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Posts Tagged ‘HFMD’

String of Tornadoes Cause Major Destruction in NW Poland

Posted by feww on July 16, 2012

Powerful tornadoes flatten large swaths of forest, destroy more than 100 homes in Poland

A string of tornadoes with winds of up to 200kph slammed northwestern Poland, leaving at least one person dead and a dozen others injured.

The twisters, described as ‘freak tornadoes with unprecedented scale and ferocity,’ left vast swaths of forest flattened, downing power lines and destroying at least 100 homes, mostly in Kujawy and Wielkpolska provinces, reports said.

Other Global Disasters/ Significant Events

  • USA. Excessive heat is returning to Central and Eastern U.S., NOAA forecasters said.
    • Near record temperatures ranging from 95 to 105 degrees will prevail across the central portions of the U.S. on Monday. “The above normal temperatures will expand into the Ohio Valley and Mid-Atlantic for Tuesday and Wednesday. Excessive Heat Warnings and Heat Advisories are already in effect for portions of the aforementioned areas.”
  • China. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) infected more than 381,000 people in China in June, killing at least 112 people, AFP reported the health authorities as saying.
    • More than 460,000 people were infected by HFMD in May, of whom 132 died from the disease, according to China’s Ministry of Health.

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

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New type of HFMD virus spreading across Vietnam

Posted by feww on June 15, 2011

Dangerous coxsackie B2 kills 17 spreads to Hanoi

A new type of hand-foot-mouth disease virus, identified as coxsackie B2 virus, which is said to be more dangerous than the EV71 strain, has infected about 6,000 patients in 30 provinces, killing 17 of them in the southern and central provinces of Vietnam. The virus is now spreading to the capital to Hanoi, a report said.

Coxsackie B4 virus virions


Using immunoelectron microscopic technique, one is able to discern the morphologic traits of the Coxsackie B4 virus virions.
In addition to the three different polioviruses, there are 61 non-polio enteroviruses that can cause disease in humans. These include the 23 Coxsackie A viruses, 6 Coxsackie B viruses, 28 echoviruses, and 4 other enteroviruses. Source: CDC

HFMD Facts [mirrored from CDC]

Description of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness of infants and children. The disease causes fever and blister-like eruptions in the mouth and/or a skin rash. HFMD is often confused with foot-and-mouth (also called hoof-and-mouth) disease, a disease of cattle, sheep, and swine; however, the two diseases are not related—they are caused by different viruses. Humans do not get the animal disease, and animals do not get the human disease.

Illness

  • The disease usually begins with a fever, poor appetite, malaise (feeling vaguely unwell), and often with a sore throat.
  • One or 2 days after fever onset, painful sores usually develop in the mouth. They begin as small red spots that blister and then often become ulcers. The sores are usually located on the tongue, gums, and inside of the cheeks.
  • A non-itchy skin rash develops over 1–2 days. The rash has flat or raised red spots, sometimes with blisters. The rash is usually located on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet; it may also appear on the buttocks and/or genitalia.
  • A person with HFMD may have only the rash or only the mouth sores.

Cause of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • HFMD is caused by viruses that belong to the enterovirus genus (group). This group of viruses includes polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enteroviruses.
  • Coxsackievirus A16 is the most common cause of HFMD in the United States, but other coxsackieviruses have been associated with the illness.
  • Enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71, have also been associated with HFMD and with outbreaks of the disease.

How Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Is Spread

  • Infection is spread from person to person by direct contact with infectious virus. Infectious virus is found in the nose and throat secretions, saliva, blister fluid, and stool of infected persons. The virus is most often spread by persons with unwashed, virus-contaminated hands and by contact with virus-contaminated surfaces.
  • Infected persons are most contagious during the first week of the illness.
  • The viruses that cause HFMD can remain in the body for weeks after a patient’s symptoms have gone away. This means that the infected person can still pass the infection to other people even though he/she appears well. Also, some persons who are infected and excreting the virus, including most adults, may have no symptoms.
  • HFMD is not transmitted to or from pets or other animals.

Factors That Increase the Chance for Infection or Disease

  • Everyone who has not already been infected with an enterovirus that causes HFMD is at risk of infection, but not everyone who is infected with an enterovirus becomes ill with HFMD.
  • HFMD occurs mainly in children under 10 years old but can also occur in adults. Children are more likely to be at risk for infection and illness because they are less likely than adults to have antibodies to protect them. Such antibodies develop in the body during a person’s first exposure to the enteroviruses that cause HFMD.
  • Infection results in immunity to (protection against) the specific virus that caused HFMD. A second case of HFMD may occur following infection with a different member of the enterovirus group.

Diagnosis of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • HFMD is one of many infections that result in mouth sores. However, health care providers can usually tell the difference between HFMD and other causes of mouth sores by considering the patient’s age, the symptoms reported by the patient or parent, and the appearance of the rash and sores.
  • Samples from the throat or stool may be sent to a laboratory to test for virus and to find out which enterovirus caused the illness. However, it can take 2–4 weeks to obtain test results, so health care providers usually do not order tests.

Treatment and Medical Management of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • There is no specific treatment for HFMD.
  • Symptoms can be treated to provide relief from pain from mouth sores and from fever and aches:
    • Pain and fever can be treated with over-the-counter medications (caution: aspirin should not be given to children).
    • Mouthwashes or sprays that numb pain can be used to lessen mouth pain.
  • Fluid intake should be enough to prevent dehydration (lack of body fluids). If moderate-to-severe dehydration develops, it can be treated medically by giving fluids through the veins.

Prevention of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • A specific preventive for HFMD is not available, but the risk of infection can be lowered by following good hygiene practices.
  • Good hygiene practices that can lower the risk of infection include
    • Washing hands frequently and correctly (see Clean Hands Save Lives! ) and especially after changing diapers and after using the toilet
    • Cleaning dirty surfaces and soiled items, including toys, first with soap and water and then disinfecting them by cleansing with a solution of chlorine bleach (made by adding 1 tablespoon of bleach to 4 cups of water)
    • Avoiding close contact (kissing, hugging, sharing eating utensils or cups, etc.) with persons with HFMD

Vaccination Recommendations

  • No vaccine is available to protect against the enteroviruses that cause HFMD.

Complications of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • Complications from the virus infections that cause HFMD are not common, but if they do occur, medical care should be sought.
  • Viral or “aseptic meningitis can rarely occur with HFMD. Viral meningitis causes fever, headache, stiff neck, or back pain. The condition is usually mild and clears without treatment; however, some patients may need to be hospitalized for a short time.
  • Other more serious diseases, such as encephalitis (swelling of the brain) or a polio-like paralysis, result even more rarely. Encephalitis can be fatal.
  • There have been reports of fingernail and toenail loss occurring mostly in children within 4 weeks of their having hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). At this time, it is not known whether the reported nail loss is or is not a result of the infection. However, in the reports reviewed, the nail loss has been temporary and nail growth resumed without medical treatment.

Trends and Statistics of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

  • Individual cases and outbreaks of HFMD occur worldwide. In temperate climates, cases occur more often in summer and early autumn.
  • Since 1997, outbreaks of HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 have been reported in Asia and Australia.
  • HFMD caused by coxsackievirus A16 infection is a mild disease. Nearly all patients recover in 7 to 10 days without medical treatment.
  • HFMD caused by enterovirus 71 has shown a higher incidence of neurologic (nervous system) involvement. And fatal cases of encephalitis (swelling of the brain) caused by enterovirus 71 have occurred during outbreaks. However, these serious outcomes are still very rare.

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Image of the Day: The Painful Good Bye!

Posted by feww on April 14, 2009

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) kills at least 50 babies in China with 115,000 more cases reported


A mother kisses her child who has a fatal form of hand, foot and mouth disease at a hospital in Hefei, Anhui province April 13, 2009. The disease has killed 50 children nationwide in the year to April 7, a Health Ministry official said, adding that a total of 115,000 cases have been reported, according to Xinhua News Agency. REUTERS/Stringer. Image may be subject to copyright.

Facts about hand, foot and mouth disease in China

  • China has reported a  sudden rise in HFMD among young children.
  • At least 50 deaths have been reported since January 2009.
  • Figures show the virus has struck earlier than normal and the numbers are likely to growin the peak season between May and July, Xinhua News Agency quoted Health Ministry officials as saying.
  • Health officials fear that the current strain is especially virulent.
  • The health ministry has recorded 115,000 cases since January 2009
  • Some 54,714 cases were reported in March alone, including 31 fatalities.
  • About 95 percent of the patients are children under age 5.
  • In 2008 at least 27,000 children were sickened by the virus, Xinhua reported with dozens killed  by May 2008 [The actual casualty figure is a state secret.]
  • The worst hit areas this year are rural areas in the provinces of   Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang.
  • Symptoms of HFMD include fever, mouth sores and skin rashes with blisters.  It is spread by direct contact with mucus, throat discharges, saliva, fluid from blisters, or feces of infected people, and has an  incubation period of about seven days.
  • There are no known treatment or vaccine for HFMD, however most children recover from the disease without problems.
  • It is unrelated to the foot and mouth disease  (FMD), aka hoof-and-mouth disease that affects livestock

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