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Posts Tagged ‘Kīlauea’

Bogoslof Volcano Erupts

Posted by feww on July 10, 2017

KT-623D

Bogoslof Explodes: Volcano Alert Level Raised to WARNING, Aviation Color Code to RED

AVO/USGS Volcanic Activity Notice
Volcano: Bogoslof (VNUM #311300)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Previous Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: RED
Previous Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Issued: Monday, July 10, 2017, 12:51 AM AKDT
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory
Location: N 53 deg 55 min W 168 deg 2 min
Elevation: 492 ft (150 m)
Area: Aleutians

Volcanic Activity Summary: An eruption began at Bogoslof volcano at 07:47 UTC on July 9 (23:47 AKDT on July 9) lasting about 5 minutes followed 15 minutes later by a second explosion that lasted about 7 minutes. A small ash cloud has been detected in satellite data. Winds are towards the southeast. The Aviation Color Code is upgraded to RED and the Volcano Alert Level to WARNING. Ash trajectory models indicate that a possible trace ash fall could occur on Unalaska, but unlikely to affect Dutch Harbor.  https://www.avo.alaska.edu/

Nearby towns:

  • Unalaska 61 mi (98 km) SE
  • Nikolski 76 mi (123 km) SW
  • Akutan 93 mi (149 km) NE
  • Saint George 194 mi (312 km) NW
  • Anchorage 835 mi (1,343 km) NE

Cleveland Volcano
Color Code ORANGE / Alert Level WATCH

Pavlof Volcano
Color Code YELLOW / Alert Level ADVISORY

Hawaii Volcanoes

Kilauea Volcano
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

  • FIRE-EARTH Ref:  LMP7
  • FIRE-EARTH Science Team’s July VolcanoWatch Report is available via FEPS.
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VolcanoWatch – September 19, 2015

Posted by feww on September 19, 2015

Global Volcanism – Latest and Ongoing Activity

Latest Eruptions

  • Cotopaxi, Ecuador
  • Mt Aso, Kyushu, Japan
  • Nevado del Ruiz,  Colombia

US Volcanoes

Cleveland Watch Orange 2015-09-18

  • Low level unrest continues. No significant activity detected in seismic or infrasound (pressure sensor) data. Minor steaming observed in web camera images and slightly elevated surface temperatures detected in satellite data during periods of clear weather over the past week.  Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)

Kilauea Watch Orange 2015-09-18

  • The lava lake at Kīlauea’s summit remains active. At the East Rift Zone, the lava flow northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō remains active within 8 km (5 mi) of the vent and does not currently pose a threat to communities. Normal levels of seismic and deformation activity continue across the volcano.
  • Puʻu ʻŌʻō Observations: The multiple vents within Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater continued to outgas and glow at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate from all East Rift Zone vents was about 400 metric tons per day when measurements were last possible on August 13, 2015. A magnitude 3.8 earthquake that occurred at about 8 km (5 mi) depth SSE of Puʻu ʻŌʻō yesterday afternoon was widely felt on the island. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)

Shishaldin Watch Orange 2015-09-18

  • Low-level activity within the summit crater of Shishaldin likely continues. Seismicity remains slightly above background levels but no activity observed in satellite data and web camera images during periods of clear weather over the past week. AVO

Mauna Loa Advisory Yellow 2015-09-17

  • HVO seismic stations continue to record elevated rates of shallow, small-magnitude earthquakes beneath Mauna Loa’s summit, upper Southwest Rift Zone, and west flank.

Pagan Advisory Yellow 2015-09-18 [Northern Mariana Islands]

  • Seismic, infrasound, and web camera data from Pagan Volcano remain temporarily unavailable. No activity observed in satellite images during periods of clear weather over the past week. Volcanic gas from Pagan may be noticed downwind of the volcano as a distinctive sulfurous odor.

Ongoing Activity

Kamchatka & Kurile Volcanoes (Russia)

  • Karymsky: Eastern Kamchatka, RussiaOrange
    Moderate eruptive activity of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 19,700 ft (6 km) a.s.l. could occur at any time. Ongoing activity could affect low-flying aircraft.
    http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/volc.php?lang=en&name=Karymsky
  • Sheveluch: Central Kamchatka, RussiaOrange
    Explosive-extrusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 32,800 ft (10 km) a.s.l. could occur at any time. Ongoing activity could affect international and low-flying aircraft. http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/volc.php?lang=en&name=Sheveluch
  • Bezymianny Yellow
  • Klyuchevskoy Yellow

Other Volcanoes

  • Batu Tara: Komba Island, Indonesia
  • Mt Dempo: South Sumatra, Indonesia
  • Dukono: Halmahera, Indonesia
  • Karangetang: Siau Island, Indonesia
  • Sinabung: North Sumatra, Indonesia
  • Colima: Mexico
  • Otake (Suwanosejima): Ryukyu Islands, Japan

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‘Misunderestimated’

Posted by feww on November 9, 2014

Images of the day:

Timelapse camera caught in Kīlauea overflow

HVO- preimage-955-s
A timelapse camera that USGS HVO scientists were using to monitor a lava tube skylight was caught in an overflow this morning. In this view, recent lava has surrounded the tripod and melted the power cable. Daily updates about Kīlauea’s ongoing eruptions, recent images and videos of summit and East Rift Zone volcanic activity, and data about recent earthquakes are posted on the HVO Web site at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov. [Source: HVO]

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Federal Disaster Declared due to Hawaii Eruption, Lava Flow

Posted by feww on November 4, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
KILAUEA JUNE 27TH LAVA FLOW
FEDERAL DISASTER DECLARATION
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 402, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Major Disaster Declaration for Kīlauea June 27th Flow (DR – 4201)

The White House has declared a federal disaster in Hawaii County due to Kilauea’s Pu’u ‘Ō’ō volcanic eruption and the June 27th lava flow.

“Kenneth K. Suiso has been named as the Federal Coordinating Officer for federal recovery operations in the affected area.  Suiso said additional designations may be made at a later date if requested by the state and warranted by the results of further damage assessments,” said White House in a statement.

KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Kīlauea Latest Images: November 2, 2014

HVO preImage-942
A breakout occurs from an inflated lobe of the June 27th lava flow on Sunday morning, November 2, 2014. Scattered breakouts like this, which took place about 200 meters (218 yards) upslope of the stalled leading edge, have been common over the past few days and are filling in low points behind the flow front. [Source: HVO]

Summit Observations: At Kīlauea volcano’s summit, tilt and lava lake level inferred from the webcams continue their gradual recoveries following last week’s DI event. Volcanic tremor persists at low amplitudes which show episodic fluctuation. There are no significant local seismic events evident on the seismograms from the NPT seismic station that is closest to Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Sulfur-dioxide emission rate measurements for the summit ranged from 4,250 up to 7,000 tonnes/day (see caveat below) through the week-long period ending October 28, 2014. A small amount of particulate material was carried aloft by the plume. [HVO]

Activity Summary: Kīlauea volcano continued to erupt at its summit and within its East Rift Zone, and gas emissions remained elevated. As of Monday morning, the leading edge of the June 27th lava flow had not advanced beyond where it stalled late last week, in a residential area approximately 155 meters (170 yards) above Pāhoa Village Road. Activity behind the lava flow’s leading edge, within the flow’s interior and along its side margins, continued with localized breakouts of molten lava. Gradual inflation was recorded by the tiltmeters at Kīlauea’s summit. The level of the summit lava lake at Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, as reflected in web cam images, has also risen since Sunday. [HVO]

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June 27th Flow Could Reach Ocean by May 2015

Posted by feww on October 30, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
KILAUEA JUNE 27TH LAVA FLOW
STATE OF EMERGENCY PROCLAMATION
MASS EVACUATIONS
LOSS OF HABITAT
CROP DESTRUCTION
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 402, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Kilauea’s lava flow continues to cross Pāhoa Village

FIRE-EARTH estimates the June 27th flow could reach the ocean, currently about 10km away, by May 2015. Temperature of the lava exceeds 850°C along the leading edge of the most rapidly advancing part of the flow.

HVO Daily Update:  October 29, 2014 @09:12 AM HST (Wednesday, October 29, 2014 @ 19:12 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
Coordinates: 19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W (19.421111N, 155.286944W)
Summit Elevation: 4091 ft (1,247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Activity Summary: Kīlauea continues to erupt at its summit and within its East Rift Zone, and gas emissions remained elevated. Currently, the June 27th flow is advancing northeast through a residential area between Apaʻa St/Cemetery Rd and Pāhoa Village Road. During the past 24 hours, the leading edge of the most rapidly advancing part of the flow advanced at an average rate of roughly 10 m/hr (~11 yd/hr); between 2am and 630 am this morning, the rate of advance slowed to roughly 5 m/hr (~5.5 yd/hr). At 7AM, the flow front was about 240 m (~260 yd) straight-line distance from Pāhoa Village Road. Source: HVO

Currently, the flow continues to advance at a rate of 5 m/hr (~5.5 yd/hr), said HVO.

  • GPS receivers in the summit area have recorded slight contraction across the caldera since early July. The most recent sulfur-dioxide emission rate measurements for the summit were 2,700–3,600 tonnes/day (see caveat here) for the week ending October 21, 2014.
  • The ambient SO2 concentrations near the vent vary greatly, but are persistently higher than 10 ppm and frequently exceed 50 ppm (upper limit of detector) during moderate trade winds.
  • The gas plume typically includes a small amount of ash-sized tephra (mostly fresh spatter bits and Pele’s hair from the circulating lava lake). The heaviest pieces are deposited onto nearby surfaces while the finer bits can be carried several kilometers before dropping out of the plume.


A view of the flow over Cemetery Rd./Apaʻa St. The transfer station is at the top of the image. Source: HVO


The June 27th flow remains active, and is slowly approaching Pāhoa Village Road. This photo was taken just before 10 am, and shows the flow front moving through private property towards a low point on the road. At 11:30 am today, the flow front was 215 m (235 yards) from Pāhoa Village Road. Source: HVO


This photo looks downslope from Cemetery Road, and shows the pasture and cemetery that the flow front advanced through several days ago. Much of the cemetery has been covered by lava, but a kipuka has left a portion of the cemetery uncovered for now. Source: HVO

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Lava Flow Nearing Residences in Pāhoa, Hawaii

Posted by feww on October 28, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
KILAUEA JUNE 27TH LAVA FLOW
STATE OF EMERGENCY PROCLAMATION
MASS EVACUATIONS
LOSS OF HABITAT
CROP DESTRUCTION
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 402, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Kīlauea continues to erupt,

Active lava flows can produce methane blasts, propelling rocks and other debris into the air, said HVO.

Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases  issued by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)

Monday, October 27, 2014 5:51 PM HST (Tuesday, October 28, 2014 03:51 UTC)

  • The advance rate of the narrow leading edge varied between 7 and 10 meters (8 and 11 yards) per hour today, which is equivalent to 170 and 240 meters (185 and 260 yards) per day. As of 4:30 PM, the flow was 510 meters (560 yards) upslope from Pāhoa Village Road; the flow width was about 50 meters (55 yards) at the leading edge.
  • The most recent sulfur-dioxide emission rate measurements for the summit were 2,700–3,600 tonnes/day (see caveat here) for the week ending October 21, 2014. A small amount of particulate material was carried aloft by the plume.
  • Potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas may be present within 1 km downwind of vent areas.


The June 27th lava flow remained active, and the flow front was nearing residential areas in the northwest portion of Pāhoa. The flow front was heading towards a low spot on the Pāhoa Village Road, between Apaʻa St. and the post office. This photo was taken at 11:30 am HST on Monday, when the flow front was 540 meters (0.3 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road. Source: HVO


This annotated photograph shows the notable features around the flow front. The photo was taken at 11:30 am, and also shows the distance the flow front has traveled between Cemetery Rd./Apaʻa St. and Pāhoa Village Rd. Source: HVO


A comparison of a normal photograph with a thermal image. The white box shows the approximate extent of the thermal image. The elevated temperatures (white and yellow areas) around the flow front indicate that significant activity is focused at the front, driving its forward movement. In addition, a slow-moving lobe was active upslope of Cemetery Rd. Farther upslope, scattered breakouts persist in the wider portion of the flow.  Source: HVO

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Kīlauea Lava Flow Consuming Everything Along Its Paths

Posted by feww on October 27, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
KILAUEA JUNE 27TH LAVA FLOW
STATE OF EMERGENCY PROCLAMATION
MASS EVACUATIONS
LOSS OF HABITAT
CROP DESTRUCTION
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Kīlauea Lava Flow Advancing toward Pāhoa, Hawaii

The June 27th lava flow continues advancing toward Pāhoa at a rate of up to 360 meters per day.

Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases  issued by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)

Sunday, October 26, 2014 5:59 PM HST (Monday, October 27, 2014 03:59 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25’16” N, 155°17’13” W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1,247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

The relatively narrow finger of lava that crossed Apaʻa Street yesterday morning continued to travel downslope, splitting into two lobes as it advanced. The faster, northern lobe crossed completely through the Pāhoa cemetery by mid-morning, while the slower southern lobe was advancing through open pasture south of the cemetery. Another lobe farther upslope, just above Apaʻa Street, advanced about 50 meters (55 yards) since yesterday.

Over the course of the day, the advance rate of the narrow finger that crossed the cemetery varied from about 10 and 15 meters per hour (11 to 16 yards per hour), which is equivalent to 240–360 meters per day (260–390 yards per day). As of 5 PM, the faster-moving finger was about 390 meters (425 yards) downslope of Apaʻa Street and 660 meters (720 yards) upslope from Pāhoa Village Road. It had an average width of about 40 m (45 yd). The slightly slower-moving southern lobe in the pasture south of the cemetery reached slightly steeper terrain at mid-afternoon today, and was traveling at about 9 meters per hour (10 yards per hour) at 5 PM. It will likely rejoin with the finger that came through the cemetery near the northeast end of the pasture. [HVO]

 

HVO -905-small
As of 10 AM, HST, on October 26, 2014, the June 27th flow front remains active and continues to advance towards the northeast. A portion of the front is still moving through the open field (shown here), while the leading tip of the flow has advanced through the Pāhoa cemetery. Source: HVO

HVO-907-small
An HVO geologist walks across the surface of the flow, which covers the short access road to the cemetery. As is typical for pāhoehoe, the flow has inflated over the past day and was chest high in many places. Source: HVO


The June 27th lava flow crossed Apaʻa Street / Cemetery Road at 3:50 AM, HST, Saturday morning, October 25, 2014. In this photo, which was taken at about 9 AM Saturday, the flow is moving from right to left, with burning asphalt visible along it’s NW margin. A utility pole, far right, was surrounded by lava but remained standing at the time of the photo. The hope is that the protective insulation and cinder/cement barrier around the pole will prevent it from burning through. Source: HVO


This map uses a satellite image acquired in March 2014 (provided by Digital Globe) as a base to show the area around the front of the June 27th lava flow. The area of the flow on October 25, 2014, at 5:00 PM is shown in pink, while widening and advancement of the flow as mapped on October 26 at 12:30 PM is shown in red. The dotted blue lines show steepest-descent paths in the area, calculated from a 1983 digital elevation model (DEM).  Source: HVO

Sulfur Dioxide Advisory Level

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Lava Flow from Kilauea Advancing AGAIN on Big Island Communities

Posted by feww on October 7, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
KILAUEA JUNE 27TH LAVA FLOW
STATE OF EMERGENCY PROCLAMATION
MASS EVACUATIONS
LOSS OF HABITAT
CROP DESTRUCTION
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Kilauea Lava Flow:  June 27th lava flow continues to advance NE at 120 m/day

The lava flow out of the continuously erupting Kilauea Volcano is slowly advancing downslope toward the town of Pāhoa (population: ~1,000) on the Big Island.

About 4,500 people could be affected by the lava flow in the coming days.

Tuesday Oct0ber 7, 2014 (UTC). Civil Defense Message: “This morning’s assessment shows that the flow front continues to be active and has advanced approximately 150 yards since yesterday.  The narrow flow front is moving along the tree line and the burning activity is producing a significant amount of smoke.  There is no brush fire threat at this time and the burning is limited to the edges of the flow only.  Due to a light southwest wind this morning the vog and smoke conditions were moderate to heavy across lower Puna to Hilo.”

[Note: Vog, a type of air pollution, is formed when sulfur dioxide and other gases and particles emitted by an erupting volcano react with oxygen and air moisture in the sunlight.]

Flow front continues advancing northeast, triggers brush fire. The June 27th lava flow remains active, and the flow front continues to advance towards the northeast along the forest boundary. Today, the flow front consisted of a narrow lobe moving through thick forest. The flow front was 1.7 km (1.1 miles) upslope of Apaʻa St., and 2.7 km (1.7 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road. The lava flow also triggered a brush fire that was active north of the flow front Monday afternoon local time [HAST= UTC -10 hrs.]

Kilauea Status Reports

Issued: Monday, October 6, 2014, 6:42 PM HST (Tuesday, 2014/10/07/04:42UTC)
Source: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Notice Number: 2014/H13
Location: N 19 deg 25 min, W 155 deg 17 min
Elevation: 4091 ft (1,247 m)
Area: HI Hawaii and Pacific Ocean
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Volcanic Activity Summary: The June 27th flow remains active, with a narrow flow about 115 m (230 ft) wide moving downslope about 120 m/day (390 ft/day) since October 3.

At the average rate of advancement of 120 m/day, the lava could reach Apa`a St. in about 16 days. The advance rate of the June 27th flow has varied significantly during the past month, meaning this projection is subject to change. HVO’s next overflight is scheduled for Wednesday, October 8.

Recent Observations by HVO: The lava flow has continued to advance northeast since October 3 at about 120 m/day (390 ft/day). The leading edge is now about 1.7 km (1.1 mi) straight-line distance from Apa`a St.

Hazard Analysis by HVO: The lava flow from the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent is active, and lava is being supplied to the flow front, which is slowly advancing downslope toward Pāhoa town, which is located  in the Puna District of the County of Hawai`i.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō Observations: There was little net change in ground tilt at Pu’u O’o over the past day. Glow was visible overnight above several outgassing openings in the crater floor. The most recent sulfur-dioxide emission-rate measurement for the East Rift Zone was 550 tonnes per day (from all sources) on September 25, 2014. Seismic tremor is low and constant.

Summit Observations: Deflationary tilt at Kīlauea’s summit continues this morning along with a decrease in the lava lake level at the summit vent. There was no major change in seismicity on Kilauea over the past day; seismic tremor at the summit remained low and varied with changes in spattering on the surface of the lava lake. GPS receivers spanning the summit caldera recorded about 5 cm (2 in) of extension between early May and early July. Since then, little significant extension or contraction has occurred. During the week ending on September 30, 2014, the elevated summit sulfur-dioxide emission rate was measured at 3,600–5,200 tonnes/day (see caveat below), and a small amount of particulate material was carried aloft by the plume.

Remarks [Source: HVO] : The Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent in the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano began erupting on January 3, 1983, and has continued erupting for more than 31 years, with the majority of lava flows advancing to the south. Over the past two years, lava flows have issued from the vent toward the northeast. The June 27th flow is the most recent of these flows and the first to threaten a residential area since 2010-2011. On June 27, 2014, new vents opened on the northeast flank of the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone and fed a narrow lava flow to the east-northeast. On August 18, the flow entered a ground crack, traveled underground for several days, then resurfaced to form a small lava pad. This sequence was repeated three more times over the following days with lava entering and filling other cracks before reappearing at the surface, in two of the cases farther downslope. Lava emerged from the last crack on September 6, forming a surface flow that initially moved to the north, then to the northeast, at a rate of 400 m/day (1,300 ft/day). The flow slowed thereafter and, between September 12 and 19, the rate of advancement varied, averaging 225 m/day (740 ft/day). The flow front stalled by September 22, but new breakouts behind the flow front began to push forward, overtaking the stalled front on September 29 and advancing 120 m/day (390 ft) between October 3 and 6. [Source: HVO]

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Kilauea Lava Flow Could Affect Thousands on Hawaiʻi Island

Posted by feww on September 5, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
STATE OF EMERGENCY PROCLAMATION
MASS EVACUATIONS
LOSS OF HABITAT
CROP DESTRUCTION
SCENARIOS 787, 444, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Lava from Kilauea Volcano advancing 250 meters per day

Hawai‘i County Mayor has signed a state of emergency proclamation due to  the advancing lava flow in the Wao Kele O Puna area after the flow extended to less than 1.5km from the edge of the Ka‘ohe Homesteads subdivision, said the mayor’s office.

It’s believed that at least 8,211 people (based on 2010 Census) residing in the subdivision of Hawaiian Beaches are directly threatened by the lava flow. However, the number is unrepresentative of the present population since the District of Puna is the fastest growing population in the State, said the Mayor’s Proclamation.

“We are taking this step to ensure our residents have time to prepare their families, their pets, and their livestock for a safe and orderly evacuation from Ka‘ohe in the event the flow continues to advance,” said Mayor Kenoi.

No evacuation orders have yet been issued, said Hawaii County Civil Defense; however, the risk of lava flow affecting the  subdivision is increasing daily.

Kilauea Volcano Warning Issued by Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)

Thursday, September 4, 2014, 10:45 AM HST (2014-09-04 @ 20:45UTC)

Volcanic Activity Summary: On June 27, 2014, new vents opened on the northeast flank of the Pu‘u ‘O‘o cone that fed a narrow lava flow to the east-northeast. On August 18, the flow entered a ground crack, traveled underground for several days, then resurfaced to form a small lava pad. The sequence was repeated twice more over the following days with lava entering other cracks and reappearing farther downslope. In this way, the flow had advanced approximately 13.2 km (8.2 miles) from the vent, or to within 1.3 km (0.8 miles) of the eastern boundary of the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve, by the afternoon of September 3. Overnight, lava did not appear to advance farther east within the crack system, but surface flows advanced about 100 m to the northeast. At the average rate of advancement of 250 m/day (820 ft/day) since July 10, we project that lava could reach the Kaohe Homesteads boundary within 5-7 days should lava resume advancing within the crack system.

Kaohe Homesteads is located between the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve and the town of Pāhoa in the Puna District of the County of Hawai`i.

Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Recent Observations:
[Volcanic cloud height] SO2, low ash emissions continue from Kīlauea caldera, TFR in place.
[Other volcanic cloud information] none
[Lava flow/dome] June 27th Lava Flow continues to advance.

Hazard Analysis:
[Lava flow/dome] Lava Flow from Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent could advance to Kaohe Homesteads within a week.

Remarks: The Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent in the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano began erupting on January 3, 1983, and has continued erupting for more than 31 years, with the majority of lava flows advancing to the south. Over the past two years, lava flows have issued from the vent toward the northeast. The June 27th flow is the most recent of these flows and the first to threaten a residential area since 2010-2011.

June 27th lava flow front reemerges from ground crack, continues advancing eastward (HVO)


The June 27th lava flow remains active, with lava at the flow front issuing from a ground crack and advancing through thick forest, creating dense plumes of smoke. The farthest lava this afternoon was 13.2 km (8.2 miles) from the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and 1.3 km (0.8 miles) from the eastern boundary of the Wao Kele o Puna forest reserve. This forest reserve boundary is at the western boundary of Kaohe Homesteads subdivision, a portion of which is visible at the bottom of the photograph. (Source: HVO)


The surface flows at the front of the June 27th lava flow are fed by lava that is supplied through a lava tube that originates at the vent on Puʻu ʻŌʻō. This thermal image shows the lava tube close to Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Although the lava is several meters (yards) beneath the surface, it heats the surface sufficiently to be easily detected with thermal cameras. 

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El Hierro Island Experiencing Intense Seismicity, Inflation

Posted by feww on March 31, 2013

El Hierro moving east, experiencing uplift amid intense seismic activity

Intense seismicity and inflation at El Hierro suggest magma is intruding underneath the tiny volcanic island, the smallest of Canary Islands, located  in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa (population ~ 10,000).

  • Sharp increase in seismic activity in and around the tiny island (Area: ~ 278 km2) began on March 18, with the largest quake measuring 4.7 on Richter scale, which occurred on Friday.
  • The majority of tremors are occurring at a depth of between 12 and 15 km.
  • The latest geological activities have caused the island to move east and forced the ground to rise by 11 cm at Punta de Orchilla on the western tip of the island.

Map of El Hierro with recent quake epicenters

Recent quakes at El Hierro
Image Credit: AVCAN. AVCAN.ORG was developed by Victor Tapia. Original idea, administration and all rights by Fernando Raja

Recent Seismicity at El Hierro
Histogram of the recent earthquakes at El Hierro 18 -31 March, 2013. Note sharp increase in seismic activity since March 18, 2013. Image credit: AVCAN.

El Hierro - latest quakes
Latest Earthquake at El Hierro. Image credit: AVCAN.

Global Volcano Watch (Source: AVO; HVO; GVP)

New Activity/Unrest:

  • Fuego, Guatemala (Lava fountains rising to 400 m above the crater reported on 20 March, causing 1.5 km long lava stream in the Ceniza drainage).
  • Hekla, Southern Iceland
  • Tungurahua, Ecuador

Ongoing Activity:

U.S. Volcanoes

  • Kilauea, Hawaii  (Hawaii) – Code ORANGE – WATCH
  • Cleveland Volcano (Alaska) – Code YELLOW – ADVISORY

Kamchatka Peninsula

  • Gorely – Code YELLOW
  • Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) – Code ORANGE
  • Kizimen, Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) –  Code ORANGE
  • Tolbachik, Central Kamchatka (Russia)  Code ORANGE
  • Bezymianny – Code YELLOW
  • Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) – Code ORANGE

Indonesia

  • Batu Tara, Komba Island (Indonesia)
  • Lokon-Empung, Sulawesi
  • Paluweh, Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia)

Kurile Islands

  • Snow – Code YELLOW
  • Ivan Grozny – Code YELLOW

Other Volcanoes

  • Bagana, Bougainville (PNG)
  • Popocatépetl, México
  • Sakura-jima, Kyushu (Japan)
  • Santa María, Guatemala

Total: 21 volcanoes

Recent Volcano News

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Cleveland and Kīlauea Remain at ORANGE Alert

Posted by feww on April 6, 2012

Explosion destroys dome in Cleveland summit crater

Sudden explosions of blocks and ash may occur, while the volcano remains active, with the ash clouds rising to above 20,000 feet above sea level, AVO said.

  • Elevation:  5,676 ft (1,730 m)
  • Location: 52.8222° N, 169.945° W
  • Quadrangle: Samalga


Mt Cleveland. Photo taken at 18:00 UTC on 11 Mar 2012 while transiting north through Samalga pass. Several small explosions were detected in days prior to the time of the photo, but very little ash is observed on the upper flanks.  Credit:  Matthew Davis/NOAA.

KILAUEA VOLCANO

19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W,
Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1,247 m)
Current Volcano Ale,rt Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Activity Summary for past 24 hours:  The summit continued to inflate slowly while back-to-back DI events and sympathetic summit lava lake oscillations continued. Overnight, glow was visible within the Halema`uma`u gas plume and from sources within Pu`u `O`o crater. To the southeast, surface flows continued to be active on the pali and the coastal plain; there was no ocean entry. Seismic tremor levels were low; gas emissions were elevated: HVO


Kīlauea Volcano.  Active flows continued over a broad area on the coastal plain on April 5, 2012.  “This composite image combines a normal photograph and a thermal image to show the areas of active breakouts. Yellow areas are active flows while red areas are inactive, but still warm, flows. The flow front in the lower right was 1.6 km (1 mile) from the ocean,” HVO said.

Alert Level Increased for Iliamna Volcano, AK

Iliamna Activity – Color Code YELLOW Alert Level ADVISORY

Since January 2012 the earthquake rate at Iliamna Volcano has steadily increased and now exceeds normal background levels.


Iliamna Volcano. View from the SSE of Iliamna showing the prominent NE shoulder fumarole field near the summit. Note glacier disturbance (movement) on the east flank (upper Red Glacier).  Photo: Game McGimsey/AVO/USGS.

Pagan

Location: Mariana Islands  (18.13 ºN,  145.8 ºE)
Elevation: 570 m
Recent Eruption: 2006
Volcanic Alert Level: ADVISORY
Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

A gas and steam plume continued to extend downwind from the summit vent throughout the past week, but there were no further reports of unrest or activity at Pagan volcano, USGS said.

Other Volcanic Activity/ Unrest (Source: GVP)

New Activity/Unrest:

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links

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VolcanoWatch 26 June 2011

Posted by feww on June 26, 2011

VoW: The Restive Kīlauea

Kīlauea: Probably the World’s Most Active Volcano

Kīlauea is the youngest volcano on the Big Island of Hawai`i.


The active lava lake in Pu`u `Ō `ō and its levee. View looking east into Pu`u `Ō `ō, its crater partly filled by lava flows accumulating on the crater floor. The active lava lake in the crater is 205 m (673 ft) long and varies in width from 80–115 m (262–377 ft). The West Gap pit is in the central foreground, and the Puka Nui and MLK pits are to the right (the MLK pit is in back). The crater has filled in vertically about 100 m (328 ft) since the crater collapsed on March 5, 2011, at the start of the uprift Kamoamoa eruption. It still has about 12 m (39 ft) to go to reach the level of the crater floor prior to the collapse. Source of image and caption: HVO. Click images to enlarge.


Lighter-colored patches of lava on the crater floor are recent overflows. Source: HVO.


Along with overflows, low-level spattering from points wandering around the perimeter of the lava lake continually builds up the levee that impounds the lake. Source: HVO.


The lava lake’s levee stands up to 8 m (26 ft) above the surrounding crater floor. This steep-sided levee impounds the lava and forms what is called a “perched” lava lake. Pieces of the rim occasionally collapse into the lake, leading to sudden and fast-moving overflows of lava onto the crater floor. Source: HVO.


Map of Kīlauea. Source: HVO

  • Location: 19.425ºN 155.292ºW
  • Elev.: 1,277 m a.s.l.
  • Area: 1,430 km2 (13.7% of Hawai`i)
  • Volume: 25,000-35,000 km3

Click HERE for more images and information …

Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

(based on SI /USGS report for 15 June – 21 June 2011)

New activity/unrest:

FEWW Map of Volcanoes


Map of Volcanoes. Background Map: University of Michigan. Designed and enhanced by Fire Earth Blog. Click image to enlarge.

Ongoing Activity

Current Alerts for U.S. Volcanoes

  • Kilauea Watch Orange 2011-06-25 07:53:30
  • Pagan Advisory Yellow 2011-06-24 10:23:48
  • Long Valley Volcanic Center Normal Green 2011-06-24 17:58:30
  • Mauna Loa Normal Green 2011-06-04 07:16:42
  • Hualalai Normal Green 2011-06-04 07:16:42
  • Haleakala Normal Green 2011-06-04 07:16:42
  • Mauna Kea Normal Green 2011-06-04 07:16:42
  • Yellowstone Normal Green 2011-06-01 14:15:51
  • Lo`ihi Unassigned 2011-06-04 07:16:42

US Volcanoes: Webcams

Related Links

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Activity at Kilauea – Satellite Images

Posted by feww on March 24, 2011

Kilauea: The World’s Most Active Volcano

KILAUEA VOLCANO
Location: 19°25’16″N 155°17’13″W
Summit Elevation: 1,247 m
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Source: HVO

HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
Wednesday, March 23, 2011 7:34 AM HST (Wednesday, March 23, 2011 17:34 UTC)

Activity Summary for past 24 hours

  • No molten lava visible at Kilauea volcano surface
  • DI deflation continues
  • Lava lake crusted over very deep within the summit vent
  • Summit seismicity slightly elevated
  • SO2 emissions and ERZ seismicity are low at summit and East Rift ZoneS
  • Sulfur dioxide emission rate about 200 tons per day ((preliminary reading on March 22, 2011)

[NOTE: DI stands for ‘deflation-inflation’ and denotes a volcanic event of uncertain significance.]


Click images to enlarge. Download larger image (571 KB, JPEG)  — captured March 18, 2011


Download larger image (436 KB, JPEG)  —  captured January 16, 2010

“In the image—which depicts mostly infrared wavelengths of light—vegetation is green, older lava flows are brown to black, and “hot” areas are red. In this case, the scorched land and fresh lava in the burn scar appears slightly red and brown, while the still-burning forest fire appears bright red. In the 2010 image, lava stands out within and near Pu’u ‘O’o.” Source: NASA-EO.

On March 5, 2011, a new fissure appeared on Kilauea, the world’s most active volcano. Fresh lava from Kamoamoa fissure spewed to a height of about 50 meters above ground, setting off a forest fire which has since consumed about 2,000 acres.

Kamoamoa fissure is located about 13km  east of the volcano summit, lying along the rift zone between Pu’u ‘O’o and Napau Crater .

The above false-color images of of the are were taken by ALI on the NASA’s EO-1 satellite captureda (top) on March 18, 2011, bottom on 16, 2010 (included for comparison).

Kilauea’s latest episode of ongoing activity began in 1983.

Related Links

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Kilauea SO2 emissions tops 10,000 tpd

Posted by feww on March 8, 2011

Kilauea Volcano: Elevated Seismicity, Increased Effusion

Volcano Shows Increased Effusion Rates, Significantly Elevated Seismicity at summit and east rift zone


Lava pours from the fissure just after daybreak and cascades out of sight into a deep crack. HVO geologist near upper right for perspective. Source: HVO. Click image to enlarge.

HVO/USGS Volcanic Activity Warning

Volcano: Kilauea (CAVW #1302-01-)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Previous Aviation Color Code: RED

Issued: Monday, March 7, 2011, 6:13 PM HST (March 8, 2011, at 04:1UTC)
Source: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Notice Number: 2011/H2
Location: N 19 deg 25 min W 155 deg 17 min
Elevation: 4,091 ft (1,247 m)
Area: HI Hawaii and Pacific Ocean

Volcanic Activity Summary from HVO:  Eruption continues at Kīlauea volcano’s east rift zone  with intermittent activity at alternating locations along a 2.3 km long fissure between Pu’u ‘Ō’ō and Nāpau Crater. Effusion rates are high, with lava spatter reaching as high as  30m.

East rift zone gas emissions are significantly elevated above the 300 tonnes/day measured during the past several months and as recently as March 5, prior to the fissure eruption. Gas measurements on March 6 show an average SO2 emission rate of 10,000 tonnes/day, the highest measured on the east rift zone since an eruptive surge in July 2008 produced an emission rate of 7,000 tonnes/day. Summit SO2 emissions on March 6 were around 600 tonnes/day.

The TEB eruption system downrift (ENE) of Pu’u ‘Ō’ō appears to have shut down. During today’s overflight of the flow field, no active lava flows were observed on the pali or coastal plain.

Seismicity remains significantly elevated at both Kīlauea’s summit and east rift zone.

Deflation appears to be slowing at the summit and east rift zone.

At Kīlauea’s summit, the lava lake within the Halema’uma’u Crater vent is about 200 m deep, based on visual estimates. A rockfall within the vent at 2:23 p.m. HST today produced a vigorous dusty brown plume.


The fissure is located just west of Pu`u `Ō `ō Crater. Spatter was reaching heights of 40 m (130 ft). Source: HVO


Most of the day’s activity was focused at this vent, around which a low cone was forming. Pu`u `Ō `ō is visible in the background to the northeast. Source: HVO


Source: HVO.  Click image to enlarge.

Video showing lava pouring from the fissure into a seemingly bottomless crack

Video showing lava pouring from the fissure into a seemingly bottomless crack. Napau Crater in the background. Helicopter for scale.
Video showing lava pouring from the fissure into a seemingly bottomless crack. Napau Crater in the background. Helicopter for scale. Source: HVO

Video showing spattering from the most persistent vent of the day just west of the base of Pu`u `Ō `ō near the northeastern end of the fissure system.
Video showing spattering from the most persistent vent of the day just west of the base of Pu`u `Ō `ō near the northeastern end of the fissure system.

Lava spatters above the fissure just west of the base of Pu`u `Ō `ō.
Lava spatters above the fissure just west of the base of Pu`u `Ō `ō

Related Links

HVO Links:

Kīlauea Update | Mauna Loa Status | Deformation | Maps | Webcams | Images | Movies

Hawaii Volcanoes  Webcams

Kīlauea Summit

Halema`uma`u, Kīlauea Volcano
Halema`uma`u from HVO
Halema`uma`u from Overlook, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii
Halema`uma`u from Overlook
Kīlauea East Rift Zone

Pu`u `Ō `ō, Kīlauea Volcano
Pu`u `Ō `ō
Thanksgiving Eve Breakout From Pu`u `Ō `ō
Thanksgiving Eve Breakout From Pu`u `Ō `ō
Napau Crater, Kīlauea Volcano
Napau Crater
Mauna Loa Summit

Mokuawe`owe`o, Mauna Loa Summit Caldera
Mokuawe`owe`o, Mauna Loa Summit Caldera

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VolcanoWatch Weekly [10 Dec 2009]

Posted by feww on December 10, 2009

SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(2 December – 8 December 2009)

New activity/Unrest:

  • Region: Central Chile
  • Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
  • Last Known Eruption: 2009
  • Summit Elevation: 3,125 m  (10,253 feet)
  • Latitude: 38.692°S  (38°41’30″S)
  • Longitude: 71.729°W (71°43’43″W)


Llaima, one of Chile’s largest and most active volcanoes, has a symmetrical profile when seen from the north. The massive, 3125-m-high, glacier-covered stratovolcano is constructed primarily of accumulated lava flows and has a volume of 400 cu km. Volcán Llaima contains two historically active craters, one at the summit and the other to the SE. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano’s flanks. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions, a few of which were accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 17th century. Photo by Norm Banks, 1990 (U.S. Geological Survey). Caption: GVP.

Volcano News (Source: GVP)

KVERT reported that during 27 November-4 December seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and lava continued to flow down the ESE flank. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 300 m above the crater.

Cameras operated by OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN showed steam-and-gas plumes rising from Llaima’s main crater and E flank during 14 November-1 December. Although seismicity generally decreased, a new type of long-period, low-frequency earthquake was detected. (Source: GVP)

Ongoing Activity

Ambrym, Vanuatu (SW Pacific);  Chaitén, Southern Chile; Colima, México;  Dukono, Halmahera; Fuego, Guatemala; Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka;  Kilauea, Hawaii (USA);  Kliuchevskoi, Central Kamchatka (Russia);  Rabaul, New Britain;  Sakura-jima, Kyushu;  San Cristóbal, Nicaragua;  Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia); Soufrière Hills, Montserrat;  Suwanose-jima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan).

Related Links:

More Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Other Related Links:

Recent Posts on Chaitén:

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Hawaii’s Kilauea Billows 2,500 MT of SO2

Posted by feww on December 2, 2009

Kilauea’s Halemaumau crater billows up to 2,500 metric tons of sulfur dioxide each day

The vog (volcanic fog) billowed out from Kilauea contains large quantities of sulfur dioxide which is killing crops in the Big Island.


With stagnant winds present, Halema`uma`u plume stands straight up, showing off the distant, but bright, full moon [Photo Date: November 13, 2008 ]. Photo Credit: M. Poland; Source: USGS

The U.S. Department of Agriculture declared Hawaii County a natural disaster area, which means the farmers there could apply for low interest loans from the federal government,  a report said.

However, it’s not known what the farmers are meant to do with the money, or how they would pay it back, since there’s no agreement with Kilauea concerning the  SO2 emissions!

In reality these loans should be “relocation grants” to allow the farmers leave the Big Island (in a hurry). As of December 2009, the only indication is that there would more SO2 billowing out of Kilauea in the coming weeks, month and possibly years. That situation could change, of course, but the farmers shouldn’t put too much hope in that.

“We can wash our trucks in the morning and in the afternoon you rub your hand across the top of the truck and it feels like sand paper,” said Phil Becker who, together with his wife, own  Aikane Plantation Coffee Company on the southern part of Big Island.

The Beckers previously grew and sold protea, however, vog has destroyed their plants.

“We’ve only got about three plants left after about 181 is what we started with and we’ve only got three that are trying to survive. It’s also impacted our cattle as far as the grass not recovering the way it usually does,” Phil Becker was reported as saying.

These days the Beckers are focusing their efforts on growing coffee … and even that is suffering. This year’s crop is about a third the size of a normal crop.

Not only So2 reacts with moisture in the air to give extremely corrosive sulfurous acid, which covers the leaves and stalks of plants, killing them, the deadly gas molecules also block the sun as they permeate the stratosphere and prevent needed sunshine from reaching the crops.

Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases

Aerial view of Pu`u `Ō `ō and vicinity

July 21 Eruption Near-view Map: November 25, 2009

Map showing the July 21, 2007 eruption flow field. The Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) flow is currently active and is that portion of the July 21, 2007 eruption flow field that extends south from the TEB vent to the ocean. Light red is the area of the flow as of November 7, 2009, while the bright red shows the flow field expansion that occurred between November 7 and November 25. Source of Image and Caption: HVO

HVO DAILY UPDATE Tuesday, December 1, 2009 7:47 AM HST (Tuesday, December 1, 2009 17:47 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (CAVW #1302-01-)
Coordinates: 19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W
Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH

Activity Summary for past 24 hours: Kilauea continued to erupt from two vents. At the summit, a lava pond was visible for several hours before draining and crusting over. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. From the east rift zone vent, lava flows through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at several locations west of Kalapana.

Related Links:

Other Related Links:

Posted in hawaii volcanoes, particulate matter, SO2, stratosphere, vog | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [25 Nov 2009]

Posted by feww on November 26, 2009

VOW: to be announced…

SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(18 November – 24 November 2009)

New activity/Unrest:

Volcano News (Source: GVP)

An explosive eruption from  detected by the seismic network on 20 November prompted INGEOMINAS to raise the Alert Level. Residents reported five explosions, sound waves, and incandescence from multiple areas in the crater.

During 18-24 November, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from beneath Kilauea’s Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the ocean. On 21 November, a sliver of the rim collapsed and was followed by an explosion that produced a dense brown plume that dissipated after a few minutes. Watch the video here. Source: GVP [Note: The video has .mov format and cannot be run on Windows Media Player.]

Ongoing Activity:

Batu Tara, Komba Island (Indonesia);  Chaitén, Southern Chile;  Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka;  Kilauea, Hawaii;  Kliuchevskoi, Central Kamchatka (Russia); Pacaya, Guatemala;  Popocatépetl, México; Rabaul, New Britain; Reventador, Ecuador; Sakura-jima, Kyushu; Santa María, Guatemala; Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia); Soufrière Hills, Montserrat; Suwanose-jima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)

Related Links:

More Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Other Related Links:

Recent Posts on Chaitén:

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VolcanoWatch Weekly [30 September 2009]

Posted by feww on October 2, 2009

VOW: Golden Trout Creek

A cluster of 66 shocks have rocked a a 15 square km area centered about 36.392°N, 117.861°W, some 41 km east of the Golden Trout Creek volcano field in central California, in the past few days. Although most of the quakes were tremors measuring less than M 3.0, the largest shock measured 5.2.

Volcano Details:

Country:  United States
Region:  California (USA)
Volcano Type: Volcanic field
Volcano Status: Tephrochronology
Last Known Eruption: 5550 BC ± 1000 years
Summit Elevation: 2,886 m  (9,468 feet)
Latitude: 36.358°N   (36°21’30″N)
Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP)


The Golden Trout Creek volcanic field consists of a group of Quaternary alkali olivine basaltic cinder cones and lava flows in the Toowa valley of the Sierra Nevada about 25 km south of Mount Whitney. Lava flows from the Golden Trout Creek volcanic field erupted through Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith during several episodes dating back to about 743,000 years ago, when the Little Whitney cinder cone and lava flows were erupted. The South Fork cone was erupted about 176,000 years ago and produced the largest lava flow of the volcanic field, which traveled 10 km to the west, possibly as far as the floor of Kern Canyon. Tunnel cone to the north of South Fork (Red Hill) cone is undated, but its lava flow is overlain by glacial deposits and it is thought to be only slightly younger than South Fork cone. The youngest lava flow, from Groundhog cone, is unglaciated and thought to be about 5-10,000 years old (Moore and Lanphere 1983). The lava flow from Groundhog cone traveled 6 km west down Golden Trout Creek on top of the older flow from South Fork cone.—GVP.  
Photo: Rick Howard, 2002 (courtesy of Del Hubbs, U S Forest Service).

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(23 September – 29 September 2009)

New activity/Unrest:

News From GVP:

CVGHM reported that on 26 September a “thunderous” noise from Dieng was heard from 2 km away. The next day, a phreatic eruption from an unspecified crater ejected mud as far away as 140 m S.

KVERT reported that on 17 and 22 September a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was detected in satellite imagery. Scientists flying near Karymsky in a helicopter on 22 September saw ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. —GVP

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Other Related Links:

Posted in Central Kamchatka, Chaiten, FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast, island of Java, Karymsky, Kliuchevskoi, Mayon, Sakar, Shiveluch, Socorro, Sumatra, volcanism, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [16 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 17, 2009

VOW: Krakatoa [Krakatau]

Krakatoa is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait located between Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. Both the volcano and island group share the same name.

Four enormous explosions almost entirely destroyed Krakatoa island on August 27, 1883. The violent explosions were reportedly heard in Perth, Western Australia,  some 3,500 km away. It was heard even on the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius, about 4,800 km away.

The shockwave from the last explosion, which ejected volcanic matter 80 km into the atmosphere, echoed around the planet seven times.

Karakatoa
An 1888 lithograph of the 1883 violent explosion of Krakatoa.

The eruption ejected about 21 cubic kilometers of volcanic matter and completely destroyed two-thirds of the Krakatoa island.

island map
The Island Map (Simkin and Fiske, 1983). Image may be subject to copyright.

Anak Krakatau (the Child of Krakatau)  is the only active vent left from Krakatoa. u is  This volcano has built itself slowly from the sea floor since the paroxysmal eruption of 1883.  Anak Krakatau is located between the northern two vents, Danan and Perboewatan, that were destroyed in the 1883 eruption.  For the most part, the eruptions are Vulcanian, slowly building the island with a combination of lava, ash, and pumice.

location map
Krakatoa: Location Map. Source of the original map: USGS

Krakatoa_01
Krakatoa: An early 19th Century image.

Early in the morning of May 20, 1883, the captain of the German warship Elizabeth reported seeing an ~11-km-high cloud of ash and dust rising above the uninhabited island of Krakatau, thus documenting the first eruption from this Indonesian island in at least two centuries. Over the ensuing two months, crews on commercial vessels and sightseers on charted ships would experience similar spectacles, all of which were associated with explosive noises and churning clouds of black to incandescent ash and pumice. From a distance, the largest of these natural fanfares impressed the local inhabitants on the coastal plains of Java and Sumatra, creating a near-festive environment. Little did they realize, however, that these awe-inspiring displays were only a prelude to one of the largest eruptions in historic times. A series of cataclysmic explosions began at mid-day on August 26, and ended on August 27 with a stupendous paroxysmal eruption. On this day, the northern two-thirds of the island collapsed beneath the sea, generating a series of devastating pyroclastic flows and immense tsunamis that ravaged adjacent coastlines. The events that began on August 26 would mark the last 24 hours on earth for over 36,000 people [possibly as many as 120,000,] and the destruction of hundreds of coastal villages and towns. —Geology-/SDSU [Spelling mistakes corrected by FEWW.]

ashcroft -riv thames
William Ashcroft painting “On the Banks of the River Thames” in London, November 26, 1883 [Exactly three months after Krakatoa’s cataclysmic 1883 eruption.]

The Krakatoa eruption affected the climate driving the weather patterns wild for the next 5 years. Average global temperatures fell by about 1.2 °C in the following years, returning to normal only in 1888.

landsat PP1
Krakatoa Image by Landsat Pathfinder Project (Dated May 18, 1992)

Anak Krakatau’s most recent eruptive episode began in 1994, with near continuous Strombolian eruptions, punctuated by larger explosions.  In its most recent eruption, which began in April 2008, the volcano released hot gases, rocks, and lava. Scientists monitoring the volcano have warned people to stay out of a 3 km zone around the island. By and large, the eruptions are Vulcanian, helping to slowly build the island with ash, lava and pumice at an average rate of about 60 cm per month.

Fearing an imminent eruption, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia raised Anak’s  eruption alert level to Orange on May 6, 2009.

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(9 September – 15 September 2009)

New activity/unrest:

News From GVP:

  • PHIVOLCS reported that 11 earthquakes from Mayon were detected during 14-15 September. On 15 September, three ash explosions produced a brownish plume that rose no more than 700 m above the crater and drifted SW.
  • On 11 September, KVERT reported strong explosions from Shiveluch. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes rose to an altitude greater than 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l. The seismic network then detected eight minutes of pyroclastic flows from the lava dome; resulting plumes rose to an altitude of approximately 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. —GVP

Tafu-Maka


A bathymetric map prepared during a NOAA Vents Program November 2008 expedition shows two submarine volcanoes, Tafu (Tongan for “source of fire”) and Maka (Tongan for “rock”). The volcanoes lie along a NE-SW-trending ridge on the southern part of the back-arc NE Lau Spreading Center (NELSC). The November 2008 expedition discovered submarine hydrothermal plumes consistent with very recent (days to weeks?) submarine lava effusion from Maka volcano.  Image courtesy of NOAA Vents Program, 2008. Caption: GVP.

Ongoing Activity:


HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE

Wednesday, September 16, 2009 8:30 AM HST (Wednesday, September 16, 2009 18:30 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (CAVW #1302-01-)
19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH

Activity Summary for past 24 hours: The third DI event in a week started yesterday morning and switched to DI inflation overnight. Moderate glow was visible after dark from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent (summit). Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. Lava from the TEB vent (east rift zone) flows through tubes to the ocean and feeds surface flows.

Past 24 hours at Kilauea summit:
Glow was visible from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent overnight. This morning, trade winds are blowing the plume, denser than yesterday morning, to the southwest over the Ka`u Desert. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 900 tonnes/day on September 11, which is well above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day. Very small amounts of ash-sized rock dust waft up from the vent and are deposited nearby on the crater rim.

halema uma u
This Quicktime movie shows two active vents on the floor of the Halema`uma`u cavity. Lava is just below the rim of the two vents, creating frequent spattering which falls around their rims. Within the larger of the two (on the right), lava can be seen vigorously sloshing. For scale, these vents are about 10 yards wide. The first half of the movie is shown in normal mode, with the second half shown in ‘nightshot’ mode.

The summit tiltmeter network recorded the third DI event in a week with deflation just before 8 am yesterday and inflation just after midnight last night. The GPS network, which is less sensitive than the tiltmeter network, recorded less than 2 cm of contraction over the last 3 months with brief periods of extension coinciding with strong DI inflation on September 1-2 and 11-12; they recorded contraction since 9/13.

Seismic tremor levels remain elevated; two weak hybrid earthquakes followed by 15-20 minutes of sustained tremor were recorded starting around 7:30 pm last night. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes continued to increase slightly but remained below background levels. Six earthquakes were recorded beneath Kilauea – three beneath the summit caldera, two deep quakes below the lower southwest rift zone, and one on south flank faults. —HVO

  • Videos and Images are available at: HVO

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VolcanoWatch Weekly [9 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 11, 2009

VOW: Toba the Sleeping Colossus

Toba
Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia – Landsat photo – Source: NASA

Lake Toba is a supervolcano, 100 kilometres long and 30 kilometres wide, and 505 metres (1,666 ft) at its deepest point. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft), the lake stretches from 2.88°N 98.52°E  to 2.35°N 99.1°E.  It is the largest volcanic lake in the world. It’s also the site of a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 74,000 years ago, a massive climate-changing event. The eruption is believed to have had a VEI intensity of 8. This eruption, believed to have been the largest anywhere on Earth in the last 25 million years, may have had catastrophic consequences globally; some anthropologists and archeologists believe that it killed most humans then alive, creating a population bottleneck in Central Eastern Africa and India that affected the genetic inheritance of all humans today. (Source: Wikipedia).

Toba Large
Lake Toba Topography.
Source: Andaman Org.

Toba catastrophe theory

The Toba catastrophe theory holds that 70,000 to 75,000 years ago, a supervolcanic event at Lake Toba, on Sumatra, plunged the Earth into a mini-ice-age lasting several thousand years, reducing the world’s human population to 10,000 or even a mere 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution. The theory was proposed in 1998 by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

The Toba eruption (the Toba event) occurred at what is now Lake Toba about 67,500 to 75,500 years ago. It had an estimated Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8 (described as “mega-colossal”), making it possibly the largest explosive volcanic eruption within the last twenty-five million years. It had a volume 300 cubic km greater than the Island Park Caldera supereruption (2500 cubic km) of 2.1 million years BP.

The total amount of erupted material was estimated at about 2,800 km³ — about 2,000 km³ of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground, and some 800 km³ that fell as ash, with the wind blowing most of it to the west. The pyroclastic flows of the eruption destroyed an area of 20,000 square kilometers, with ash deposits as thick as 600 metres near the main vent [ cf, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens ejected about 1.2 km³;  of material, whilst the largest volcanic eruption in historic times, at Mount Tambora in 1815, emitted the equivalent of 100 km3 of dense rock.] The eruption was also about three times the size of the latest Yellowstone eruption of Lava Creek 630,000 years ago. (Source: Wikipedia).

volcanic features of toba
The eruption of 73,000 years ago left the Sibandung caldera.  Lake Toba is surrounded by two small, active volcanos as well as several updomed areas and hot springs. These features indicate that there is activity below the surface today and that pressure is rising. Samosir island, too, is evidence for upthrust from below. From the record it seems that Toba produces major eruptions every 300-400,000 years. Source: Andaman Org.

Volcanic features in and around Lake Toba:

Grey area: Present-day topographic depression
green area: Updomed areas

Area # 1.  Sibandung caldera: made 73,000 years ago by the Toba YTT event (Young Toba Ash)
Area # 2. Haranggaol caldera: made 500,000 years ago by the Toba MTT event (Middle Toba Ash)
Area # 3.  Sibandung caldera: made 800,000 years ago by the Toba OTT event (Old Toba Ash)

The MTT and OTT events were not as large as the YTT event of 73,000 years ago
but were still major eruptions of at least VEI 7.

V1 Tandukbenua (Sipisopiso) – young dacit-andesite volcano
V2 Pusubukit volcano – young dacit-andesite volcano
D1 Pardepur dacite domes
D2 Tuk-tuk rhyolite dome
HS Hot springs
Source: Andaman Org.

Recent Activity

Large earthquakes have occurred in the vicinity of the volcano more recently, notably in 1987.  Other earthquakes have occurred in the area in 1892, 1916, and 1920-1922.

Lake Toba lies near the Great Sumatran fault which runs along the centre of Sumatra called the Sumatra Fracture Zone. The volcanoes of Sumatra and Java are part of the Sunda Arc, a result of the northeasterly movement of the Indo-Australian Plate which is sliding under the eastward-moving Eurasian Plate. The subduction zone in this area is very active: the seabed near the west coast of Sumatra has had several major earthquakes since 1995, including the 9.3 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake [followed by the deadly tsunami] and the 8.7 2005 Sumatra earthquake, the epicenters of which were around 300 km from Toba Lake. (Source: Wikipedia).

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(26 August-1 September 2009)

New activity/unrest:

Notes [Source: GVP]

RVO reported that during 28 August-3 September white and gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera’s Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater and produced ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas.

The Washington VAAC reported that on 6 September an explosion from San Cristóbal produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude no higher than 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted 75 km W.

Ongoing Activity:

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VolcanoWatch Weekly [27 August 2009]

Posted by feww on August 28, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 19 August – 25 August 2009

VOW: Koryaksky

koryaksky_amo_2009239
Koryaksky Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula released a plume on August 27, 2009, caught by MODIS on NASA’s Aqua satellite. The volcano has released intermittent ash and/or steam plumes late August.

This true-color image shows a pale plume, which consists primarily of water vapor, blowing away from the summit east-northeast, toward the Bering Sea.

Vostok Media reported simultaneous activity at six Kamchatka volcanoes, describing  the first concurrent unrest in 60 years as rare. NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Michon Scott. [Edited by FEWW.]

New activity/unrest:

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

KORYAKSKY Eastern Kamchatka 53.320°N, 158.688°E; summit elev. 3,456 m

KVERT reported that during 14-21 August seismic activity from Koryaksky was slightly above background levels. During 13-16 August, gas-and-steam plumes rose to altitudes of 3.5-5 km (11,500-16,400 ft) a.s.l. Based on visual observations during 16-20 August, gas-and-steam plumes containing ash rose to altitudes of 3.5-4.2 km (11,500-13,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ash plumes were also seen in satellite imagery, drifting 215 km E and W. On 23 August, a probable ash plume detected in satellite imagery drifted 50 km ESE. During 24-25 August, seismicity increased; more than 100 earthquakes were recorded. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Geologic Summary. The large symmetrical Koryaksky stratovolcano is the most prominent landmark of the NW-trending Avachinskaya volcano group, which towers above Kamchatka’s largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion has produced a ribbed surface on the eastern flanks of the 3456-m-high volcano; the youngest lava flows are found on the upper western flank and below SE-flank cinder cones. No strong explosive eruptions have been documented during the Holocene. Extensive Holocenefissure vents about 3900-3500 years ago reached Avacha Bay. Only a few moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during historical lava fields on the western flank were primarily fed by summit vents; those on the SW flank originated from flank vents. Lahars associated with a period of lava effusion from south- and SW-flank time. Koryaksky’s first historical eruption, in 1895, also produced a lava flow. (Source: GVP).

Notes:

Based on information from the Tegucigalpa MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that ash was detected within 15 km of Fuego on 19 August. According to INSIVUMEH, rumbling sounds were accompanied by incandescent tephra ejected 75 m high on 21 August. (Source: GVP).

Ongoing Activity:

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VolcanoWatch Weekly [20 August 2009]

Posted by feww on August 22, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 12 August-18 August 2009

VoW: Talang

Talang
The Indonesian volcano Talang on the island of Sumatra had been dormant for centuries when, in April 2005, it suddenly rumbled to life. A plume of smoke rose 1000 meters high and nearby villages were covered in ash. Fearing a major eruption, local authorities began evacuating 40,000 people. Caption: James A. Phillips, NASA.

And just to confuse the readers a little, the following caption is by volcano.oregonstate.edu

Talang is a stratovolcano with 8 confirmed eruptions between 1833 and 1968. The volcano may have had a phreatic eruption in 1986 but the activity has not been confirmed. Most of the eruptions are moderate in size (VEI=2) and explosive. Eruptions in 1833, 1843, 1845, and 1876 were from flank vents. An eruption in 1967 and two different eruptions in 1968 were from radial fissures. The distance from the city of Padang to Talang is about 35 km. Image courtesy of the Landsat Pathfinder Project.

TALANG
Country: Indonesia
Region: Sumatra
Last Known Eruption: 2007
Summit Elevation: 2,597 m (8,520 feet)
Latitude: 0.978°S  (0°58’42″S)
Longitude:  100.679°E (100°40’46″E)
Source: GVP


Talang, which forms a twin volcano with the extinct Pasar Arbaa volcano, lies ESE of the major city of Padang and rises NW of Dibawah Lake. Talang has two crater lakes on its flanks; the largest of these is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang. Most historical eruptions have not occurred from the summit of the volcano, which lacks a crater. Historical eruptions from Gunung Talang volcano have mostly involved small-to-moderate explosive activity first documented in the 19th century that originated from a series of small craters in a valley on the upper NE flank. Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1986 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia). Caption: GVP.

Authorities raise Mt. Talang alert level to highest

The vulcanology and disaster mitigation office in West Sumatra has raised the alert status for Mt. Talang to the highest level following a 6.9-magnitude earthquake and a series of aftershocks that struck the province.

Vulcanologist Dalipa Marjusi said Tuesday the tremors had sparked a volcanic earthquake and temblors, although eruption of the volcano remained undetected.

“Since Sunday’s earthquake we have recorded 1,600 volcanic quakes and 700 tectonic quakes, but only 23 of them were felt,” Dalipa said.

Fog has blanketed the summit of the 2,597-meter volcano for the last two days, making it difficult to see ash or lava that might be erupting from its crater.

The volcano last spewed hot ash last April.

A seven-strong team from the directorate general of vulcanology and disaster mitigation have arrived in Padang from Bandung to monitor the volcano’s activities.
Source: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/08/18/authorities-raise-mt-talang-alert-level-highest.html


Talang is the 6th listed volcano from top left.

New activity/unrest:

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Notes:

IG reported that on 4 August seismicity from Reventador increased and periods of tremor frequently saturated the seismic stations. On 6 August, incandescent blocks were ejected from the crater. Thermal images revealed a linear area of higher temperatures, confirming the presence of a new lava flow on the S flank.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 14 August a 2-hour-long thermal anomaly detected over Pagan was followed by a small emission. The emission, hotter than its surroundings, drifted NW and quickly dissipated. [Source: GVP]

Ongoing Activity:

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VolcanoWatch Weekly [13 August 2009]

Posted by feww on August 14, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report:  5  – 11 August 2009

VoW: Kilauea

Kilauea
Since the vent collapse in late June, Kilauea’s summit plume had been wispy, translucent and low in SO2 content, resulting in improved air quality in Kona and Ka‘u. However, the summit vent has picked up in activity again this week. (Photo courtesy of Hawaiian Volcano Observatory). Source: Click Here.

New activity/unrest:

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Ongoing Activity:

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VolcanoWatch Weekly [30 July 2009]

Posted by feww on July 30, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 22 July – 28 July 2009

VOW: Batu Tara

batu tara July 27 2009
Batu Tara remained active in late July 2009. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image the volcano releasing a faint plume on July 27, 2009. The distinct segments of the plume suggest that the volcano has released ash and/or steam in pulses. The plume blows toward the northwest over the Flores Sea.  NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Michon Scott.

batutara EO 18 may 2009
Batu Tara remained active in mid-May 2009. On May 17, 2009, as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this image, the tiny volcanic island released a plume of ash and/or steam. The volcano’s plume forms a counter-clockwise arc north of the volcano. East of that plume is another, fainter plume, almost certainly of the same origin, blowing westward over the Flores Sea. NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Michon Scott.

New activity/unrest:

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Notes:

KVERT reported that during 17-18 and 20-24 July seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels. According to news sources, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. late on 25 July. Increased seismicity, powerful ash bursts, and avalanches were also reported.

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 July explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 23 July and 27 July pilots observed ash plumes. (Source: GVP)

Ongoing Activity:

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Week 33 Volcano Watch

Posted by feww on August 21, 2008

13 August-19 August 2008

New Activity/Unrest:

Piton de la Fournaise. The massive Piton de la Fournaise on the island of Réunion is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. It is seen here in 1977 with a fresh black lava flow descending the outer NE flank of the shield volcano to the sea. An unvegetated summit lava shield (upper left) was constructed within an 8-km-wide caldera that is breached to the sea. Its sloping northern rim is marked by the diagonal vegetation line at the left. More than 150 eruptions have occurred since the 17th century, mostly from vents within the caldera. (Caption:Global Volcanism Program ). Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1977 (published in SEAN Bulletin, 1977).

Ongoing Activity:

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program. This page is updated on Wednesdays, please see the GVP Home Page for news of the latest significant activity.

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