sources of methane emissions from natural gas production, to ascertain why these emissions occur and to evaluate their climate and atmospheric chemistry impacts.

Posted in environment, Global Disaster watch | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Heightened Seismicity Continues in Oklahoma

Posted by feww on April 8, 2014

ENVIRONMENTAL HOLOCAUST
FRACKING-RELATED SEISMIC HAZARD
HEIGHTENED SEISMICITY IN OKLAHOMA
.

148 Temblors measuring 2.5Mw or greater strike Oklahoma in 4 weeks

An average of 5 earthquakes, measuring magnitude 2.5 or greater, striking Oklahoma each day.

The events include at least 5 shocks measuring magnitude 4.0 or greater since March 10, 2014.

In Another Shallow Quake Strikes Oklahoma posted on April 6, 2014 the blog said: FIRE-EARTH Models show Oklahoma seismicity WILL continue intensifying

That post and all other FIRE-EARTH blog entries concerning disasters or ‘impending’ disasters in the U.S. continue to be heavily censored, blocked or buried by Google, WordPress and others. [Since when did the people have a right to know?]

M4.2 Strikes Near Langston

The latest significant quake to strike Oklahoma was a magnitude 4.2Mw shock centered at 35.890°N 97.273°W striking at a depth of 5.2km.

Earthquake details

Magnitude: 4.2Mw
Event Time:  2014-04-07 16:03:03 UTC
Location: 35.890°N 97.273°W depth=5.2km (3.2mi)
Nearby Cities: 6km (4mi) SSW of Langston, Oklahoma

Earthquake Location Map

30-day oklahoma quakes
30-Day Magnitude 2.5 or greater earthquakes occurring in Oklahoma. Updated: 2014-04-08 at 04:40UTC. Source: USGS/EHP

Related Links

 

Posted in Earthquake Hazard, earthquake report, Global Disaster watch, Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Another Shallow Quake Strikes Oklahoma

Posted by feww on April 6, 2014

ENVIRONMENTAL HOLOCAUST
FRACKING-RELATED SEISMIC HAZARD
CONTINUED SEISMICITY IN OKLAHOMA
.

FIRE-EARTH Models show Oklahoma seismicity WILL continue intensifying

Magnitude 4.0Mw quake strikes 3km S of Langston, Oklahoma, followed by at least one other shock measuring 2.7Mw.

Earthquake details

Magnitude: 4.0Mw
Event Time: 2014-04-06 14:58:54 UTC
Location: 35.917°N 97.260°W depth=5.8km (3.6mi)
Nearby Cities:

  • 3km (2mi) S of Langston, Oklahoma
  • 15km (9mi) ENE of Guthrie, Oklahoma
  • 28km (17mi) SW of Stillwater, Oklahoma
  • 35km (22mi) NE of Edmond, Oklahoma
  • 54km (34mi) NNE of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Earthquake Location Map

OK quake 6apr14
Source: USGS/EHP.

Related Links

Fracking Oklahoma

[Mirrored from sourcewatch ] Oil output has doubled in the state since the start of 2010, from 160,000 to 320,000 barrels per day, primarily due to fracking for tight oil (also sometimes referred to as shale oil).
Oklahoma is part of the Caney and Woodford Shales, which are sites of drilling and fracking. The state also has thousands of injection and disposal wells, which have been linked to a 5.7 earthquake in the state in 2011.

Oklahoma Earthquakes

Oklahoma has seen a sharp rise in the number of earthquakes in the last few years. In August 2011, the Oklahoma Geological Survey examined a cluster of earthquakes in Oklahoma and found “that shortly after hydraulic fracturing began small earthquakes started occurring, and more than 50 were identified, of which 43 were large enough to be located. Most of these earthquakes occurred within a 24 hour period after hydraulic fracturing operations had ceased.”

On April 18, 2012, University of Memphis scientist Stephen Horton released his findings that a 5.7 quake in November 2011 was “possibly triggered” by injection wells near the fault that ruptured. Horton found that 63 percent of earthquakes have occurred within 10 kilometers (about 6 miles) of a deep injection well, compared to a 31 percent chance of a random, natural earthquake happening within 10 kilometers of a deep injection well. He did note that the correlation between the location of the quake centers and the wells was complicated by the fact that some of the nearby injection wells had been in operation for 10 years, and the amount of fluid being injected has reportedly been on the decline for the last five years.

In July 2012 it was reported that Oklahoma officials ignored advice about injecting water into faults, to maintain production of oil and natural gas.

A 2013 study published in Geology linked Oklahoma’s 5.7 earthquake to underground injection of wastewater, saying a decades-long time lag between injection and tremors is possible. Geologists placed seismometers in the area after the initial quake and were able to track fault rupture areas, which showed close proximity to disposal wells. According to the researchers: “we interpret that a net fluid volume increase after 18 yr of injection lowered effective stress on reservoir-bounding faults. Significantly, this case indicates that decades-long lags between the commencement of fluid injection and the onset of induced earthquakes are possible.”

In October 2013 a drilling wastewater operator ceased injections at Oklahoma’s Love County Disposal Well after a series of earthquakes. Injection began Sept. 3 and the earthquakes started Sept. 17 in the area near the Texas border, about 100 miles north of Dallas. The strongest was magnitude 3.4.]

Posted in Global Disaster watch, global disasters, Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

More Quakes Rattle Oklahoma, Kansas; Ohio Stops Fracking

Posted by feww on March 12, 2014

EARTHQUAKE HAZARD
.

61 Quakes rattled Oklahoma since Feb. 18, as two tremors shut fracking in Ohio well

It must be quite surreal living near Oklahoma city these days, with an average of about three shallow tremors rattling the nearby areas each day.

Three of the tremors measured magnitude 3.8 (Mw) and two others registered at 3.7Mw. Nearly all the tremors have occurred at  a depth of about 5km.

30-day oklahoma and kansas quakes
Earthquake Location Map. Oklahoma Earthquakes since February 18, 2014. Source: USGS/EHP

Tectonic Summary

Earthquakes in the Stable Continental Region – Natural Occurring Earthquake Activity
[Excerpts from USGS/EHP]

Most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains has infrequent earthquakes. Here and there earthquakes are more numerous, for example in the New Madrid seismic zone centered on southeastern Missouri, in the Charlevoix-Kamouraska seismic zone of eastern Quebec, in New England, in the New York – Philadelphia – Wilmington urban corridor, and elsewhere. However, most of the enormous region from the Rockies to the Atlantic can go years without an earthquake large enough to be felt, and several U.S. states have never reported a damaging earthquake.

Induced Seismicity

As is the case elsewhere in the world, there is evidence that some central and eastern North America earthquakes have been triggered or caused by human activities that have altered the stress conditions in earth’s crust sufficiently to induce faulting. Activities that have induced felt earthquakes in some geologic environments have included impoundment of water behind dams, injection of fluid into the earth’s crust, extraction of fluid or gas, and removal of rock in mining or quarrying operations. In much of eastern and central North America, the number of earthquakes suspected of having been induced is much smaller than the number of natural earthquakes, but in some regions, such as the south-central states of the U.S., a significant majority of recent earthquakes are thought by many seismologists to have been human-induced. Even within areas with many human-induced earthquakes, however, the activity that seems to induce seismicity at one location may be taking place at many other locations without inducing felt earthquakes. In addition, regions with frequent induced earthquakes may also be subject to damaging earthquakes that would have occurred independently of human activity. Making a strong scientific case for a causative link between a particular human activity and a particular sequence of earthquakes typically involves special studies devoted specifically to the question. Such investigations usually address the process by which the suspected triggering activity might have significantly altered stresses in the bedrock at the earthquake source, and they commonly address the ways in which the characteristics of the suspected human-triggered earthquakes differ from the characteristics of natural earthquakes in the region.

Ohio Quakes

Ohio authorities have stopped a fracking operations at Carbon Limestone Landfill in Lowellville, after two temblors hit Mahoning County.

The quakes occurred in Poland Township and the village of Lowellville near the Pennsylvania border on Monday in. The first tremor was a magnitude 3.0 shock, followed by a second measuring 2.6Mw, said USGS/EHP. Local media reported two smaller aftershocks later.

The quakes prompted Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) to order suspension of drilling operation at Carbon Limestone Landfill in Lowellville. The area is plagued by up to 20 wells, used by Hilcorp Energy for horizontal drilling.

“Out of an abundance of caution we notified the only oil and gas operator in the area, and ordered them to halt all operations until further assessment can take place,” said the ODNR public information officer.

“ODNR is using all available resources to determine the exact circumstances surrounding this event and will take the appropriate actions necessary to protect public health and safety.” He said.

“It’s an area which [before 2011] had no history of earthquakes,” said John Armbruster, a retired Columbia University geology professor who had worked with Ohio officials to monitor a recent series of earthquakes tied to a fracking-waste injection well near Youngstown.

“It looks very, very suspicious.”

“We never had a recorded earthquake in Mahoning County [before 2011] … then four [strike] in one day,” said Raymond Beiersdorfer, a geologist at Youngstown State University. “It’s definitely a testable hypothesis.”

The U.S. production of crude oil using fracking increased by more than 15 percent in 2013.

Earthquake Related Links

Drilling Related Earthquakes

Fracking Related Links

Posted in 2014 Disaster Forecast, Climate Change, Global Disaster watch, Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

737 People Reported Sickness after West Virgina Water Pollution

Posted by feww on January 11, 2014

This post will probably be filtered or blocked by Google, as with an earlier version posted yesterday!

More than 700 hundred have reported sickness, dozens hospitalized after chemical leak in Charleston

The White House has declared a Federal  State of Emergency and sent disaster aid to West Virginia.

  • As of Friday evening, 737 people had called the West Virginia Poison Center to report symptoms related to poisoning, according to Director Elizabeth Scharman, Reuters reported.
  • The reported symptoms include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea, rashes and/or reddened skin – “varying from very mild to much more bothersome,” said Scharman.
  • An Indefinite ban on water tap has left 300,000 people without water in nine counties after a chemical spill into the Elk River in West Virginia.
  • Schools, restaurants and businesses have been ordered closed.
  • Governor Tomblin has declared a State of Emergency for nine counties in West Virginia following what is said to be a major spill of 4-Methylcyclohexane Methanol, a chemical used in the coal industry, along the Elk River in Charleston.
  • Tomblin has urged the residents NOT to use tap water for drinking, cooking, washing or bathing.
  • “West Virginians in the affected service areas are urged NOT to use tap water for drinking, cooking, washing or bathing. Right now, our priorities are our hospitals, nursing homes, and schools,” said Gov. Tomblin in a statement.

Developing story …

Posted in 2014 disaster diary, 2014 global disasters, environment, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Tap Water Catches Fire in North Dakota

Posted by feww on January 1, 2014

FRACKED IN NORTH DAKOTA
.

N.D. resident sets tap water on fire

Jacob Haughney, who works in North Dakota oil fields, has made a video in which he sets his tap water on fire with a lighter.

There’s “nothing like a refreshing glass of fire…  First time I did it, it was a huge fireball [and] took up the entire sink—so that’s why I’m a little jumpy doing it. I don’t want to blow up the bathroom here,” he explains, laughing during the demonstration.

tap water on fire
How to set tap water on fire in two steps, as shown by the N.D. resident Jacob Haughney.

High concentration of methane in the water may be responsible  for the flammable water, according to the experts.

North Dakota has experienced a fracking boom over the past few years. It’s currently the second largest oil-producing state in the US, with about 912,000 barrels of shale gas per day.

Gasland 2010

In the 2010 award winning documentary “Gasland 2010,”  filmmaker Josh Fox travel across 32 states meeting other rural residents on the front lines of fracking. “He discovers toxic streams, ruined aquifers, dying livestock, brutal illnesses, and kitchen sinks that burst into flame.”

GASLAND Trailer 2010

Posted in Global Disaster watch, News Alert, Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , | 3 Comments »

Fracking Releases 750+ Chemicals

Posted by feww on December 18, 2013

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) releases endocrine-disruptors to the environment: Report

Endocrine disruptors (endocrine disrupting chemicals, EDCs) are chemicals that can interfere with the endocrine (or hormone system) in mammals, causing cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders.

“Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including over one hundred known or suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals,” says a new study on fracking.

HF6 - cooper-edu
Hydraulic fracturing (hydro-fracking) is credited as being first employed by Halliburton in 1948. The process injects a mixture of chemical additives, proppants (particles, like sand or ceramic), and water under high pressure into a target oil or gas zone in order to facilitate the flow of the gas or oil back to the surface for recovery. From 1999 to 2007, the Hydraulic Fracturing market expanded from just under $3 billion to 12.8 billion USD. [Global hydraulic fracturing market is forecast to grow from an estimated $31 billion in 2011, and  $40 billion in 2012 to $64 billion by 2017.] In 2009, the EPA and internal studies from natural gas companies themselves found that wastewater from this process contains levels of radioactivity and carcinogenic properties that are above the level that treatment plants are currently equipped to handle. Source: http://www.cooper.edu

To determine the extent of the risks involved, researchers conducted tests on 12 suspected or known EDCs used throughout the extraction process and measured their ability to influence the body’s reproductive hormones.

The researchers then collected surface and ground water samples from various sites in Colorado, including the “drilling-dense” region of Garfield County with more than 10,000 active natural gas wells and compared them to samples taken from other sites in the state where heavy fracking is absent.

Samples from the areas near heavy-drilling sites showed higher levels of EDC activity, according to the Endocrine Society, including a greater presence of chemicals that disrupt both testosterone and estrogen.

Some of the samples showing high traces of EDCs weren’t necessarily taken from fracking sites, but from areas of Colorado where known spills had been reported.

“In comparison,” the report says, “little activity was measured in the water samples from the sites with little drilling.”

These harmful chemicals “could raise the risk of reproductive, metabolic, neurological and other diseases, especially in children who are exposed to EDCs,” says the report co-author Susan Nagel of the University of Missouri’s School of Medicine.

“The rapid expansion in drilling operations utilizing hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for environmental contamination with the hundreds of hazardous chemicals used,” says the report .

“With fracking on the rise, populations may face greater health risks from increased endocrine-disrupting chemical exposure.”

“Fracking is exempt from federal regulations to protect water quality, but spills associated with natural gas drilling can contaminate surface, ground and drinking water,” Nagel added. “We found more endocrine-disrupting activity in the water close to drilling locations that had experienced spills than at control sites.”

  • Subject: Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals
  • Report Title: Estrogen and Androgen Receptor Activities of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Surface and Ground Water in a Drilling-Dense Region
  • Authors: Christopher D. Kassotis, Donald E. Tillitt, J. Wade Davis, Annette M. Hormann and Susan C. Nagel
  • Abstract: The rapid rise in natural gas extraction utilizing hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including over one hundred known or suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized that a selected subset of chemicals used in natural gas drilling operations and also surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, CO would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, androgenic, and anti-androgenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel anti-estrogenic, novel anti-androgenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, or anti-androgenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operations may result in elevated EDC activity in surface and ground water.  Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society

Contact: Susan C. Nagel, PhD, University of Missouri, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, M659 Medical Sciences Building, 1 Hospital Drive, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, Phone: 573–884-3028, Fax: 573–882-9010, Email: nagels@health.missouri.edu

U.S. Production of Natural Gas

U.S. production of natural gas increased exponentially, from a small amount in 2005 to about to 8 trillion cubic feet in 2011. Global hydraulic fracturing market is forecast to grow from an estimated $31 billion in 2011, and  $40 billion in 2012 to $64 billion by 2017, analysts say.

Leading Players in Hydraulic Fracturing

The leading players in Hydraulic Fracturing industry in North America are (in A to Z order) Baker Hughes, Calfrac Well Services, Cudd Energy services, FTS International, Superior Well Services, Halliburton, Schlumberger, Tacrom Services SRL (Romania), Trican Well Services Limited, United Oilfield Services, and Weatherford International Inc. Source: http://www.marketsandmarkets.com

See also

Total number of victims being diagnosed with cancer globally each year has jumped from 12.7 million in 2008 to more than 14 million last year, said the World Health Organization (WHO). [ December 13, 2013]

Posted in Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2013, Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Never Mind the Frigging Environment, Fracking Must GO ON!

Posted by feww on December 4, 2013

Don’t “short-circuit America’s absolute explosion in energy opportunity” —USCC President Donohue

An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study on fracking, due to be released in 2014, could be used to justify clamping down on the environmentally disastrous technique, which has caused a surge in U.S. oil and natural gas production, said the U.S. Chamber of Commerce (USCC) President Thomas Donohue.

“This could short-circuit America’s absolute explosion in energy opportunity that is creating millions of jobs,” he told business leaders, warning the rules were hurting the economy and “undermining freedom.”

The counter argument offered by critics of fracking, including numerous environmentalists, is that a major shift to alternative energy sources would create at least twice as many permanent jobs as the fickle fracking industry could ever offer.


Water Contamination from Shale Gas Drilling. Source. Image may be subject to copyright.
The major concern with shale gas drilling is the chemicals used in the process. Because the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 exempted hydraulic fracturing from regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act, shale gas drillers don’t have to disclose what chemicals they use.”  Gas drilling companies maintain that the gas drilling technique they use, called hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” is safe. However, based on observation of the drinking water in numerous drilling areas, and the fate of many people who live near the drilling rigs, who are afflicted with serious health conditions, we know that fracking contaminates groundwater with dangerous chemicals.

Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a messy technique that involves forcing large volumes of pressurized chemical fluids and sand deep underground to crack rocks and free trapped oil and natural gas.

“Many believe it will be the rationalization of new federal fracking regulations before the end of this administration,” said Donohue, reported Reuters.

don
Thomas J. Donohue, president of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, talks to [retired] Navy Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during the kickoff of the Military Spouse Employment Partnership at the chamber in Washington, D.C., June 29, 2011. Public Domain Photo.

The United States Chamber of Commerce (USCC) is the largest business lobbying group in the U.S., and a major force in the national politics.

Related Links

[Search blog contents, where it hasn’t been fracked (hacked), for other links on fracking.]

Posted in environment, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Earthquake No. 19 Strikes N. Texas

Posted by feww on November 29, 2013

STAY TUNED for Important Announcements Concerning the State of Texas Starting Late 2014

M3.1 Strikes near Reno, Texas

Earthquakes in the Stable Continental Region

A magnitude 3.1 earthquake, the 19 to strike northern Texas in the past 24 days,  occurred at 06:39 UTC November 29, 2013 .

  • Magnitude: 3.1Mw
  • Event Time: 2013-11-29 06:14:10 UTC [2013-11-29 00:14:10 UTC-06:00 at epicenter]
  • Location: 32.899°N 97.626°W
  • Depth: 5.0km (3.1mi)
  • Nearby Cities
    • 6km (4mi) SW of Reno, Texas
    • 7km (4mi) W of Azle, Texas
    • 22km (14mi) NE of Weatherford, Texas
    • 22km (14mi) NW of White Settlement, Texas
    • 285km (177mi) S of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Texas and Oklahoma quakes
Texas and Oklahoma Earthquakes Location Map. Source: USGS/EHP

EQ 19 northern TexasTexas Earthquakes Location Map. Source: USGS/EHP

n-texas quakes nov 2013
List of Texas Earthquakes measuring 2.5Mw or greater since November 6, 2013 [Excludes No. 19, listed above.]  Source: USGS/EHP – Prepared by FIRE-EARTH Blog – Nov. 29, 2013.

google logo of the day 2

Induced Seismicity

As is the case elsewhere in the world, there is evidence that some central and eastern North America earthquakes have been triggered or caused by human activities that have altered the stress conditions in earth’s crust sufficiently to induce faulting. Activities that have induced felt earthquakes in some geologic environments have included

    • Impoundment of water behind dams
    • Injection of fluid into the earth’s crust,
    • Extraction of fluid or gas, and
    • Removal of rock in mining or quarrying operations.

In much of eastern and central North America, the number of earthquakes suspected of having been induced is much smaller than the number of natural earthquakes, but in some regions, such as the south-central states of the U.S., a significant majority of recent earthquakes are thought by many seismologists to have been human-induced. Even within areas with many human-induced earthquakes, however, the activity that seems to induce seismicity at one location may be taking place at many other locations without inducing felt earthquakes. In addition, regions with frequent induced earthquakes may also be subject to damaging earthquakes that would have occurred independently of human activity. […] —USGS

Related Links

Posted in Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Two More Quakes Strike North Texas

Posted by feww on November 29, 2013

STAY TUNED for Important Announcements Concerning the State of Texas Starting Late 2014

18 Earthquakes strike North Texas in 23 Days

16 of the quakes measure greater than M2.5 with the largest two recorded as magnitude 3.6Mw.

More than 80 minor shocks have occurred in the built-up areas of Johnson, Ellis and Parker counties in the last five years.

In May 2001, after a 3.3Mw shock occurred in Northern Texas, FIRE-EARTH Blog said: Texas quake likely caused by oil and natural gas drilling activities

n-texas quakes locmap
Map of N. Texas Earthquakes – 30 day shocks measuring 2.5 or greater as of November 29, 2013. Source: USGS/EHP

Details of the Latest Events

Event near Jacksboro, Texas

  • Magnitude: 2.8Mw
  • Event Time: 2013-11-28 08:41:07 UTC
  • Location: 33.020°N 98.209°W
  • Depth: 5.0km (3.1mi)
  • Nearby Cities
    • 22km (14mi) SSW of Jacksboro, Texas
    • 25km (16mi) NNW of Mineral Wells, Texas
    • 48km (30mi) NW of Weatherford, Texas
    • 63km (39mi) WNW of Azle, Texas
    • 278km (173mi) SSW of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Event N of Mineral Wells, Texas

  • Event Time: 2013-11-28 07:58:36 UTC
  • Location: 32.955°N 98.131°W
  • Depth: 5.0km (3.1mi)
  • Nearby Cities
    • 16km (10mi) N of Mineral Wells, Texas
    • 38km (24mi) NW of Weatherford, Texas
    • 55km (34mi) W of Azle, Texas
    • 66km (41mi) WNW of White Settlement, Texas
    • 284km (176mi) SSW of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

north texas quakes list - 29nov2013
List of Texas Earthquakes measuring 2.5Mw or greater since November 6, 2013.  Source: USGS/EHP – Prepared by FIRE-EARTH Blog – Nov. 29, 2013.

google logo of the day 2

Texas and Fracking

Oil and gas drilling rigs are moving ever closer to populated areas in Texas, causing air quality problems for the residents. “Today there are over 12,000 gas wells in the Barnett Shale surrounding the Dallas-Fort Worth area. In addition to the wells, infrastructure such as compressor stations are springing up near the drill sites, adding to air quality problems. In towns like DISH, TX – where 11 high-pressure gas pipelines and their associated compressor stations all converge – residents have reported serious health impacts and severely degraded air quality.” —EarthJustice

See also:

Related Links

Posted in Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Significant Radioactivity, Salts, Metals Detected at Pennsylvania Fracking Site

Posted by feww on October 3, 2013

Fracking Wastewater Irradiated and Contaminated Pennsylvania River

Duke University researchers have detected elevated levels of radioactivity, heavy metals and salts  in the western Pennsylvanian Blacklick Creek that the Josephine Brine Treatment Facility uses to discharge treated wastewater from hydrolic fracking.

“Years of disposal of oil and gas wastewater with high radioactivity has created potential environmental risks for thousands of years to come.”  —Avner Vengosh, professor of geochemistry and water quality at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment.

A glass of water taken from  a residential well after the start of natural gas drilling in Dimock, Pennsylvania
A glass of water taken from a residential well after the start of natural gas drilling in Dimock, Pennsylvania, March 7, 2009. Dimock is one of hundreds of sites in Pennsylvania where energy companies are now racing to tap the massive Marcellus Shale natural gas formation. But some residents say the drilling has clouded their drinking water, sickened people and animals and made their wells flammable. REUTERS/Tim Shaffer. Image may be subject to copyright.

The following is mirrored from The Nicholas School of the Environment at Duke University website.

Radioactive Shale Gas Contaminants Found at Wastewater Discharge Site

DURHAM, N.C. [October 02, 2013] — Elevated levels of radioactivity, salts and metals have been found in river water and sediments at a site where treated water from oil and gas operations is discharged into a western Pennsylvania creek.

“Radium levels were about 200 times greater in sediment samples collected where the Josephine Brine Treatment Facility discharges its treated wastewater into Blacklick Creek than in sediment samples collected just upstream of the plant,” said Avner Vengosh, professor of geochemistry and water quality at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment.

The new Duke study examined the quality of shale gas wastewater from hydraulic fracturing and the stream water above and below the disposal site. The study found that some of the discharged effluent is derived from the Marcellus shale gas flowback water, which is naturally high in salinity and radioactivity.

High concentrations of some salts and metals were also observed in the stream water. “The treatment removes a substantial portion of the radioactivity, but it does not remove many of the other salts, including bromide,” Vengosh said. “When the high-bromide effluents are discharged to the stream, it increases the concentrations of bromide above the original background levels. This is significant because bromide increases the risks for formation of highly toxic disinfection byproducts in drinking water treatment facilities that are located downstream.”

“The radioactivity levels we found in sediments near the outflow are above management regulations in the U.S. and would only be accepted at a licensed radioactive disposal facility,” said Robert B. Jackson, professor of environmental science at Duke. “The facility is quite effective in removing metals such as barium from the water but concentrates sulfates, chlorides and bromides. In fact this single facility contributes four-fifths of the total downstream chloride flow at this point.”

The Duke team also analyzed stream-bottom sediments for radium isotopes that are typically found in Marcellus wastewater. “Although the facility’s treatment process significantly reduced radium and barium levels in the wastewater, the amount of radioactivity that has accumulated in the river sediments still exceeds thresholds for safe disposal of radioactive materials,” Vengosh said. “Years of disposal of oil and gas wastewater with high radioactivity has created potential environmental risks for thousands of years to come.”

“While water contamination can be mitigated by treatment to a certain degree, our findings indicate that disposal of wastewater from both conventional and unconventional oil and gas operations has degraded the surface water and sediments,” said Nathaniel R. Warner, a recent Ph.D. graduate of Duke who is now a postdoctoral researcher at Dartmouth College. “This could be a long-term legacy of radioactivity.”

Industry has made efforts to reuse or to transport shale gas wastewater to deep injection wells, but wastewater is still discharged to the environment in some states. “It is clear that this practice of releasing wastewater without adequate treatment should be stopped in order to protect freshwater resources in areas of oil and gas development,” Vengosh said.

The Duke team published their findings Oct. 2 in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Science & Technology.

The Josephine Brine Treatment Facility is located in Indiana County, about an hour east of Pittsburgh. Blacklick Creek is a tributary of the Conemaugh River, which flows into the Allegheny River, a water source for numerous western Pennsylvania cities, including Pittsburgh.

Cidney A. Christie, who graduated from Duke’s Nicholas School in 2013 with a Master of Environment Management degree, coauthored the new study, which was funded by the Nicholas School and the Park Foundation.

“Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania”
Nathaniel R. Warner, Cidney A. Christie, Robert B. Jackson, Avner Vengosh
Published Oct. 3 in Environmental Science & Technology – DOI: 10.1021/es402165b

shale_gas1-fire-earth download
Map Of Shale Gas Basins In The United States. Click image to enlarge.

Related Links

Posted in environment, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2013, health | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Texas is Fracked !

Posted by feww on August 19, 2013

Who Needs Water in Texas?

More than 30 Texas Towns Will Soon Run Out of Water due to Fracking

At least 30 towns in West Texas are running out of water because they are diverting their precious underground supplies to cope with their oil addiction.

Highlight from the video report posted below:

  • Some 8 million gallons of water is used per day for fracking a single well.
  • Thousands of wells are drilled by hundreds of rigs every day.
  • Fracking accounts for about a quarter of the water used in some communities.
  • About 30 communities could run out of water by the end of 2013, said Texas Commission on Environmental Quality .

========

“More than 30 towns in West Texas will soon be out of water as a direct result of diverting their underground water supplies for use in hydraulic fracking. Largely unregulated fracking, it should be said. Largely unregulated fracking that is definitely putting arsenic into the ground it happens to be drying out. Before you start acting horrified, though, consider: this is exactly what Texas’ mental-midget teabillies voted for” said a report.

Related Links

Posted in disaster watch, disaster watch 2013, disaster zone, disasters, Global Disaster watch, global disasters 2013 | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Fracking Pollutes Drinking Water

Posted by feww on May 10, 2011

Hydraulic-fracturing is poisoning ground water: Report

Methane levels 17 times higher near active fracking cites

Researchers at Duke University have analyzed methane levels in 68 drinking water samples collected across 5 counties in New York and Pennsylvania and found “evidence for methane contamination of drinking water associated with shale-gas extraction.”

The potentially harmful levels of methane gas were found in the samples near drilling sites, where natural gas is extracted from shale formation using a process called  hydraulic-fracturing, or fracking.


Map Of Shale Gas Basins In The United States. Click image to enlarge.

“We found no evidence for contamination of drinking-water samples with deep saline brines or fracturing fluids,” researcher said. “We conclude that greater stewardship, data, and possibly regulation are needed to ensure the sustainable future of shale-gas extraction and to improve public confidence in its use.”

[NOTE: FIRE-EARTH Moderators find the above statement unusual and suspect that Duke University may be receiving funds from one or more of the energy companies, or their lobbyists, involved in fracking.]

“But residents near drilling wells have complained fracking has polluted ground water supplies enough that they can light their drinking water on fire. In addition, accidents at wells have led to fires and floods of fracking fluids have reached streams.” Said a report.

“At least some of the homeowners who claim that their wells were contaminated by shale-gas extraction appear to be right,” said Robert Jackson, lead author of the study.

“It comes as no surprise that natural gas is not as clean as the industry pretends,” said an attorney with Earthjustice environmental group. “The gas industry has made it virtually impossible to do base-line testing because in order to do that, researchers need to know what they’re testing for – not just methane, but the variety of other contaminants being injected into the ground.”

One reason why poisons chemicals used in fracking were not detected/reported in the study samples  might be because it would take “decades from now” for them to appear “as they work their way up from deeper levels,” a report said.

EPA scientists have already revealed that drinking water wells near natural gas [and oil] drilling operations contain chemical contaminants. They found dangerous chemicals in the water from 11 of 39 wells tested near the Wyoming town of Pavillion in March and May 2009.  They admitted that the gas drilling was a potential source.

Researchers say these chemicals may cause cancer, kidney failure, anemia and low fertility problems, and pose serious health risks to people who live close to the drilling sites, a report said.

Currently 32 states are using fracking to release  natural gas from shale formations, according to an Earthjustice.

The report was released by the National Academy of Sciences said on May 9.

Chesapeake Energy

In April, Chesapeake Energy suspended fracking in Pennsylvania after blowout spilled toxic fluid into river.

The Chesapeake well spewed thousands of gallons of toxic fracking fluid into a nearby waterway immediately after the blowout on Wednesday, said the Bradford County emergency management officials.

In March,  Philadelphia officials asked the Delaware River Basin Commission on Thursday to stop prospectors using the hydraulic fracture  shale gas extractions in the City’s watershed, until a full environmental impact assessment is conducted.


A glass of water taken from a residential well after the start of natural gas drilling in Dimock, Pennsylvania, March 7, 2009. Dimock is one of hundreds of sites in Pennsylvania where energy companies are now racing to tap the massive Marcellus Shale natural gas formation. But some residents say the drilling has clouded their drinking water, sickened people and animals and made their wells flammable. Credit: Reuters/Tim Shaffer. Image may be subject to copyright.

Philadelphia City Council

The City Council, in a unanimous resolution, has formally asked the Commission to stop all fracking operations in the watershed and deny a drilling permit to Stone Energy Corp, a Louisiana-based energy company prospecting for natural gas, and all others that propose to use fracking to extract shale gas in the Basin which  supplies drinking water to more than 15 million people, including 2 million plus in the Philadelphia metro area.

Stone Energy

In march 2010,  Stone Energy spokesperson, Tim O’Leary, reportedly said that fracking posed no danger to the drinking water in the region.

Truth and Financial Profits are Mutually Exclusive

FIRE-EARTH has always maintained that the energy companies cannot be telling the truth AND making a profit both at the same time!

‘Diarrhea water’

Fire Earth has earlier noted that

In Dimock, Pennsylvania, drilling for natural gas has clouded the drinking water, sickened people and animals and made their wells flammable.

EPA admits water contaminated near gas-drilling sites

Now, for the first time ever, EPA scientists have revealed that drinking water wells  near natural gas [and oil] drilling operations contain chemical contaminants. They found dangerous chemicals in the water from 11 of 39 wells tested near the Wyoming town of Pavillion in March and May 2009.  Unfortunately, their report  falls shy of concluding what causes the contamination, though it admits the gas drilling is a potential source.

Kudos to Residents of Dimock, Pennsylvania

Residents of Dimock, a small rural Pennsylvania town, have sued Cabot Oil & Gas Corp, claiming the company’s natural-gas drilling has contaminated their wells with deadly chemicals, causing sickness and reducing their property values

Related Links:

Posted in environment | Tagged: , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Ozone Hole, Fracking and Other Issues

Posted by feww on April 22, 2011

NY Officials Suspend Fracking

New York officials have suspended all horizontal, high-volume hydraulic fracturing until July,  awaiting safety ruling by environmental regulators.

Chesapeake Energy suspends fracking in Pennsylvania after blowout spills toxic fluid into river

The Chesapeake well spewed thousands of gallons of toxic fracking fluid into a nearby waterway immediately after the blowout on Wednesday, said the Bradford County emergency management officials.

“The company said it still did not know the cause of the blowout a day and a half after it occurred.” More…

Ozone Hole Harming Australians

Climate models developed by Columbia University indicate the impact of the Antarctic Ozone Hole is very strong over Australia.

“The ozone hole results in a southward shift of the high-latitude circulation – and the whole tropical circulation shifts southwards too,” researchers said.

The ozone hole has resulted in rainfall moving south with the winds, they said.

“In terms of the average for [the region], about a 10% [of the] change [is caused by by the ozone hole, ] but for Australia, it’s about 35%,” a researcher told BBC. More…

Related Links

Posted in hydraulic fracturing | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »