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Posts Tagged ‘Liberia’

Ebola Mass Quarantine: 2.5 Million People in Sierra Leone Lockdown

Posted by feww on March 20, 2015

Updated

Sierra Leone enforcing lockdown to contain Ebola epidemic

Sierra Leone authorities will enforce a three-day lockdown of key parts of the country to try to contain the Ebola epidemic.

Some 3,702 deaths from the epidemic have been reported across the West African country, said World Health Organization (WHO).

The lockdown is expected to affect about 2.5 million people, and will come into effect next week.

“The lockdown will be conducted from March 27 to March 29 and will be like the one we conducted in September last year,” said the country’s National Ebola Response Center.

It follows a three-day curfew in September 2014, which forbade people from leaving their home.

WHO released the EBOLA situation summary on March 20, 2015 (latest), which includes the total number of reported cases and deaths (confirmed, probable and suspected) for the high transmission countries (Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone).

  • Guinea: 3,404 cases, with 2,241 deaths [As of March 18, 2015]
  • Liberia: 9,555 cases, with 4,283 deaths  [As of March 17, 2015]
  • Sierra Leone: 11,794 cases, with 3,712 deaths [As of March 18, 2015]
    Sub total: 24,753 cases, with 10,236 fatalities

In addition to the above, 8 Ebola deaths were reported in Nigeria, 6 in Mali and 1 in the U.S., bringing the total number of reported deaths since the start of the latest epidemic to 10,251.

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Ebola: 1.4 Million Cases by January 20, 2015?

Posted by feww on September 24, 2014

GLOBAL HEALTH EMERGENCY
EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
DEADLY EBOLA HF EPIDEMIC
EBOLA OUTBREAK IN WEST AFRICA
SCENARIOS 797, 444, 333, 080, 011
.

Ebola Cases in Sierra Leone and Liberia Could Reach 1.4 Million by January —CDC

Up to 1.4 million people in West Africa could be infected with the Ebola virus by January 20, 2015, according to researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

CDC says it has has developed a dynamic modeling tool called Ebola Response that allows for estimations of projected cases over time in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

The agency’s estimate ranges between 550,000 and 1.4 million. The top range assumes that the number of cases, which currently stands at nearly 6,000, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is underreported by a factor of 2.5 and should be adjusted to 15,000.

Projecting Ebola Case Estimates

CDC has used the Ebola Response modeling tool to calculate Ebola cases through mid-January in Sierra Leone and Liberia. The model estimates a range of between 550,000 and 1.4 million cases by January 20, 2015. The top range of the case estimate, 1.4 million, is explained by the model’s assumption that cases are significantly underreported by a factor of 2.5.

The World Health Organization has projected that Ebola outbreak could infect 20,000 people by early November, failing rigorous infection control measures, and become an endemic disease in the region.

The death toll is at least 2,811 out of 5,864 reported cases, according to the U.N. agency.

CDC analysis, published in the journal Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), projects the cases in Liberia doubling every 15 to 20 days, and those in Sierra Leone doubling every 30 to 40 days.

Global Health Emergency

WHO declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa  a ‘Public Health Emergency of International Concern,’ under the International Health Regulations on August 8, 2014.

Related Links

Posted in Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global health catastrophe, health | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Ebola Outbreak: Public Health Emergency Declared in Sierra Leone

Posted by feww on July 31, 2014

UPDATED August 1, 2014 @ 03:00UTC

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
DEADLY EBOLA HF EPIDEMIC
EBOLA OUTBREAK IN WEST AFRICA
SCENARIO 011
.

Sierra Leone declares public health emergency to curb deadly Ebola outbreak

Death toll from an outbreak of Ebola in West Africa—Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone—has risen to at least 729 since February, including 233  in Sierra Leone, said WHO.

Liberia’s government earlier announced that it was closing down all schools across the country to stop the spread of the deadly virus.

Ebola Fears in Other Countries

“The Philippine Department of Health (DOH) said Thursday that it has put in place precautionary measures to prevent the entry and spread of the Ebola virus disease in the country,”  said a report.

Ebola could be a threat to Britain, said the British Foreign Secretary during an emergency meeting on Wednesday.

“In terms of the UK, the issue is about the possibility of somebody who has contracted the disease in Africa getting sick here.” He told reporters.

The Nigerian government has ordered the temperature screening of all passengers arriving from places at risk from Ebola, while suspending pan-African airline Asky because it brought the first Ebola case to the overcrowded capital Lagos.

Ethiopia and Kenya have begun screening passengers arriving from West Africa.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF)

EHF is a highly contagious virus that spreads via close personal contact and kills up to 90% of the victims.

Five subspecies of Ebolavirus have so far been found. Four of those have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans, according to CDC.

  • Symptoms include high fever, bleeding and damage to central nervous system.
  • There are  no known cure or vaccine for the Ebola virus.
  • Incubation period is from two to 21 days.

In Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have previously been reported in the following countries:

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

The current outbreak  is the first known occurrence of Ebola HF in Guinea.

“The natural reservoir host of ebolaviruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa; no case has been reported in the United States,” said CDC.

Ebola_2_thumb_colorized
Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a “bowl of spaghetti.” Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.  Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

12 deadly pathogens could spread into new regions aided by climate change

A report by Wildlife Conservation Society released on October 7, 2008 lists 12 deadly pathogens that could spread globally as a result of climate change. “All have potential impacts to both human and wildlife health as well as global economies.” Report said.

Titled ‘The Deadly Dozen: Wildlife Diseases in the Age of Climate Change,’ the report illustrates examples of diseases that could spread due to temperatures changes and variations in regional precipitation levels.

The “Deadly Dozen” list [ABC order]

  1. Avian influenza
  2. Babesia
  3. Cholera
  4. Ebola
  5. Intestinal and external parasites
  6. Lyme disease
  7. Plague
  8. Red tides
  9. Rift Valley fever
  10. Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
  11. Tuberculosis
  12. Yellow fever

RELATED LINKS

Posted in Climate Change, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global health catastrophe, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

EBOLA Epidemic Spreading in West Africa

Posted by feww on June 19, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
DEADLY EBOLA HF EPIDEMIC
SCENARIO 011
.

Death toll from Ebola outbreak in West Africa climbs to 337

Death toll from an outbreak of Ebola in West Africa—Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone— has risen to 337 since February, this year, reported World Health organization (WHO).

The the epidemiological situation as of June 18, 2014 is as follows:

Some 47 new cases and 14 additional deaths were reported across the region last week. Guinea is currently the worst affected country with 264 Ebola-related deaths, while  the death tolls in Sierra Leone has climbed to 49, with  Liberia reporting 24 fatalities.

Guinea (from WHO report)

Between June 14 and 16, 2014 an additional f 7 new cases and 5 new deaths were reported in Guinea, Gueckedou (4 cases and 5 deaths) and Boffa (3 cases and 0 deaths). The cumulative number of cases and deaths reported from Guinea to 398 (254 confirmed, 88 probable and 56 suspected) and 264 deaths, according to WHO.

The geographical distribution of these cases and deaths is as follows: Conakry (70 cases and 33 deaths); Guéckédou (224 cases and 173 deaths); Macenta (41 cases and 28 deaths); Dabola, (4 cases and 4 deaths); Kissidougou (8 cases and 5 deaths); Dinguiraye (1 case and 1 death); Telimele (30 cases and 9 deaths); Bofa (19 cases and 10 deaths) and Kouroussa (1 case and 1 death). Twenty four (24) patients are currently in EVD Treatment Centres: Conakry (6), Guéckédou (9), Telimele (3) and Boffa (6).

The number of contacts currently being followed countrywide is 1,258 and distributed as follows: Conakry (252), Guéckédou (529), Macenta (52), Telimele (118), Dubreka (118) and Boffa (189). So far 69.4% (2,848 contacts being followed-up out of a 4,106 contacts registered since the beginning of the outbreak) have completed the mandatory 21 days observation period.

Possible Outbreak in Senegal and Gambia

News of a possible outbreak in Senegal may have been suppressed. As of early April, Gambia had placed at least two people with suspected EHF under quarantine.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF)

EHF is a highly contagious virus that spreads via close personal contact and kills up to 90% of the victims.

Five subspecies of Ebolavirus have so far been found. Four of those have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans, according to CDC.

There are  no known cure or vaccine for the Ebola virus.

In Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have previously been reported in the following countries:

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

The current outbreak  is the first known occurrence of Ebola HF in Guinea.

“The natural reservoir host of ebolaviruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa; no case has been reported in the United States,” said CDC.

Ebola_2_thumb_colorized
Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a “bowl of spaghetti.” Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.  Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

12 deadly pathogens could spread into new regions aided by climate change

A report by Wildlife Conservation Society released on October 7, 2008 lists 12 deadly pathogens that could spread globally as a result of climate change. “All have potential impacts to both human and wildlife health as well as global economies.” Report said.

Titled ‘The Deadly Dozen: Wildlife Diseases in the Age of Climate Change,’ the report illustrates examples of diseases that could spread due to temperatures changes and variations in regional precipitation levels.

The “Deadly Dozen” list [ABC order]

  1. Avian influenza
  2. Babesia
  3. Cholera
  4. Ebola
  5. Intestinal and external parasites
  6. Lyme disease
  7. Plague
  8. Red tides
  9. Rift Valley fever
  10. Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
  11. Tuberculosis
  12. Yellow fever

Situation in Conakry (Guinea) – from WHO report

The outbreak in Conakry, capital city of Guinea with total population of about 1.5 million, started on 3 March 2014. It is linked (epidemiologically) to the outbreak in Gueckedou.

  • As at 15 June 2014, a total of 68 cases and 33 deaths were reported of which 31 cases recovered and discharged. The distribution of cases by location is shown in figure 3.
  • Cumulatively, 1001 contacts were identified of which 668 completed their follow-up and currently 333 are under follow-up.
  • The outbreak spread to the following districts: Telimele (30 cases including 9 deaths), Boffa (19 cases including 10 deaths) and Kouroussa (1 case including 1 deaths). The geographical distribution of cases in Telimele and Boffa is shown on the next page.

Situation in Gueckedou, Macenta and Kissidougou (Guinea)

Gueckedou

  • The first cases of EVD outbreak in West Africa were reported from Gueckedou district which has a total population of 405,000.
  •  The onset of the index case was on 2 December 2013.
  •  A total number of 221 cases including 171 deaths were reported; 43 cases were recovered and discharged.
  •  Cumulatively, 1911 contacts were identified of which 1366 completed their follow-up and currently 545 are under follow-up.

Macenta

  • The outbreak in Macenta district started on 17 February 2014. The total population of the district is 296, 000.
  •  A total of 41 cases and 28 deaths were reported of which 12 cases recovered and discharged.
  •  Cumulatively, 359 contacts were identified of which 307 completed their follow-up and currently 52 are under follow-up.

Kissidougou

  •  The outbreak in Kissidougou district started on 24 February . The total population of the district is 214,000.
  • A total of 8 cases and 5 deaths reported of which 3 recovered and discharged.
  • No new cases have been reported since 1 April 2014.

RELATED LINKS

 

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Sierra Leone “Quarantines” Ebola Affected Area

Posted by feww on June 14, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
DEADLY EBOLA HF
SCENARIO 011
.

Sierra Leone quarantines Ebola affected area as death toll mounts

Authorities in Sierra Leone have declared an emergency in the Ebola affected district of Kailahun, near Gueckedou, Guinea, ordering closure of all schools.

“All public gatherings and cultural activities are banned and cross-border trade fairs halted until the Ebola virus is contained, ” the health authorities said.

Ebola HF has  killed at least 19 people in Sierra Leone, with 117 suspected cases, CDC reported.

Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone [CDC]

Highlights
As of June 10, 2014, the Guinea Ministry of Health announced a total of 376 suspect and confirmed cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), including 241 fatal cases, in the districts of Conakry, Guéckédou, Macenta, Kissidougou, Dabola, Djingaraye, Télimélé, Boffa, and Kouroussa (see map).

233 cases across Guinea have been confirmed by laboratory testing to be positive for Ebola virus infection.
In Conakry, 75 suspect cases are reported to meet the clinical definition for EHF, including 32 fatal cases.

June 9, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone reported 43 laboratory confirmed cases of EHF from 3 districts: Kailahun, Kambia, and Port Loko.

An additional 117 suspect cases and 19 fatal cases were also reported in Sierra Leone on June 9.

The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia reported 1 new laboratory confirmed case and one death on June 7, 2014. This is the first case reported since early April.

Genetic analysis of the virus indicates that it is closely related (97% identical) to variants of Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus) identified earlier in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon (Baize et al. 2014External Web Site Icon).

The Guinean Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone, and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia are working with national and international partners to investigate and respond to the outbreak.

Guinea at a Glance

Suspected and Confirmed Case Count: 376
Suspected Case Deaths: 241
Laboratory Confirmed Cases: 233

Liberia at a Glance

Suspected and Confirmed Case Count: 13
Suspected Case Deaths: 9
Laboratory Confirmed Cases: 6

Sierra Leone at a Glance

Suspected and Confirmed Case Count: 160
Suspected Case Deaths: 19
Laboratory Confirmed Cases: 43

Outbreak Update
June 11, 2014

On June 10, 2014, The Ministry of Health (MoH) of Guinea reported 376 suspect and confirmed cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), including 241 fatal cases and 233 laboratory confirmed cases. New cases were reported in Gueckedou, Telimele, and Boffa districts and follow-up investigations continue in Conakry, Boke, and Dubreka districts in the west, and Macenta, and Kouroussa districts in the south (see map).

The Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone reported 117 suspect cases, 19 fatal cases, and 43 laboratory confirmed cases on June 9, 2014. Confirmed cases have been reported from the Kailahun district, near Gueckedou, Guinea, and for the first time in Kambia and Port Loko districts in northwest Sierra Leone. Reports of and investigations of suspect cases continue in Kailahun, Kenema, Kono, Bo, Moyamba , Kambia, Koinadugu, Port Loko, Tonkolili, Bombali, and Western area districts. Laboratory testing is being conducted in Kenema city. Sierra Leone and WHO have sent experts to aid in the response and investigation.

On June 7, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia reported 1 laboratory confirmed EHF case and 1 new death in the Foya District of Liberia. This is the first reported case since April 6, 2014.

Possible Outbreak in Senegal and Gambia

News of a possible outbreak in Senegal may have been suppressed. As of early April, Gambia had placed at least two people with suspected EHF under quarantine.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever(EHF)

EHF is a highly contagious virus that spreads via close personal contact and kills up to 90% of the victims.

Five subspecies of Ebolavirus have so far been found. Four of those have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans, according to CDC.

There are  no known cure or vaccine for the Ebola virus.

In Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have previously been reported in the following countries:

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

The current outbreak  is the first known occurrence of Ebola HF in Guinea.

“The natural reservoir host of ebolaviruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa; no case has been reported in the United States,” said CDC.

Ebola_2_thumb_colorized
Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a “bowl of spaghetti.” Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.  Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

12 deadly pathogens could spread into new regions aided by climate change

A report by Wildlife Conservation Society released on October 7, 2008 lists 12 deadly pathogens that could spread globally as a result of climate change. “All have potential impacts to both human and wildlife health as well as global economies.” Report said.

Titled ‘The Deadly Dozen: Wildlife Diseases in the Age of Climate Change,’ the report illustrates examples of diseases that could spread due to temperatures changes and variations in regional precipitation levels.

The “Deadly Dozen” list [ABC]

  1. Avian influenza
  2. Babesia
  3. Cholera
  4. Ebola
  5. Intestinal and external parasites
  6. Lyme disease
  7. Plague
  8. Red tides
  9. Rift Valley fever
  10. Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
  11. Tuberculosis
  12. Yellow fever

RELATED LINKS

Posted in Global Disaster watch, global disasters, health, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Ebola Kills 100 in West Africa

Posted by feww on April 5, 2014

DEADLY VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
EBOLA KILLS 100 IN W. AFRICA
MALI SUSPECTS EBOLA HF
.

Mali suspects EHF cases as death toll reaches 100 in W. Africa

Mali health authorities say they have identified possible cases of Ebola HF since the epidemic outbreak in neighboring Guinea.

The outbreak, which originated in Guinea in early March, has since spread to the neighbors Sierra Leone and Liberia.

Guinea has reported an increased total of 127 probable and suspect cases, including 86 deaths (case fatality ratio: 68%), as of April 4, 2014. Of the suspect cases, 35 have been laboratory confirmed positive cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), including 14 health care workers and 11 cases in Conakry, the capital, according to various sources.

Liberia has reported 14 suspect cases, which include 7 deaths and 2 laboratory-confirmed cases of EHF from persons with recent travel history to Guinea. Authorities are investigating reports of additional suspect cases in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak, Guinea and Liberia 2014

ehf outbreak in west africa
Source:  CDC/National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)

Possible Outbreak in Senegal and Gambia

News of a possible outbreak in Senegal may have been suppressed.

Gambia has placed at least two people with suspected EHF under quarantine.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever(EHF)

EHF is a highly contagious virus that spreads via close personal contact and kills up to 90% of the victims.

Five subspecies of Ebolavirus have so far been found. Four of those have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans, according to CDC.

There are  no known cure or vaccine for the Ebola virus.

In Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have previously been reported in the following countries:

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

The current outbreak  is the first known occurrence of Ebola HF in Guinea.

“The natural reservoir host of ebolaviruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa; no case has been reported in the United States,” said CDC.

Ebola_2_thumb_colorized
Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a “bowl of spaghetti.” Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.  Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

12 deadly pathogens could spread into new regions aided by climate change

A report by Wildlife Conservation Society released on October 7, 2008 lists 12 deadly pathogens that could spread globally as a result of climate change. “All have potential impacts to both human and wildlife health as well as global economies.” Report said.

Titled ‘The Deadly Dozen: Wildlife Diseases in the Age of Climate Change,’ the report illustrates examples of diseases that could spread due to temperatures changes and variations in regional precipitation levels.

The “Deadly Dozen” list [ABC]

  1. Avian influenza
  2. Babesia
  3. Cholera
  4. Ebola
  5. Intestinal and external parasites
  6. Lyme disease
  7. Plague
  8. Red tides
  9. Rift Valley fever
  10. Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
  11. Tuberculosis
  12. Yellow fever

RELATED LINKS

Posted in Climate Change, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global health catastrophe, health | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »