Fire Earth

Earth is fighting to stay alive. Mass dieoffs, triggered by anthropogenic assault and fallout of planetary defense systems offsetting the impact, could begin anytime!

Posts Tagged ‘LHC’

Astronomy: Science of Looking into the Past?

Posted by feww on April 23, 2010

submitted by a reader

‘LUCIFER allows astronomers to watch stars being born’

That’s the title of a news release by the university of Arizona.  With all the technology shared  between them, they had to play hard with words to come up with an acronym that has a negative image. It’s like “Challenger” versus “Explorer,” but cockier and more distasteful.

10 to 1 the person who thought of this name was a victim of Catholic Church abuse!


Original Caption:
Technicians install the LUCIFER instruments on the Large Binocular Telescope in the fall of 2008.

What’s ‘LUCIFER’

It’s described as “a new instrument for the world’s largest optical telescope, the Large Binocular Telescope on Mount Graham, allows astronomers to observe the faintest and most distant objects in the universe.”

Is an image from taken from object 8,000 light years away (7.8 x 10^16km), looking into the past, tell you anything about the future?

To understand the implication of the above question, you must first answer the following question:

What happens when 50 percent of the world population are dentists?

Because that’s exactly what has happened to astronomy, among other sciences. It has reached the ridiculous stage when science has no longer a utility value, but an economic-aesthetic value. That’s unless you come up with something no one has done before, regardless of its usefulness to human or any other animal race, you go out of business.

Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) partners in the U.S, Germany and Italy announced April 21 that the first of two new innovative near-infrared cameras/spectrographs for the LBT is now available to astronomers for scientific observations at the telescope on Mount Graham in southeastern Arizona.After more than a decade of design, manufacturing and testing, the new instrument – dubbed LUCIFER 1 – provides a powerful tool to gain spectacular insights into the universe – from the Milky Way to extremely distant galaxies. LUCIFER, built by a consortium of German institutes, will be followed by an identical twin instrument that will be delivered to the telescope in early 2011.

“With the large light-gathering power of the LBT, astronomers are now able to collect the spectral fingerprints of the faintest and most distant objects in the universe,” said LBT director Richard Green, a professor of astronomy at the University of Arizona’s Steward Observatory.

LUCIFER 1 and its twin are mounted at the focus points of the LBT’s two giant 8.4-meter (27.6 foot) diameter telescope mirrors. Each instrument is cooled to -213 degrees Celsius in order to observe in the near-infrared wavelength range. Near-infrared observations are essential for understanding the formation of stars and planets in our galaxy as well as revealing the secrets of the most distant and very young galaxies.

Stellar Nursery

Original Caption:
Where stars are born: The first LUCIFER observations of star-forming regions are giving scientists an idea of the new instrument’s enormous potential. This image depicts a stellar nursery in the Milky Way about 8,000 light years from Earth. Such clouds are typically opaque to visible light. However, infrared light detected by LUCIFER can penetrate the dust. Photo: Arjan Bik

LUCIFER’s innovative design allows astronomers to observe in unprecedented detail, for example star forming regions, which are commonly hidden by dust clouds.

The instrument is remarkably flexible, combining a large field of view with a high resolution. It provides three exchangeable cameras for imaging and spectroscopy in different resolutions according to observational requirements.

Astronomers use spectroscopy to analyze incoming light and answer questions such as how stars and galaxies formed and what they are made of.

The instruments were built by a consortium of five German institutes led by the Center for Astronomy of Heidelberg University, together with the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, the Astronomical Institute of the Ruhr-University in Bochum, and the University of Applied Sciences in Mannheim.

The LBT is a collaboration among the Italian astronomical community (National Institute of Astrophysics), the University of Arizona, Arizona State University, Northern Arizona University, the LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft in Germany (Max-Planck-Institut fϋr Astronomie in Heidelberg, Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Astrophysikalisches Institut in Potsdam, Max-Planck-Institut fϋr Extraterrestrische Physik in Munich, and Max-Planck-Institut fϋr Radioastronomie in Bonn), and the Ohio State University and Research Corporation (Ohio State University, University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of Virginia).

Galaxy NGC1569

Original Caption:
These two images show the starburst galaxy NGC 1569, which is forming stars at a rate that is 100 times faster than what is typically observed in the Milky Way. LUCIFER’s sensitive infrared vision reveals glowing red clouds of dust enshrouding newly formed stars. Photo: Anna Pasquali

Additional Technical Background:

  • LUCIFER is an acronym for: Large Binocular Telescope Near-infrared Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research
  • LUCIFER’s three exchangeable cameras are available for direct imaging, long-slit-spectroscopy and multi-object-spectroscopy. Two of them are optimized for seeing-limited conditions, a third camera for diffraction-limited cases will be used after completion of the LBT adaptive secondary mirror system.
  • Using a four Mega-pixel Hawaii2-camera the instrument covers a comparatively large field of view of 4×4 arc minutes (about 1/50th of the full moon on sky).
  • According to observational requirements, presently a set of five broad-band filters (z, J, H, K, Ks), 12 medium and narrow-band filters and three different high-resolution spectroscopic gratings are available.
  • A special feature of the LUCIFER is 10 fixed and up to 22 exchangeable masks which can be used for longslit and multi-object spectroscopy (MOS). This multiplex-technology developed at MPE allows the spectroscopy of about two dozen objects simultaneously and reduces the costs per photon and observing time at the telescope dramatically. All laser-cut MOS-masks are stored in a separate magazine which can be replaced with new masks at fully cryogenic temperatures using an external cryostat and a vacuum interlock to the main instrument. This work can be done within a few hours during a normal service-interval in day-time and avoids a several days lasting warming-up and cooling-down cycle of the complete LUCIFER-instrument preserving valuable observing time.
  • Contact: Daniel Stolte
    stolte@email.arizona.edu
    University of Arizona

Related Links:

Serial No 1,613. Starting April 2010, each entry on this blog has a unique serial number. If any of the numbers are missing, it may mean that the corresponding entry has been blocked by Google/the authorities in your country. Please drop us a line if you detect any anomaly/missing number(s).

Posted in astronomy, LUCIFER, milky way, Mount Graham, technology | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

LHC IS FAULTY

Posted by feww on March 10, 2010

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Construction Flawed: Director

Dr Steve Myers LHC cannot be operated at full  potential for [at least] two years.

In September 2008 after about 100 of the LHC’s super-cooled magnets heated up to more than 100°C, the system was shut down. It took 14 months to repair.

Soon the machine must close down again for about a year to make the tunnel safe for high energy proton collisions.

“It’s something that, with a lot more resources and with a lot more manpower and quality control, possibly could have been avoided but I have difficulty in thinking that this is something that was a design error.” Myers said, BBC reported.

“The standard phrase is that the LHC is its own prototype. We are pushing technologies towards their limits.” He added.

“You don’t hear about the thousands or hundreds of thousands of other areas that have gone incredibly well. [REALLY?]

“With a machine like the LHC, you only build one and you only build it once.”

The $10 to $14 billion “White Elephant” is buried up to 100m below the French-Swiss border region.

Must Read Background:

Posted in big bang, cosmic radiation, God particle, Over engineered, Rube Goldberg | Tagged: , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

NO Big Bang, not even a little one, for 6 months!

Posted by terres on September 24, 2008

LHC Update:
Our good Professor Peter Higgs will have to find another way of communicating with the “Almighty!”

As the Moderators previously anticipated, there won’t be a big bang, not even a tiny one, for at least another 6 months at CERN’s “Champaign Science Center” the LHC.

It is highly probable that LHC may not be fully operational before 2010.


One of 1,746 helium-cooled superconducting magnets is lowered into the LHC tunnel via a specially constructed hatch in April 2007. The 17-meter long dipole magnet, one of 1,232 dipoles positioned around the LHC, is designed to produce a magnetic field that bends the particle beams around the circular path of the accelerator. [About 100 of these magnet overheated to more than 100ºC —possibly to several hundred degrees—frying the wiring, when liquid helium leaked out of the vacuum cooling system.] Photo by Maximilien Brice for CERN. Source: CNET

And who knows what surprises might be lurking around the LHC’s 27-km tunnel in 2009!

Related Links:

Posted in big bang, God particle, Science & Tech, wasteful technology | Tagged: , , , , | 3 Comments »

Thought for the Day: The LHC and Earth

Posted by feww on September 9, 2008

Big Bang, Indeed! [Putting the Cart before …]

The good news: “We” are about to find some answers to how the universe was born [or so we hope!]

The Bad News: We have no idea how to stop killing the earth!

See: Astronomical Cost of LHC Reminds You of ISS

Related Links:

Posted in Climate Change, energy, environment, Global Warming, politics | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

God Particle

Posted by feww on April 10, 2008

Updates:

Physicist says “God particle” will be found soon

Peter Higgs, a British physicist, believes scientists can soon prove the existence of a force which gives mass to the universe and makes life possible, a theory he first published 40 years ago.

Higgs, 78, believes a particle called the “Higgs boson” [nicknamed the “God particle” much to his chagrin as he is an atheist] will be found when a vast particle collider at the CERN research center in Switzerland kicks into full gear early 2009.

“The likelihood is that the particle will show up pretty quickly … I’m more than 90 percent certain that it will,” Higgs told reporters.

In the 1960s, the scientists at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) had dismissed Higgs’s theory, which explained why the force, named the Higgs field, must exist.

Today, the scientists widely accept the existence of the invisible field, which they believe came into being several milliseconds after the Big Bang created the universe about 13.73 billion years ago [the age of universe has an uncertainty of about 120 million years.]

Ordinary matter in our universe is made up of atoms. Each atom includes a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons, surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Protons and neutrons are in turn made of quarks, which are bound together by other particles called gluons. The bounds are so strong they have prevented quarks from existing on their own since just after big bang.

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will simulate conditions at the time of big bang. Particles colliding at near light speed will generate temperatures 100,000 times hotter than the sun, which would melt protons and neutrons, breaking the quark-gluon bonds and creating a state of matter called quark-gluon plasma. The project collaborators hope that by studying the quark-gluon plasma, as it expands and cools, they can uncover the mysteries of universe.

Higgs, who taught at Scotland’s Edinburgh University, postulated that matter was weightless at the exact moment of the Big Bang, but most of it quickly gained mass because of the presence of a field that combined with the particles as they passed through it.


LHC Particle Collider at CERN. Image may be copyrighted. See FEWW Fair Use Notice.
CERN is currently building the Large Hadron Collider, or LHC. This massive collider is being installed in a tunnel 27 km in circumference. CERN claims by studying collisions at very high energies its physicists could make progress in understanding the mysteries of how universe was born.

It is not known how long it might take to analyze the big bang simulation data, despite using bleeding edge supercomputers, before any evidence of the god particle could be found.

“I may have to keep the champagne on ice for a while yet.” Said Higgs.

“It all happens so fast that the appearance of the boson may be hidden in the data collected, and it could take a long time for the analysis to find it,” said Higgs. “If it doesn’t,” he said, “I shall be very, very puzzled.” Report

Cost of LHC Project: About $10 billion.

Related Links:

Posted in God particle, invisible field, light speed, mysteries, Nuclear Research, Peter Higgs | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »