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Posts Tagged ‘immune systems’

Types of Fungal Diseases –CDC

Posted by feww on August 16, 2017

Hormones, medicines, and changes in the immune system encourage fungal growth and cause infection

About 1.5 million different species of fungi are found on Earth, with 300 of those known to cause infections and sicken people. Fungi live outdoors in soil and on plants and trees as well as on many indoor surfaces and on human skin.

 Aspergillosis

 Microscopy of Aspergillus Fumigatus
Caused by the fungus Aspergillus and usually occurs in people with lung diseases or weakened immune systems.

Candidiasis

 Photomicrograph of the fungus Candida albicans
Caused by the yeast Candida. Candidiasis can occur in the mouth and throat, vagina, or the bloodstream.

Types of Candidiasis

Global Emergence of Candida auris

Candida auris is an emerging fungus that presents a serious global health threat. Healthcare facilities in several countries have reported that C. auris has caused severe illness in hospitalized patients. C. auris is often resistant to multiple antifungal drugs.

C. neoformans infection

 A photomicrograph of Cryptococcus neoformans using a light India ink staining preparation.
Caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, which can infect the brain (meningitis) in people with HIV/AIDS.

Fungal eye infections

 Photomicrograph showing conidiophores and conidia of the fungus Fusarium verticillioides
Different types of fungi can cause eye infections. These are rare but can develop after an eye injury.

Mucormycosis

 Microscopy of Apophysomyces, one of the causative agents of mucormycosis.
A rare infection that mainly affects people with weakened immune systems.

Ringworm

 Photomicrograph of the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes
A common fungal skin infection that often looks like a circular rash.

Blastomycosis

 Histopathology showing a yeast cell of Blastomyces dermatitidis
Caused by the fungus Blastomyces, which lives in moist soil in parts of the United States and Canada.

Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)

 Arthroconidia of Coccidioides immitis
Caused by Coccidioides, a fungus that lives in the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico and Central and South America.

C. gattii infection

 A photomicrograph of Cryptococcus
Caused by the fungus Cryptococcus gattii, which lives in soil in tropical and sub-tropical areas, the United States Pacific Northwest, and British Columbia.

Histoplasmosis

 A photomicrograph of Histoplasma capsulatum isolated from a soil sample.
Caused by the fungus Histoplasma, which lives in the environment, often in association with large amounts of bird or bat droppings.

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)

 Histopathology showing Pneumocystis cysts in the lung of a patient with AIDS
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii. Most people who get PCP have a medical condition that weakens their immune system, like HIV/AIDS, or take medicines that lower the body’s ability to fight germs and sickness. Image: Pneumocystis jirovecii in the lung of an HIV/AIDS patient.

Sporotrichosis

 Photomicrograph showing Sporothrix schenckii.
Caused by the fungus Sporothrix, which lives throughout the world in soil and on plants.

Other pathogenic fungi

 Photomicrograph of Exserohilum rostratum
Exserohilum and Cladosporium are two examples of environmental molds.

Source: CDC

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Wash Your Tomatoes!

Posted by feww on June 4, 2008

Salmonella Strikes Again!

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration revealed 57 reported cases of poisoning caused by an uncommon strand of Salmonella bacteria called SaintPaul in Texas and New Mexico since late April. Illnesses were blamed on eating raw tomatoes.

Updated: June 7, 2008

States with persons with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul, by state of residence and onset of illness, April to June 2008.


Since mid-April, 145 persons infected with Salmonella Saintpaul with the same genetic fingerprint have been identified in 16 states: Arizona (12 persons), California (1), Colorado (1), Connecticut (1), Idaho (2), Illinois (17), Indiana (1), Kansas (3), New Mexico (39), Oklahoma (3), Oregon (2), Texas (56 persons), Utah (1), Virginia (2), Washington (1), and Wisconsin (3). These were identified because clinical laboratories in all states send Salmonella strains from ill persons to their State public health laboratory for characterization. Among the 73 persons who have been interviewed, illnesses began between April 16 and May 27, 2008. Patients range in age from 1 to 82 years; 49% are female. At least 23 persons were hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. (Image and Caption: CDC. Update: June 7, 2008 )

People in 16 States Have Been Infected

[See above image and caption for update added June 7, 2008] About 30 more people became ill in Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas and Utah. At least 17 people needed hospitalization, but no deaths have been reported.

“Our preliminary data is showing that the people who became sick in New Mexico and Texas ate raw tomatoes, and that’s their likely source of this illness,” an epidemiologist with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.

“The investigation in the other states is ongoing right now. We are definitely looking into their tomato exposures as well as other exposures to try to determine if they’re linked with this outbreak in New Mexico and Texas,” she added.

“The specific type and source of tomatoes are under investigation. However, preliminary data suggest that raw red plum, red Roma, or round red tomatoes are the cause,” the FDA said.

Salmonella bacteria often cause food-borne illnesses accompanied by vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pains and fever.


Salmonella Bacteria

Clinical features of Salmonella Infection

Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12–72 hours after infection. Infection is usually diagnosed by culture of a stool sample. The illness usually lasts 4 – 7 days. Although most people recover without treatment, severe infections may occur. Infants, elderly persons, and those with impaired immune systems are more likely than others to develop severe illness. When severe infection occurs, Salmonella may spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and then to other body sites, and can cause death. In these severe cases, antibiotic treatment may be necessary.

Advice to consumers

  • In New Mexico and Texas, until the source of the implicated tomatoes is determined,
    • persons with increased risk of severe infection, including infants, elderly persons, and those with impaired immune systems, should not eat raw Roma or red round tomatoes other than those sold attached to the vine or grown at home, and
    • persons who want to reduce their risk of Salmonella infection can avoid consuming raw Roma or red round tomatoes other than those sold attached to the vine or grown at home.
  • Avoid purchasing bruised or damaged tomatoes and discard any that appear spoiled.
  • Thoroughly wash all tomatoes under running water.
  • Refrigerate within 2 hours or discard cut, peeled, or cooked tomatoes.
  • Keep tomatoes that will be consumed raw separate from raw meats, raw seafood, and raw produce items.
  • Wash cutting boards, dishes, utensils, and counter tops with hot water and soap when switching between types of food products.

You can check the CDC and FDA websites for updates on this investigation and changes in recommendations.

More information about Salmonella and this investigation can be found at:

Information on the safe handling of produce can be found at:

Related Links:

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