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Posts Tagged ‘lava’

KILAUEA VOLCANO: Big Island ‘Shrinking’

Posted by feww on May 15, 2018

Fissure 20 Cracks Open

Fissure 20 emitting lava spatter and super-heated steam has forced Hawaii authorities to call for more evacuations on the Big Island, while explosive eruptions from the Kilauea volcano loom.

Hawaiʻi County, encompassed by the Big Island, is home to about 190,000 people and an inordinate no. of tourists.

LOWER EAST RIFT ZONE: Eruption of lava continues from multiple points along the northeast end of the active fissure system, HVO said.

Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the vents. Yesterday [May 14 AM UTC] with the onset of activity at fissure 17, powerful steam jets have occurred intermittently near the west end of the fissure. These jets may be responsible for some of the loud sounds reported by residents and emergency workers.

KILAUEA SUMMIT: “Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and seismicity remains elevated. Last night several strong earthquakes shook HVO and the surrounding area.”

Several hours ago, “a steady, vigorous plume of steam and occasionally minor amounts of ash is rising from the Overlook vent and drifting downwind to the southwest. As has been observed over the past several days, occasional rockfalls into the deep vent are expected produce intermittent pulses of slightly more vigorous ash emissions. Depending on wind conditions, dustings of ash may occur in the Kilauea summit area and downwind. More energetic ash emissions are possible if explosive activity commences,” HVO said.


Map as of 2:30 p.m. HST, May 14, shows the location of fissure 17, which opened on May 13 at about 4:30 a.m. HST., and the area covered by an ‘a‘ā flow since then. The flow front as of 2:30 p.m. is shown by the small red circle with label. The flow is following well a path of steepest descent (blue line), immediately south of the 1955 ‘a‘ā flow boundary. Shaded purple areas indicate lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. [USGS/HVO]

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Eruption Continues at Guatemala’s Fuego Volcano

Posted by feww on December 6, 2015

Strombolian eruptions at Volcán de Fuego  

The 3,763 m volcano, dubbed the “Volcano of Fire,”  sits about 10km SW of the colonial city of Antigua (Pop: ~ 50,000), Guatemala’s former capital, and about 50km from Guatemala City. and is one of Central America’s most active volcanoes.

  • Fuego volcano [Volcán de Fuego, or “Volcano of Fire,”] located about 40 km southwest of Guatemalan capital, erupted on February 7-8, prompting the authorities to evacuate a nearby community and forcing the closure of the capital’s international airport.
  • In September 2012, powerful explosions at Fuego ejected smoke and ash about 4km into the air, spewing two lava stream down the volcano flanks, accompanied by thousands of tons of volcanic ash and tephra. Tens of thousands of people from two dozen villages nearest to the volcano were either evacuated, or put on evacuation alert.

Fuego Volcano – Elevation: 3,763m – Location: 14°28’54″N, 90°52’54″W


The camera is located at INSIVUMEH’s Fuego Observatory in Panimache, Chimaltenango, Guatemala about 7 km southwest of the summit of Fuego. The image is updated every minute. Note that all times are UTC (local time plus 6 hrs).

Fuego is a stratovolcano in the Central American volcanic arc that erupts crystal-rich lavas of basalt to basaltic-andesite composition. It has been continuously active since 1999. Typical activity includes dozens of small-scale explosive eruptions each day.

Fuego is monitored by the Instituto Nacional de Sismología, Vulcanología, Meteorología e and Hidrología (INSIVUMEH). In addition to volcano observatories, INSIVUMEH maintains a network of seismograph stations near the active volcanoes. For the latest webicorder plots from INSIVUMEH, click here. The Fuego station is called FG3.

For the latest volcano activity status from INSIVUMEH, click here or here for the google translation to English. [Source: http://ovfuego-norte.geo.mtu.edu/%5D

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Hundreds Evacuated after Pico do Fogo Eruption

Posted by feww on November 28, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
LAVA FLOW
MASS EVACUATIONS
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 402, 071, 070, 047, 017, 09, 07, 02
.

Lava threatens to bury town on the island of Fogo

Lava is moving close to the village of Portela, near the community of Cha das Caldeiras, situated within the crater of the Pico do Fogo on the island of Fogo [means ‘fire’ in Portuguese,] where more than 1,200 people have been evacuated.

A local vulcanologist reportedly told state-owned Radio Cape Verde the first explosion that occurred on Sunday was “much greater than the one in 1995,” which deposited a layer of ash across the island.

“The eruption was very powerful, but we are appealing to the people to stay calm,” a government minister said.

The eruption was a level 3 on the 9-level volcanic explosivity index, the minister said.

Fogo is one of nine inhabited islands comprising Cape Verde in West Africa.

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‘Misunderestimated’

Posted by feww on November 9, 2014

Images of the day:

Timelapse camera caught in Kīlauea overflow

HVO- preimage-955-s
A timelapse camera that USGS HVO scientists were using to monitor a lava tube skylight was caught in an overflow this morning. In this view, recent lava has surrounded the tripod and melted the power cable. Daily updates about Kīlauea’s ongoing eruptions, recent images and videos of summit and East Rift Zone volcanic activity, and data about recent earthquakes are posted on the HVO Web site at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov. [Source: HVO]

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Federal Disaster Declared due to Hawaii Eruption, Lava Flow

Posted by feww on November 4, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
KILAUEA JUNE 27TH LAVA FLOW
FEDERAL DISASTER DECLARATION
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 402, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Major Disaster Declaration for Kīlauea June 27th Flow (DR – 4201)

The White House has declared a federal disaster in Hawaii County due to Kilauea’s Pu’u ‘Ō’ō volcanic eruption and the June 27th lava flow.

“Kenneth K. Suiso has been named as the Federal Coordinating Officer for federal recovery operations in the affected area.  Suiso said additional designations may be made at a later date if requested by the state and warranted by the results of further damage assessments,” said White House in a statement.

KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Kīlauea Latest Images: November 2, 2014

HVO preImage-942
A breakout occurs from an inflated lobe of the June 27th lava flow on Sunday morning, November 2, 2014. Scattered breakouts like this, which took place about 200 meters (218 yards) upslope of the stalled leading edge, have been common over the past few days and are filling in low points behind the flow front. [Source: HVO]

Summit Observations: At Kīlauea volcano’s summit, tilt and lava lake level inferred from the webcams continue their gradual recoveries following last week’s DI event. Volcanic tremor persists at low amplitudes which show episodic fluctuation. There are no significant local seismic events evident on the seismograms from the NPT seismic station that is closest to Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Sulfur-dioxide emission rate measurements for the summit ranged from 4,250 up to 7,000 tonnes/day (see caveat below) through the week-long period ending October 28, 2014. A small amount of particulate material was carried aloft by the plume. [HVO]

Activity Summary: Kīlauea volcano continued to erupt at its summit and within its East Rift Zone, and gas emissions remained elevated. As of Monday morning, the leading edge of the June 27th lava flow had not advanced beyond where it stalled late last week, in a residential area approximately 155 meters (170 yards) above Pāhoa Village Road. Activity behind the lava flow’s leading edge, within the flow’s interior and along its side margins, continued with localized breakouts of molten lava. Gradual inflation was recorded by the tiltmeters at Kīlauea’s summit. The level of the summit lava lake at Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, as reflected in web cam images, has also risen since Sunday. [HVO]

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June 27th Flow Could Reach Ocean by May 2015

Posted by feww on October 30, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
KILAUEA JUNE 27TH LAVA FLOW
STATE OF EMERGENCY PROCLAMATION
MASS EVACUATIONS
LOSS OF HABITAT
CROP DESTRUCTION
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 402, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Kilauea’s lava flow continues to cross Pāhoa Village

FIRE-EARTH estimates the June 27th flow could reach the ocean, currently about 10km away, by May 2015. Temperature of the lava exceeds 850°C along the leading edge of the most rapidly advancing part of the flow.

HVO Daily Update:  October 29, 2014 @09:12 AM HST (Wednesday, October 29, 2014 @ 19:12 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
Coordinates: 19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W (19.421111N, 155.286944W)
Summit Elevation: 4091 ft (1,247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Activity Summary: Kīlauea continues to erupt at its summit and within its East Rift Zone, and gas emissions remained elevated. Currently, the June 27th flow is advancing northeast through a residential area between Apaʻa St/Cemetery Rd and Pāhoa Village Road. During the past 24 hours, the leading edge of the most rapidly advancing part of the flow advanced at an average rate of roughly 10 m/hr (~11 yd/hr); between 2am and 630 am this morning, the rate of advance slowed to roughly 5 m/hr (~5.5 yd/hr). At 7AM, the flow front was about 240 m (~260 yd) straight-line distance from Pāhoa Village Road. Source: HVO

Currently, the flow continues to advance at a rate of 5 m/hr (~5.5 yd/hr), said HVO.

  • GPS receivers in the summit area have recorded slight contraction across the caldera since early July. The most recent sulfur-dioxide emission rate measurements for the summit were 2,700–3,600 tonnes/day (see caveat here) for the week ending October 21, 2014.
  • The ambient SO2 concentrations near the vent vary greatly, but are persistently higher than 10 ppm and frequently exceed 50 ppm (upper limit of detector) during moderate trade winds.
  • The gas plume typically includes a small amount of ash-sized tephra (mostly fresh spatter bits and Pele’s hair from the circulating lava lake). The heaviest pieces are deposited onto nearby surfaces while the finer bits can be carried several kilometers before dropping out of the plume.


A view of the flow over Cemetery Rd./Apaʻa St. The transfer station is at the top of the image. Source: HVO


The June 27th flow remains active, and is slowly approaching Pāhoa Village Road. This photo was taken just before 10 am, and shows the flow front moving through private property towards a low point on the road. At 11:30 am today, the flow front was 215 m (235 yards) from Pāhoa Village Road. Source: HVO


This photo looks downslope from Cemetery Road, and shows the pasture and cemetery that the flow front advanced through several days ago. Much of the cemetery has been covered by lava, but a kipuka has left a portion of the cemetery uncovered for now. Source: HVO

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Lava Flow Nearing Residences in Pāhoa, Hawaii

Posted by feww on October 28, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
KILAUEA JUNE 27TH LAVA FLOW
STATE OF EMERGENCY PROCLAMATION
MASS EVACUATIONS
LOSS OF HABITAT
CROP DESTRUCTION
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 402, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Kīlauea continues to erupt,

Active lava flows can produce methane blasts, propelling rocks and other debris into the air, said HVO.

Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases  issued by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)

Monday, October 27, 2014 5:51 PM HST (Tuesday, October 28, 2014 03:51 UTC)

  • The advance rate of the narrow leading edge varied between 7 and 10 meters (8 and 11 yards) per hour today, which is equivalent to 170 and 240 meters (185 and 260 yards) per day. As of 4:30 PM, the flow was 510 meters (560 yards) upslope from Pāhoa Village Road; the flow width was about 50 meters (55 yards) at the leading edge.
  • The most recent sulfur-dioxide emission rate measurements for the summit were 2,700–3,600 tonnes/day (see caveat here) for the week ending October 21, 2014. A small amount of particulate material was carried aloft by the plume.
  • Potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas may be present within 1 km downwind of vent areas.


The June 27th lava flow remained active, and the flow front was nearing residential areas in the northwest portion of Pāhoa. The flow front was heading towards a low spot on the Pāhoa Village Road, between Apaʻa St. and the post office. This photo was taken at 11:30 am HST on Monday, when the flow front was 540 meters (0.3 miles) from Pāhoa Village Road. Source: HVO


This annotated photograph shows the notable features around the flow front. The photo was taken at 11:30 am, and also shows the distance the flow front has traveled between Cemetery Rd./Apaʻa St. and Pāhoa Village Rd. Source: HVO


A comparison of a normal photograph with a thermal image. The white box shows the approximate extent of the thermal image. The elevated temperatures (white and yellow areas) around the flow front indicate that significant activity is focused at the front, driving its forward movement. In addition, a slow-moving lobe was active upslope of Cemetery Rd. Farther upslope, scattered breakouts persist in the wider portion of the flow.  Source: HVO

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Kīlauea Lava Flow Consuming Everything Along Its Paths

Posted by feww on October 27, 2014

VOLCANIC HAZARDS
KILAUEA JUNE 27TH LAVA FLOW
STATE OF EMERGENCY PROCLAMATION
MASS EVACUATIONS
LOSS OF HABITAT
CROP DESTRUCTION
SCENARIOS 989, 900, 797, 787, 707, 444, 070, 047, 017, 07, 02
.

Kīlauea Lava Flow Advancing toward Pāhoa, Hawaii

The June 27th lava flow continues advancing toward Pāhoa at a rate of up to 360 meters per day.

Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases  issued by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)

Sunday, October 26, 2014 5:59 PM HST (Monday, October 27, 2014 03:59 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25’16” N, 155°17’13” W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1,247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

The relatively narrow finger of lava that crossed Apaʻa Street yesterday morning continued to travel downslope, splitting into two lobes as it advanced. The faster, northern lobe crossed completely through the Pāhoa cemetery by mid-morning, while the slower southern lobe was advancing through open pasture south of the cemetery. Another lobe farther upslope, just above Apaʻa Street, advanced about 50 meters (55 yards) since yesterday.

Over the course of the day, the advance rate of the narrow finger that crossed the cemetery varied from about 10 and 15 meters per hour (11 to 16 yards per hour), which is equivalent to 240–360 meters per day (260–390 yards per day). As of 5 PM, the faster-moving finger was about 390 meters (425 yards) downslope of Apaʻa Street and 660 meters (720 yards) upslope from Pāhoa Village Road. It had an average width of about 40 m (45 yd). The slightly slower-moving southern lobe in the pasture south of the cemetery reached slightly steeper terrain at mid-afternoon today, and was traveling at about 9 meters per hour (10 yards per hour) at 5 PM. It will likely rejoin with the finger that came through the cemetery near the northeast end of the pasture. [HVO]

 

HVO -905-small
As of 10 AM, HST, on October 26, 2014, the June 27th flow front remains active and continues to advance towards the northeast. A portion of the front is still moving through the open field (shown here), while the leading tip of the flow has advanced through the Pāhoa cemetery. Source: HVO

HVO-907-small
An HVO geologist walks across the surface of the flow, which covers the short access road to the cemetery. As is typical for pāhoehoe, the flow has inflated over the past day and was chest high in many places. Source: HVO


The June 27th lava flow crossed Apaʻa Street / Cemetery Road at 3:50 AM, HST, Saturday morning, October 25, 2014. In this photo, which was taken at about 9 AM Saturday, the flow is moving from right to left, with burning asphalt visible along it’s NW margin. A utility pole, far right, was surrounded by lava but remained standing at the time of the photo. The hope is that the protective insulation and cinder/cement barrier around the pole will prevent it from burning through. Source: HVO


This map uses a satellite image acquired in March 2014 (provided by Digital Globe) as a base to show the area around the front of the June 27th lava flow. The area of the flow on October 25, 2014, at 5:00 PM is shown in pink, while widening and advancement of the flow as mapped on October 26 at 12:30 PM is shown in red. The dotted blue lines show steepest-descent paths in the area, calculated from a 1983 digital elevation model (DEM).  Source: HVO

Sulfur Dioxide Advisory Level

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‘Red Warning’ Issued for Iceland Volcano

Posted by feww on August 31, 2014

FISSURE ERUPTION
VOLCANIC SEISMICITY
BARDARBUNGA VOLCANO

SCENARIOS 023, 017, 09, 08, 07
.

New fissure eruption near Bardarbunga prompts ‘Red Alert’

Iceland has once again raised its aviation warning to the highest level after a new fissure eruption in Holuhraun lava field near Bardarbunga volcano.

Volcanologists monitoring restive Bardarbunga observed a fissure eruption at 05:15GMT on Sunday, said IMO.

“It appears that the eruptive fissure is longer than in the last eruption. It is extending north and south on the same . The eruption is a very calm lava eruption and can hardly be seen on seismometers. Visual observation confirm it is calm, but continuous.”

Currently, only lava is erupting, but no ash has been observed, added IMO.

Sunday eruption from a new fissure in Holuhraun lava field

fissure eruption  31aug14- Xinhua photo
Image via Xinhua.

BGO-20140831-065151-IMO
Photo: Benedikt Gunnar Ófeigsson/IMO. Image may be subject to copyright

The eruption prompted IMO to raise the aviation warning code to ‘red’ for the large area that houses the Bardarbunga volcanic system.

The new fissure is located very close to the Friday’s, with the fracture extending further to the north, said a researcher.

The latest eruption is said to be far more more intense than Friday’s, with the lava flow estimated to be more than 10 times greater.

Meantime, seismicity continues on a 15-km-long region of the dyke intrusion, said IMO, “extending both into the Dyngjujökull glacier and the region north of the ice margin. Earthquakes have not migrated northwards during the last two days.”

An estimated 500 million cubic meters of lava has flowed from beneath the volcano in a long dyke since last week.

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Okmok Eruption, Cleveland Volcano [Update #2]

Posted by feww on July 16, 2008

Alaska Volcano Observatory

Current Status Report
Tuesday, July 15, 2008 11:49 AM AKDT (19:49 UTC)

OKMOK VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-29-)
53°23’49” N 168°9’58” W, Summit Elevation 3520 ft (1073 m)
Current Aviation Color Code: RED
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING

Okmok Volcano continues to erupt. Seismicity, though below this weekend’s intensity, has remained steady over the last 24 hours. Satellite data continue to show a long (~250 km) plume moving east; the height of the plume is approximately 30,000 ft above sea level.

The volcano is currently at aviation color code RED and alert level WARNING. All areas immediately around the volcano are considered hazardous. Airborne ash and gas continues to drift with the wind and pose a hazard to aviation in the area. Additional ash fall will occur on Umnak Island and possibly adjacent islands as long as the eruption continues.

OMI image showing the extent of the sulfur dioxide gas cloud from the eruption of Okmok Volcano. The large red mass is from the main explosive phase on 12 July at 21:30 UTC and is at an estimated height of 50,000 ft above sea level. The north-south dimension of this cloud is about 850 miles. Current emissions from the volcano are at a lower altitude of approximately 30,000 to 35,000 feet. Other OMI data (not shown) indicate that volcanic ash is mixed with the sulfur dioxide cloud. Picture Date: July 14, 2008 UTC – Image Creator: Dave Schneider – Data provided through the OMI near-real-time decision support project funded by NASA.

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-24-)
52°49’20” N 169°56’42” W, Summit Elevation 5676 ft (1730 m)
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY

Satellite and webcam views continue to be cloudy today. AVO has received no reports of eruptive activity at the volcano.

AVO monitors Cleveland Volcano with satellite imagery as weather allows. The lack of a real-time seismic network at Cleveland means that AVO is unable to track local earthquake activity related to volcanic unrest. Short-lived explosions of ash that could exceed 20,000 ft above sea level can occur without warning and may go undetected on satellite imagery. Please see http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/Cleveland.php for more information.


Astronaut photograph of May 23, 2006 eruption of Cleveland Volcano. Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center. Original NASA Caption:

At 3:00 p.m. Alaska Daylight Time on May 23, 2006, Flight Engineer Jeff Williams from International Space Station (ISS) Expedition 13 contacted the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) to report that the Cleveland Volcano had produced a plume of ash. Shortly after the activity began, he took this photograph. This picture shows the ash plume moving west-southwest from the volcano’s summit. A bank of fog (upper right) is a common feature around the Aleutian Islands. The event proved to be short-lived; two hours later, the plume had completely detached from the volcano (see image from May 24). The AVO reported that the ash cloud height could have been as high as 6,000 meters (20,000 feet) above sea level.

Cleveland Volcano, situated on the western half of Chuginadak Island, is one of the most active of the volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, which extend west-southwest from the Alaska mainland. It is a stratovolcano, composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, compacted volcanic ash, and volcanic rocks. At a summit elevation of 1,730 meters, this volcano is the highest in the Islands of the Four Mountains group. Carlisle Island to the north-northwest, another stratovolcano, is also part of this group. Magma that feeds eruptions of ash and lava from the Cleveland Volcano is generated by the northwestward movement of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate. As one tectonic plate moves beneath another—a process called subduction—melting of materials above and within the lower plate produces magma that can eventually move to the surface and erupt through a vent (such as a volcano). Cleveland Volcano claimed the only known eruption-related fatality in the Aleutian Islands, in 1944.

Small explosion at Cleveland volcano on July 20, 2007. This photo, taken from the USFWS research vessel Norseman, shows a small ash cloud rising a few thousand feet above the summit and drifting downwind. This type of intermittent explosive activity is likely characteristic of the current level of unrest at Cleveland. Such small ash clouds can easily go undetected on satellite imagery. Image taken from FWV Tiglax, from NE of Cleveland looking SW. Tana is to the left in the image, Kagamil and Carlisle off the image to the right. Dissipating plume from a small eruptive burst, likely Strombolian, from the summit of Cleveland volcano. Picture Date: July 20, 2007 – Image Creator: Doug Dasher – Image Creator: Max Hoberg – Photo courtesy of School of Fisheries, UAF.


Image of Herbert (left-most volcano), Carlisle (upper volcano) and Mount Cleveland (stratovolcano with small steam plume). Mission: ISS001 Roll: E Frame: 5962 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS01 Country or Geographic Name: USA-ALASKA Features: ISLANDS OF FOUR MTS.,SMK Center Point Latitude: 53.0 Center Point Longitude: -170.0 – Picture Date: January 01, 2001 00:11:15 GMT – Image courtesy of the Image Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center.


Location of Cleveland volcano and other Aleutian volcanoes with respect to nearby cities and towns.
Picture Date: February 06, 2006 – Image Creator: Janet Schaefer – Image courtesy of the AVO/ADGGS.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
John Power, Acting Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
jpower@usgs.gov, (907)786-7497

Steve McNutt, Coordinating Scientist, UAFGI
steve@giseis.alaska.edu (907)978-5458

Volcano Alert Levels

Normal
Volcano is in typical background, noneruptive state or, after a change from a higher level, volcanic activity has ceased and volcano has returned to noneruptive background state.
Advisory
Volcano is exhibiting signs of elevated unrest above known background level or, after a change from a higher level, volcanic activity has decreased significantly but continues to be closely monitored for possible renewed increase.
Watch
Volcano is exhibiting heightened or escalating unrest with increased potential of eruption, timeframe uncertain, OR eruption is underway but poses limited hazards.
Warning
Hazardous eruption is imminent, underway, or suspected.

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Kilauea Volcano Continues to Discharge Lava

Posted by feww on July 15, 2008

Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases

HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
Monday, July 14, 2008 07:48 HST (Monday, July 14, 2008 17:48 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (CAVW#1302-01-)
19.42°N 155.29°W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Aviation Color Code: ORANGE


The lava fountain on shield 3 (12-15 m high). USGS

Activity Summary for last 24 hours: Kilauea summit and Pu`u `O`o cone continued to deflate. Unusually small amounts of ash and elevated amounts of sulfur dioxide gas continued to issue from the Halema`uma`u vent. At the east rift eruption site, incandescence was observed from vents within Pu`u `O`o Crater; lava flows from the TEB vent flows through tubes to ocean at Waikupanaha; surface flows within the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision may have reached the coastal plain.

More …

Photograph by C. Heliker on September 19, 1984

Lava fountain 450 m high bursts from Pu`u `O`o in September 1984. In the foreground, low fountains play above a fissure that opened just before the main vent began to erupt. After the high fountains relieved some of the pressure on the magmatic system, the fissure activity died.

Summary of the Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha Eruption, 1983-present

The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea, now in its twenty-fourth year and 55th eruptive episode, ranks as the most voluminous outpouring of lava on the volcano’s east rift zone in the past five centuries. By January 2007, 3.1 cubic km of lava had covered 117 km2 and added 201 hectares to Kilauea’s southern shore. In the process, lava flows destroyed 189 structures and resurfaced 14 km of highway with as much as 35 m of lava.

Beginning in 1983, a series of short-lived lava fountains built the massive cinder-and-spatter cone of Pu`u` O`o. In 1986, the eruption migrated 3 km down the east rift zone to build a broad shield, Kupaianaha, which fed lava to the coast for the next 5.5 years.

When the eruption shifted back to Pu`u `O`o in 1992, flank-vent eruptions formed a shield banked against the west side of the cone. From 1992 to 2007, nearly continuous effusion from these vents has sent lava flows to the ocean, mainly inside the national park. Flank vent activity undermined the west and south sides of the cone, resulting in the collapse of the west flank in January 1997.

Since 1997, the eruption has continued from a series of flank vents on the west and south sides of the Pu`u `O`o cone. During this time the composite flow field has expanded westward, and tube-fed pahoehoe forms a plain that spans 15.6 km at the coast.


Puʻu ʻŌʻō ( pronounced roughly “poo-oo oh-oh”) is a cinder/spatter cone in the eastern rift zone of the Kīlauea volcano of the Hawaiian Islands. USGS.


Aerial view of lava lake in Pu‘u ‘O‘o crater. The crater is about 250 m in diameter. 30 August 1990. Credit: J.D. Griggs – USGS/HVO


1983-1986, The rise of Pu`u `O`o: episodic lava fountains build massive cone. USGS


Lava moves across the ground as a pahoehoe flow, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i – Photograph by J.D. Griggs on 13 November 1985 – USGS

Eruption_1954_Kilauea_Volcano
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. May 1954 eruption of Kilauea Volcano. Halemaumau fountains. Photo by J.P. Eaton, May 31, 1954. USGS

This report on the status of Kilauea volcanic activity, in addition to maps, photos, and webcam images (available using the menu bar above), was prepared by the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park status can be found at http://www.nps.gov/havo/ or 985-6000. Hawai`i County Viewing Area status can be found at http://www.lavainfo.us or 961-8093.

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Explosive Eruption at Okmok Volcano [Update #1]

Posted by feww on July 15, 2008

Click link for: Okmok Eruption & Cleveland Volcano [Update #2]

A strong explosive eruption is underway at Okmok Volcano

AVO/USGS Volcanic Activity Notice

2008-07-14 16:26:51 – [2008-07-15 00:26:51UTC]

Information Statement
Summary

A strong explosive eruption is underway at Okmok Volcano on Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutians.The volcano is currently at aviation color code RED and alert level WARNING. All areas immediately around the volcano are considered hazardous. Airborne ash and gas continues to drift with the wind and pose a hazard to aviation in the area. Additional ash fall will occur on Umnak Island and possibly adjacent islands as long as the eruption continues.


Image of the eruption of Okmok, taken Sunday, July 13, 2008, by flight attendant Kelly Reeves during Alaska Airlines flights 160 and 161. Picture Date: July 13, 2008 Image Creator: Kelly Reeves – Image courtesy of Alaska Airlines.

Latest OKMOK VOLCANO Status Report

Alaska Volcano Observatory
Current Status Report
Monday, July 14, 2008 12:39 PM AKDT (20:39 UTC)

OKMOK VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-29-)
53°23’49” N 168°9’58” W, Summit Elevation 3520 ft (1073 m)
Current Aviation Color Code: RED
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING

The eruption at Okmok continues based on ongoing seismic activity. Satellite observations indicate ash emissions continue reaching altitudes of 30,000 – 35,000 ft asl. Satellite observations also indicate a thermal anomaly in the western portion of the caldera (in the vicinity of Cone D.). There is currently an NWS ash fall advisory in effect for the Eastern Aleutian zone, including Nikolski and Unalaska/Dutch Harbor.

Satellite data shows an ash plume extending towards the southeast at an estimated height of 30,000 – 35,000 ft (~9 – 11 km) above sea level.


Okmok Caldera as viewed from an Alaska Airlines jet in early June, 2007. Okmok caldera is a nearly circular, 500- to 800-m-deep, 8- to 10-km-diameter collapse crater that truncates an older volcanic edifice. The current caldera formed about 2000 years ago. Since then, numerous eruptions from vents on the floor of the caldera have produced a variety of cones, craters, lava flows, and other volcanic features. As of March, 2008, Okmok last erupted in 1997 and is one of the most active of volcanoes in the Aleutians. Picture Date: June 07, 2007 – Image Creator: Cyrus Read – Image courtesy of AVO/USGS.

Reports indicate no ash fall in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor since Saturday, July 12. There is currently an NWS ash fall advisory in effect for the Eastern Aleutian zone, including Nikolski and Unalaska/Dutch Harbor.
Ash fall is expected to continue downwind of the volcano including over marine areas in the North Pacific. Areas in the immediate vicinity of the volcano on Umnak Island should be avoided, particularly the Crater Creek drainage northeast of the caldera.

Ash clouds are drifting southeast of the volcano and poses a risk to aircraft in the vicinity. The current estimated ash cloud height for the ash is 30,000 – 35,000 ft asl (~9 – 11 km) above sea level.
Ballistics may impact the areas around the caldera rim.

Historical eruptions of Okmok have typically produced lava flows, however at this time we cannot confirm that a lava flow has been produced.

Okmok Volcano is located on the northeast end of Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutians about 65 miles southwest of Unalaska/Dutch Harbor. The volcano consists of a 6-mile-wide circular caldera or crater about 1600 feet deep that formed about 2000 years ago. Okmok has been frequently active in historical times producing ash clouds often accompanied by lava flows within the caldera. The most recent eruption occurred in 1997 and produced ash clouds and a lava flow that traveled about 5 miles across the caldera floor.

See http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/Okmok.php for more information.

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Llaima Volcano Erupts Again!

Posted by feww on July 2, 2008

Chile’s Llaima Volcano, one of the largest and most active volcanoes in South America renews activity!


The Llaima volcano dribbles lava. Cherquenco town July 2, 2008. REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado. Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

Llaima volcano, a stratovolcano, is spewing lava, Chilean Govt said, issuing an evacuation order which imposed a 15 km exclusion zone. The lava, flowing towards the Calbuco River, has reached about 1 km from the crater.


Llaima volcano eruption viewed from Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) January 1, 2008

Source: Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/8556851@N04/2170301355/); License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0; via Wikimedia Commons,

Llaima volcano erupted on New Year’s Day and spewed ash and smoke on february. The volcano’s last major eruption occurred in 1994. On January 1, 2008, another eruption forced hundreds of residents from nearby villages and tourists in the national parkto evacuate the are. A column of smoke reaching 3000 m high spewed above the volcano. The volcanic ash expelled by Llaima reached Argentina.

It is feared that that the lava could cause an abrupt melting of snow and producing waves of lahars that could bury the nearby villages.

The snow-capped Llaima’s renewed activity starts just two months after the eruption of the Chaiten volcano about 525 km further south.

The top of Llaima rises about 3, 120 meters above the sea level and consists of two summits. Pichillaima, the lower summit is about 2,920 meters high. The ski center Las Araucarias lies on Llaima’s western slopes.

Llaima is located about 85 km northeast of Temuco and 665 km southeast of Santiago, within the borders of Conguillío National Park, and overloks the Sierra Nevada and the Conguillío Lake. Llaima’s slopes are drained by the rivers Captrén, Quepe and Trufultruful.

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Soputan volcano erupts

Posted by feww on June 8, 2008

Lava from Mount Soputan flows 2 km from crater

Indonesia’s Vulcanology Survey raised alert level for Soputan volcano located on Sulawesi island to level IV, the highest level, after it began ejecting hot lava and clouds of ash. Pyroclastic flows were extending about 2 km from Mount Soputan’s summit, but haven’t reached the foot of the mountain.

The authorities placed a 6-km exclusion zone around the volcano. Climbers are not allowed in the danger zone which also covers camping areas in the eastern part of the mountain about 4 km from the summit. According to a report, 6 volcanic earthquakes struck Mount Soputan on June 6.


People from a district in Minahasa look at columns of ash spewed from Mount Soputan, in Indonesia’s North Sulawesi province June 6, 2008. REUTERS/Stringer. Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

“Stronger explosion may happen, which can emit dangerous materials from the crater,” Saut Simatupang, head of Indonesia’s Vulcanology Survey said.

The volcano has been erupting since Friday, spewing ash and debris to a height of about 2 km and covering an 8-km radius area around the crater.

“There is no need to displace the villagers. The frequency of the eruption has decreased since 2 a.m. Saturday,” he said.

Although no casualties have been reported, an eye witness in the village of Molompar in the Tombatu subdistrict in Southeast Minahasa, reported that a number of houses in Lobu, Silian, and Tombatu villages had collapsed as a result of volcanic ash deposits that had accumulated on the roofs.

Mount Soputan, a stratovolcano, is one of Indonesia’s 130 or so active volcanoes, which previously erupted 24–30 October 2007. In a 2004 eruption lava extended its southwest slope, but no fatalities were reported.

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Volcanoes, Santorini Eruption and Crops Failure in China

Posted by feww on May 14, 2008

*** Breaking News: May 19, 2008 Philippines Taal Volcano Could Erupt Anytime!

A New Era of Intense Volcanic Unrest May Have Begun

Where Could The Next Supervolcanic Eruption Occur?

1. Pico del Teide?
2. Mauna Loa?
3. Mount Vesuvius?

4. Mount Rainier?
5. Taal?
6. Thera?

Volcanoes

A volcano is an opening in a planet’s crust that allows ash, gases and molten rock to escape from below the surface.

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates converge or divrge. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by “divergent tectonic plates” pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by “convergent tectonic plates” coming together.


Author:MesserWoland via Wikimedia Commons.This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike license versions 2.5, 2.0, and 1.0

Cross-section through a stratovolcano:

1. Large magma chamber ◊ 2. Bedrock ◊ 3. Conduit (pipe) ◊ 4. Base ◊ 5. Sill ◊ 6. Branch pipe ◊ 7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano ◊ 8. Flank ◊ 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano ◊ 10. Throat ◊ 11. Parasitic cone ◊ 12. Lava flow ◊ 13. Vent ◊ 14. Crater ◊ 15. Ash cloud

Eruption Types

There are many different kinds of volcanic activity and eruptions: phreatic eruptions (steam-generated eruptions), explosive eruption of high-silica lava (e.g., rhyolite), effusive eruption of low-silica lava (e.g., basalt), pyroclastic flows, lahars (debris flow) and carbon dioxide emission. All of these activities can pose a hazard to humans. Earthquakes, hot springs, fumaroles, mud pots and geysers often accompany volcanic activity. (Source)


Image by USGS

The concentrations of different volcanic gases can vary considerably from one volcano to the next. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other principal volcanic gases include hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. A large number of minor and trace gases are also found in volcanic emissions, for example hydrogen, carbon monoxide, halocarbons, organic compounds, and volatile metal chlorides.

Large, explosive volcanic eruptions inject water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and ash (pulverized rock and pumice) into the stratosphere to heights of 16–32 kilometres (10–20 mi) above the Earth’s surface. (Source)

Decade Volcanoes

The Decade Volcanoes are 16 volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas. The Decade Volcanoes project encourages studies and public-awareness activities at these volcanoes, with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the volcanoes and the dangers they present, and thus being able to reduce the severity of natural disasters. They are named Decade Volcanoes because the project was initiated as part of the United Nations sponsored International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. (Source)

The 16 current Decade Volcanoes


Mount St. Helens shortly after the eruption of May 18, 1980


1 km steam plume ejected from Mount St. Helens photo taken by USGS on May 19, 1982 [Mount St. Helens is located in Skamania County, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.]

Mount St. Helens is most famous for its catastrophic eruption on May 18, 1980, which was the deadliest and most economically destructive volcanic event in the history of the United States. Fifty-seven people were killed; 250 homes, 47 bridges, 24 km of railways, and 300 km of highway were destroyed. The eruption caused a massive debris avalanche, reducing the elevation of the mountain’s summit from 2,950 to 2,550m and replacing it with a 1.5 km-wide horseshoe-shaped crater. The debris avalanche was up to 2.9 km³ in volume (VEI = 5). (Source)


A large eruption at Mount Etna, photographed from the International Space Station


Mount Etna, Sicily . Last Eruption 2007. [Photo Credit: Josep Renalias, via Wikimedia commons]
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.5


Koryaksky Volcano seen in the background. Last Eruption: 1957. GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version. See file detail.


Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station.


Mount Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga Mountains, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. [The main crater is 250 m deep, 2 km wide and sometimes contains a lava lake. Nyiragongo and nearby Nyamuragira are together responsible for 40% of Africa’s historical volcanic eruptions. (Source: USGS) Last Eruption: 2008 (continuing)


The three summits of Mount Rainier: Liberty Cap, Columbia Crest, and Point Success [Last Eruption 1854]


The snow-capped summit of Pico del Teide in December 2004 – Active but dormant volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Last eruption 1909. Photo: M. D. Hill. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License.


An aerial photo of Vesuvius. last Eruption 1944 [Author: Pastorius? Via Wikimedia Commons. ] This file is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License


Taal Volcano seen from across Taal Lake on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Last Eruption: 1977.

Supervolcanoes: Nature’s “Thermonuclear” Arsenal


Satellite image of Thera, November 21, 2000. The Minoan caldera is at the lower part of the image and formed in the Minoan eruption 1630 and 1600 BCE. The whole caldera is formed of three overlapping calderas.

The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption or Santorini eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption (VEI = 6, DRE = 60 km3) which is estimated to have occurred in the mid second millennium BCE. The eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history. The eruption destroyed most of the island of Thera, including the Minoan settlement at Akrotiri as well as communities and agricultural areas on nearby islands and on the coast of Crete. The eruption contributed to the collapse of the Minoan culture.

The eruption caused significant climatic changes in the eastern Mediterranean region, Aegean Sea and much of the Northern Hemisphere. There is also evidence that the eruption caused failure of crops in China, inspired certain Greek myths, contributed to turmoil in Egypt, and influenced many of the biblical Exodus stories. It has been theorized that the Minoan eruption and the destruction of the city at Akrotiri provided the basis for or otherwise inspired Plato’s story of Atlantis. (Source)


Volcanic craters on Santorini. This file is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License [ photo: Rolfsteinar, via Wikimedia Commons]


Lake Taupo is a lake situated in the North Island of New Zealand. It has a perimeter of approximately 193km, a deepest point of 186 m and a surface area of 616 square km.

The lake lies in a caldera created following a huge volcanic eruption (see supervolcano) approximately 26,500 years ago. According to geological records, the volcano has erupted 28 times in the last 27,000 years. It has predominantly erupted rhyolitic lava although Mount Tauhara formed from dacitic lava.

The largest eruption, known as the Oruanui eruption, ejected an estimated 1,170 km³ of material and caused several hundred square kilometres of surrounding land to collapse and form the caldera. The caldera later filled with water, eventually overflowing to cause a huge outwash flood.


NASA satellite photo of Lake Taupo

Several later eruptions occurred over the millennia before the most recent major eruption, which occurred in 180 CE. Known as the Hatepe eruption, it is believed to have ejected 120 km³ of material, of which 30 km³ was ejected in the space of a few minutes. This was one of the most violent eruptions in the last 5,000 years (alongside the Tianchi eruption of Baekdu at around 1000 and the 1815 eruption of Tambora), with a Volcanic Explosivity Index rating of 7. The eruption column was twice as high as the eruption column from Mount St. Helens in 1980, and the ash turned the sky red over Rome and China. The eruption devastated much of the North Island and further expanded the lake. Unlike today, the area was uninhabited by humans at the time of the eruption, since New Zealand was not settled by the Māori until several centuries later. Taupo’s last known eruption occurred around 210 CE, with lava dome extrusion forming the Horomatangi Reefs. (Source)

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Chaitén Volcano: No End Seen to Second Massive Eruption

Posted by feww on May 12, 2008

A Shrinking World Series:

Update #1 – Millions of tons of volcanic ash continue to rain down on Patagonia

Ten days after the Chilean volcano erupted for the first time in thousands of years, volcanic ash continues to rain down in Patagonia.


An eruption on the morning of May 2, 2008 forced the evacuation of more than 4,000 people from the town of Chaitén nearby (10 kilometers distant from the volcano) and caused the death of an elderly woman. The eruption continued through to May 4. Towns such as Futaleufú were affected and water supplies were contaminated. The town of Chaitén and Futaleufú were completely evacuated on the morning of May 6, 2008, due to a massive new eruption, with pyroclastic flows and possible emerging of lava. (Source)

The scientists have expressed grave concerns about the potential long-term environmental damage and the harm to the health of people and animals in the area.

“It has spoiled lakes, rivers and lagoons, coated plants in a dense layer of gray, and altered the sensitive habitat of animals now struggling to survive. Satellite images show a white stripe smeared across the southern part of South America.” Reuters said.
Photo
A bicycle covered in volcanic ash in Futaleufu town, about 1450 km south of Santiago May 11, 2008. Chaiten volcano began erupting May 2, 2008. (Photo: REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado) Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice.

“I am tremendously worried because this is an environmental, social and ecological disaster,” said Alejandro Beletzky, an environmental scientist in Argentina.

“The presence of volcanic ash in the region, which falls constantly, is very risky for humans, plants and animals,” he said near Esquel, about 2,000km southwest of Buenos Aires. (Source)

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