Fire Earth

Mass die-offs from human impact and planetary response to the assault could occur by early 2016

Posts Tagged ‘Manila’

Intense Flooding Shuts Govt., Displaces Thousands in Philippines

Posted by feww on August 20, 2013

Flooding intensifies in Metro Manila; govt, schools, businesses closed for 2nd day

Extreme rains since Sunday intensified by Tropical Storm TRAMI triggered flash floods in and around the Philippine capital of Manila, leaving dozens dead, injured or missing and  tens of thousands  displaced near, as numerous local governments declared a state of calamity.

The flooding forced authorities to shut government offices, the stock exchange, foreign embassies  and schools throughout the region.

“In the light of the severe flooding in some parts of Metro Manila and with the Orange Rainfall Advisory, upon both the recommendation of MMDA and PAGASA, the Executive Secretary has ordered the suspension of work in the government offices in Metro Manila today, August 20, except those involved in disaster risk reduction and management,” the Presidential Spokesperson declare on official website.

manila flooding
Flooding in Metro Manila. EDSA – Taft Rotonda. Photo provided by the Metro Manila Development Authority.

manila flooding 2
Photo provided by the Metro Manila Development Authority shows the extent of flooding in Metro Manila, Philippiens.

Posted in disaster watch, disaster watch 2013, disaster zone, disasters, global deluge, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2013 | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

2 Million Evacuated as Typhoon HAIKUI Strikes China

Posted by feww on August 8, 2012

Disaster Calendar – 8 August 2012

SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,316 Days Left

[August 8, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,316 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History…

-

HAIKUI brought torrential rains and winds of 150 km/h to east China

The massive typhoon forced authorities to evacuate about 2 million people from Zhejiang province and the outskirts of Shanghai. Earlier, HAIKUI had forced about 300,000 people in the Philippines to flee their homes.


Typhoon HAIKUI. IR NHC Enhancement Satellite Image – Source: CIMSS. The 11th typhoon of 2012 landed near the Sanmenwan Gulf in central Zhejiang (east China) early Wednesday morning, bringing torrential rains and triggering widespread flooding, the local observatory said.

Other Global Disasters/ Significant Events

  • Manila, Philippines. Up to a million people have been severely affected as seasonal monsoon rains, enhanced by Typhoon SAOLA and tropical storm HAIKUI, pounded the Philippines capital and surrounding areas for the 12th day, triggering widespread flooding that has inundated about two-thirds of Manila (Population: >12 million).  

    • The flooding and landslides have left dozens of people dead, and hundreds of thousands displaced since late July.

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

Posted in global delta flooding, global deluge, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2012, global drought | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Mount Tongariro Erupts

Posted by feww on August 7, 2012

Disaster Calendar – 7 August 2012

SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,317 Days Left

[August 7, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,317 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History…

.

Selected Global Disasters/ Significant Events

New Zealand

Mega eruptions could follow in and around New Zealand Islands, as forecast

Mount Tongariro, located in the center of NZ’s North Island, spewed ash and debris more than 6,000 meters into the air at 23:50 on Monday local time.

The force of eruption sent a cloud of ash about 110 km southeast of the volcano, and catapulted volcanic rocks at least a kilometer away, reports said.

  • NZ’s Civil Defense said the volcanic activity could pose a threat to  Waikato, Hawke’s Bay, Gisborne, Manawatu, Wanganui, Bay of Plenty and Taranaki.
  • Mount Tongariro last erupted in 1897.

see also:


Large boulders landed on the Tongariro Alpine Crossing track. Photo: NZ Police.


Volcanic rocks ejected from Mount Tongariro damage Ketetahi Hut in Tongariro National Park. Photo: NZ police

USA

  • Montana. Gov Schweitzer declared a state of emergency across half the state as strong winds fanned wildfires that have already scorched about 300,000 acres since last week.
    • “The spate of new fires in recent days has pushed Montana above 900 square miles burned so far in 2012. That’s well over the state’s 10-year average and more than three times the amount of land that burned last year,” said a report.
  • Florida.  The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has designated 23 counties in Florida as agricultural disaster areas due to the combined effects of Tropical Storm Debby, excessive rain and flooding that occurred June 1-29, 2012.
    • Georgia. Five counties in Georgia were also declared as disaster areas because they’re contiguous.
  • California.  USDA has designated 13 counties in California as agricultural disaster areas due to damages and losses caused by losses caused by hail, rain and cold temperatures that occurred April 11-13, 2012.
    • Primary disaster areas: Kings and Merced counties.
    • Contiguous disaster areas: Fresno, Kern, Madera, Mariposa, Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo, Santa Clara, Stanislaus, Tulare and Tuolumne counties.
  • South Carolina.  USDA has designated six counties in South Carolina as agricultural disaster areas due to damages and losses caused by frost, freezes, and a hailstorm that occurred April 5-13, 2012.
    • North Carolina.  Three counties in NC were also declared as disaster areas because they’re contiguous.

Philippines

  • Manila.  Extreme rain events have submerged more than half of the Philippine capital, triggering a deadly landslide that killed at least a dozen people.
    • Most parts of the country were already saturated following Typhoon Saola, which left up to 60 people dead and forced more than quarter of a million people to flee their homes last week.
    • The authorities have reportedly evacuated hundreds of thousands of residents along the Marikina River banks, after excess water La Mesa dam spilled into the rivers flowing into Manila’s suburban Quezon City and several other areas.
    • Many others have climbed to rooftops waiting to be rescued.
    • “It’s like a water world,” the chief of  disaster response agency was reported as saying.
    • At least ten provincial areas and cities around Manila have declared states of calamity.
    • Price of basic commodities in areas under states of calamity have skyrocketed by up to 300 percent since last week, reports said.


Flooding in Marikina City, Metro Manila (Photo: Dave Llavanes)

Related Links

Posted in global deluge, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2012, global drought, Intense Global Volcanic Unrest | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Strong Quake Strikes Offshore Mindoro, Philippines

Posted by feww on September 18, 2009

FOR MARCH 25, 2010 Earthquake Details click >>

Strong Quake Strikes Mindoro Philippines

Magnitude 6.0 earthquake strikes near Mindoro, Philippines

An earthquake measuring 6.0 Mw struck in the South China Sea off the west coast  of Mindoro, Philippines, at a depth of 50.1 km on September 18, 2009  at 06:23:58 UTC, USGS/ EHP said.

10-degree Map Centered at 15°N,120°E

sep 18 10-00UTC
Earthquake Location Map. Source of the original map: USGS

Earthquake Details

  • Magnitude: 6.0
  • Date-Time:
    • Friday, September 18, 2009 at 06:23:58 UTC [Friday, September 18, 2009 at 02:23:58 PM at epicenter]
  • Location: 12.573°N, 120.469°E
  • Depth: 50.1 km (31.1 miles)
  • Region: MINDORO, PHILIPPINES
  • Distances:
    • 115 km (75 miles) SW of Calapan, Mindoro, Philippines
    • 145 km (90 miles) SSW of Batangas, Luzon, Philippines
    • 230 km (145 miles) SSW of MANILA, Philippines
    • 250 km (155 miles) S of Olongapo, Luzon, Philippines
  • Location Uncertainty: horizontal +/- 8.9 km (5.5 miles); depth +/- 11.7 km (7.3 miles)
  • Parameters NST= 52, Nph= 52, Dmin=827.4 km, Rmss=1.24 sec, Gp= 47°, M-type=teleseismic moment magnitude (Mw), Version=7
  • Source: USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
  • Event ID: us2009lsap

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) reported the quake as a magnitude 6.1 shock on the Richter scale.

Phivolcs said the quake was felt at various intensities in Mamburao and Batangas City; Makati City, Pasay City, Manila City, Tagaytay City and Dasmariñas City;  in San Jose town (in Occidental Mindoro), Puerto Galera, Malay (in Aklan), and Guinayangan (in Quezon).

Phivolcs also said it was expecting aftershocks and some damage caused by the earthquake; however, as of posting, no damage had been reported.

There was no report of tsunami after the  quake.

Seismic Hazard Map

Seismic Hazard Map-midoro

Major Tectonic Boundaries: Subduction Zones -purple, Ridges -red and Transform Faults -green

Historic Seismicity

Historic Seismicity - mindoro
Major Tectonic Boundaries: Subduction Zones -purple, Ridges -red and Transform Faults -green

Related Links:

Posted in earthquake forecast, Earthquakes, Mamburao, Mayon Volcano, PHIVOLCS, seismic activity report, Taal Volcano, volcanic activity | Tagged: , , , , , , , | 8 Comments »

Mt. Kurikoma Coughs, Still Comatose!

Posted by feww on June 18, 2008

The Year of Volcanoes, Too?

Steam, hot volcanic plumes rise near Mt. Kurikoma

Japan’s Self-Defense Forces personnel observed Monday hot volcanic plumes about seven kilometers southwest of the summit of Mt. Kurikoma, a 1,627-meter-high volcano located on the border of Miyagi, Iwate and Akita prefectures, Yomiuri Shimbun reported.

Aerial observation from a helicopter showed plumes rising from several spots near both Hanayama in Kurihara, and Yu no Hama hot-spring spa.

Sadato Ueki of Tohoku University’s Research Center for the Prediction of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions said the plumes might be volcanic gases rising to the surface, or steam coming from underground hot water channels whose course was diverted by the powerful Mw 6.8 quake Saturday. The Iwate quake struck about 22km NW of the Mt. Kurikoma summit.

“There’s a possibility that volcanic gases that had been confined below ground are gushing out through fissures in the mountain created by the earthquake,” he said. However, he ruled out increased volcanic activity on Mt. Kurikoma, because the plumes were very far from the volcano’s summit.

Kurikoma volcano last erupted in 1950.

MT. KURIKOMA is a dormant stratovolcano stretching across three prefectures (states) of Miyagi, Iwate and Akita, standing high at an altitude of 1,627.7m.


Kurikoma volcano seen from the SSE with its summit at the right-center, the satellitic cone of Daichimori on the left, and Higashi-Kurikoma on the right. On the opposite side of the volcano, the summit is cut by a 4-km-wide caldera breached to the north that is partially filled by the Tsurugi-dake central cone, once mined for sulfur. (Caption: Source) Image Copyright: Shingo Takeuchi (Japanese Quaternary Volcanoes database, RIODB, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/index.htm). See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

Coordinates: 38° 57′ 0″ N, 140° 46′ 48″ E
Decimal: 38.95°, 140.78°

Related Links:

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Semeru Volcano: Alert Level III

Posted by feww on May 22, 2008

Mount Semeru Volcano Restive, Alert Level III

May 22, 2008

Jakarta – Indonesian authorities on Thursday urged residents living around the slopes of Mount Semeru in Indonesia’s crowded East Java province to keep their distance from the active volcano, which appears to be heating up.

Vulcanologists upgraded the alert status of Mount Semeru volcano to level three, one level below a full state of alert, after the 3,676-metre-high volcano on Wednesday sent hot lava as much as 3,000 metres down its slopes.

Villagers and farmers were urged ‘not to conduct activity at a radius of 4 kilometres from the crater, especially around the south-east of the volcano’s slopes,’ said Surono, head of Indonesia’s Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation at the directorate general of volcanology.

Surono, who like many Indonesians goes only by one name, appealed to residents living on the riverbanks along three different rivers to be cautious of threats posed by lava streams.

However, no immediate evacuation is being considered for residents living in a number villages in the potential danger zone, he said, adding that a team of experts is intensively monitoring Mount Semeru’s activity round-the-clock.

The Mount Semeru volcano, 780 kilometres east of Jakarta, is a popular tourist destination, especially for hikers. Semeru is one of Indonesia’s most active volcanoes.

The Indonesian archipelago, straddling the seismically active ‘Ring of Fire,’ has the world’s highest density of volcanoes. Of its 500 volcanoes, 128 are active and 65 are listed as dangerous. (Source) Copyright respective author or news agency.

semeru_eruption_east_java
The climb to the summit of Semeru is a 2-3 day walk. The mountain stages minor eruptions (like in the photograph) every 20 – 40 minutes. The photo was taken in late afternoon (August 2003) and simply involved walking from the campsite at the base of the climb to the summit around to the west so that the sun was at my back, then waiting for the eruption to start. The most striking aspect of the photo is the colour caused by the almost perpendicular rays of the sun hitting the cloud of dust and steam escaping a couple of thousand metres into the sky from the crater. The photo typifies the fact that Indonesia sits in the middle of the “Ring of Fire”. The many spectacles presented by the landscapes, the festivals and the people of Indonesia never cease to truly amaze me. Photo and caption credit: Campbell Bridge (via Trek Earth at:http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Asia/Indonesia/photo109462.htm)

Semeru: The Most Active Volcano of Java

Semeru also Gunung Semeru is the highest and one of most active volcanoes of Java. Known also as Mahameru (Great Mountain), it is very steep and rises abruptly above the coastal plains of eastern Java. Maars containing crater lakes have formed along a line through the summit. Semeru lies at the south end of the Tengger Volcanic Complex. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Semeru’s eruptive history is extensive. Since 1818, at least 55 eruptions have been recorded (10 of which resulted in fatalities) consisting of both lava flows and pyroclastic flows. More than 500 people have been killed by Semeru’s eruptions during the last 30 years. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967. (Source 1 and 2 )


Semeru is one of many volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Graphic courtesy of Darwin VAAC.


Semeru, a stratovolcano, has erupted at least 55 times since 1818. The eruptions are commonly moderate to moderately large (VEI of 2 to 3) and explosive. This photo, taken November 4, 1982, shows a small cloud associated with a Strombolian eruption (relatively low-level volcanic eruptions) . Photo by Jack Lockwood, U.S. Geological Survey. (Source)


Strombolian eruptions are relatively low-level volcanic eruptions, named after the Italian volcano named Stromboli, where such eruptions consist of ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs to altitudes of tens to hundreds of meters. They are small to medium in volume, with sporadic violence. (Source). Credit: Wolfgang Beyer GNU Free Documentation license, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation.

Semeru eruptions are commonly moderate to moderately large (VEI of 2 to 3). Some of the eruptions produced lahars (a type of mudflow composed of pyroclastic material and water that flows down from a volcano). Semeru’s most recent eruption began in 1967 and has continued to the present. In August of 1994, explosions occurred at 15-20 minute intervals. In February of 1995, pyroclastic avalanches traveled about 0.6 mile (1 km) from the summit.


Semeru, 1985. A USGS Photo.

Related News:

Related Links:

Posted in Climate Change, environment, food, health, Tourism, Travel | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Philippines Taal Volcano Could Erupt Anytime!

Posted by feww on May 19, 2008

UPDATE: Latest From TAAL and other Philippines Volcanoes

Taal May Erupt at Anytime

FEWW team believes there is a strong probability that the Taal Volcano, a Pelean-type active volcano on the island of Luzon, might erupt this month. Taal volcano is designated as one of the 16 Decade Volcanoes by International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI). Located about 50 km south of the capital, Manila, Taal is surrounded by populated areas.

Taal has erupted violently several times (the last eruption was in 1977). The current death toll caused by its activities stands at about 6,000.

More seismic activities in the region should be expected.


Taal Volcano Seen through Lake Taal (Photo: Jhun Taboga)


A cinder cone in an acidic lake on Taal Volcano (Credit: JG Moore of the US Geological Survey)


Major volcanoes of the Philippines

Pacific Ring of Fire


The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes. Ninety percent of the world’s earthquakes and 80% of the world’s largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire is a direct result and consequence of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates. (Source)

Plate Tectonics


World’s 14 major tectonic plates plus the Scotia plate. Mapped in the second half of the 20th century to explain the observed evidence for large scale motions of the Earth’s lithosphere. The lithosphere is broken up into tectonic plates. The surface of the Earth consists of a further 38 [40] minor plates.

The largest of the major plates are

  • African Plate, containing Africa – Continental plate
  • Antarctic Plate, containing Antarctica – Continental plate
  • Australian Plate, containing Australia (fused with Indian Plate about 50 million years ago) – Continental plate
  • Eurasian Plate containing Asia and Europe – Continental plate
  • North American Plate containing North America and north-east Siberia – Continental plate
  • South American Plate containing South America – Continental plate
  • Pacific Plate, covering the Pacific Ocean – Oceanic plate

See also

Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along plate boundaries. The lateral movement of the plates is typically at speeds of 5 – 10 cm/yr. (Read more …)

Recent Earthquakes [Kurile through Kermadec trenches]

[Time at epicenter]

  • Magnitude 4.8; Depth of 48.7 km; SOUTHEAST OF THE LOYALTY ISLANDS; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 10:03:52 PM
  • Magnitude 5.6; Depth of 35 km; SOUTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA; May 18, 2008 at 07:17:24 PM
  • Magnitude 4.6; Depth of 74.1km; MINDORO, PHILIPPINES; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 07:24:17 PM
  • Magnitude 4.9; Depth of 10 km; SABAH, MALAYSIA; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 02:26:41 PM
  • Magnitude 4.9; Depth of 31.3 km; NIAS REGION, INDONESIA; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 09:59:59 AM
  • Magnitude 4.4; Depth of 242.4 km;KYUSHU, JAPAN; Sunday, May 18, 2008 at 07:15:06 AM
  • Magnitude 5.2; Depth of 127.1 km, MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES, Saturday, May 17, 2008 at 10:17:30 PM
  • Magnitude 5.1; Depth of 151.2 km; SOUTH OF THE KERMADEC ISLANDS; Saturday, May 17, 2008 at 02:23:17 PM
  • Magnitude 5.3; Depth of 150.4 km; NEW BRITAIN REGION, PAPUA NEW GUINEA; Saturday, May 17, 2008 at 03:35:14 AM
  • Magnitude 5.4; Depth of 35 km; SOUTH OF THE KERMADEC ISLANDS; Friday, May 16, 2008 at 11:06:51 PM
  • Magnitude 5.3; Depth of 41 km; SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS REGION; Friday, May 16, 2008 at 09:19:07 AM
  • Magnitude 4.9; Depth of 606.3 km; FIJI REGION; Thursday, May 15, 2008 at 10:46:02 AM
  • Magnitude 5.1; Depth of 35 km; TONGA; Friday, May 16, 2008 at 03:06:15 AM
  • Magnitude 5.0; Depth of 25.8 km; KURIL ISLANDS; Wednesday, May 14, 2008 at 08:20:43 AM
  • Magnitude 5.2; Depth of 52.5 km; LUZON, PHILIPPINES; Wednesday, May 14, 2008 at 05:48:32 AM
  • Magnitude 5.2; Depth of 40.8 km; LUZON, PHILIPPINES; Depth of 40.8 km; Tuesday, May 13, 2008 at 10:14:30 PM
  • Magnitude 5.4; Depth of 35 km; NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA; Tuesday, May 13, 2008 at 05:29:19 PM
  • Magnitude 5.0; Depth of 36.7 km; TAIWAN REGION; Tuesday, May 13, 2008 at 06:57:46 AM
  • Magnitude 4.6; Depth of 509 km; SOUTH OF THE FIJI ISLANDS; Monday, May 12, 2008 at 04:34:05 AM

[Source: USGS]

Global earthquake epicentres, 1963–1998 (Image: NASA)

Philippines Other Major Volcanoes: Mayon Volcano


Mayon Volcano as viewed from Lingñon Hill in Daraga, Albay. Mayon, located between the Eurasian and the Philippine Plate, is a convergent plate boundary. It is the most active volcano in the Philippines, having erupted over 47 times in the past 400 years. Last eruption: 2006. (Copyrigh by Tam3rd via Wikimedia)

Canlaon Volcano


Canlaon, a stratovolcano, is located in the north central part of the island of Negros.
Last eruption: 2006.

Weather clouds drape the sparsely vegetated summit of Kanlaon volcano (also spelled Canlaon). Kanlaon is the most active of the central Philippines and forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The massive 2435-m-high stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano. Photo courtesy of PHIVOLCS. Caption GVP

Ragang volcano


Ragang volcano (above and to the right of the center of image) is located in central Mindanao. Last eruption: 1916. Thanks mainly to the Filipino government and its education authorities, no other image of Ragnag Volcano could be found at the time of writing. NASA Space Shuttle image STS61A-40-71, 1985 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

There are 22 active volcanoes in the Philippines: Babuyan Claro, Banahaw, Bulusan, Mount Biliran, Bud Dajo, Cagua, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Hibok-Hibok, Iraya, Mount Iriga, Mount Kanlaon, Leonard Kniaseff, Makaturing, Matutum, Mayon, Musuan, Mount Parker (Cotabato), Pinatubo, Ragang, Smith Volcano, Taal.

See also: List of volcanoes in the Philippines

Related Links:

Posted in Climate Change, environment, food, health, Tourism, Travel | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 16 Comments »

Philippines Taal Volcano Could Erupt Anytime!

Posted by feww on May 18, 2008

Page Updated:

Philippines Taal Volcano Could Erupt Anytime!

Posted in environment, food, health, Tourism, Travel | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Tropical storm Halong pounds northern Philippines

Posted by feww on May 18, 2008

Halong triggers floods and landslides

Tropical storm Halong lashes northern Philippines with 95 km per hour winds on Sunday, triggering floods and landslides.


Rescuers are seen pushing their jeep through a street submerged by floodwaters in Iloilo City, central Philippines, on May 15. Tropical storm Halong battered the northern Philippines on Sunday with powerful winds triggering floods and landslides and displacing about 6,000 people, relief officials said.
(AFP/File/Tara Yap)
Image may be subject to copyright. See FEWW Fair Use Notice!

Large areas of the northwestern coast of Luzon, the main Philippine island, experienced a blackout while about 6,000 people were displaced. Residents of low-lying areas and those living near mountain slopes throughout Luzon were urged to “take all the necessary precautions against possible flashfloods and landslides,” as the storm was intensifying the seasonal southwest monsoon winds. (Source)

Related Links:

Posted in acidic lake, Asia, environment, food, health, Lake Taal | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

 
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 392 other followers