Fire Earth

Earth is fighting to stay alive. Mass dieoffs, triggered by anthropogenic assault and fallout of planetary defense systems offsetting the impact, could begin anytime!

Posts Tagged ‘MRSA’

Nature’s Miniature Air Force

Posted by feww on September 25, 2018

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Mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, lice, fleas, ticks, and mites

Background:

Mosquitoes are considered as the most dangerous animals in the world, responsible for more human deaths than any other animal. In 2016, the World Health Organization reported 216 million new cases of malaria and an estimated 445,000 deaths caused by malaria alone worldwide. Other pathogens spread by mosquitoes include dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. [CDC]

Vectorborne diseases account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases and kill about 700,000 people each year. Vectorborne infections can result in mild illness, including fever, muscle or joint pain, and rash, or more severe illness. Severe illness can include swelling of the brain, crippling pain, fetal abnormalities, or death. In fact, the English meaning of the name of one such disease, chikungunya, is “that which bends up,” a description of the contorted posture of people affected with that disease. [CDC]

And things are about to take a turn for the worst… [FEWW-MIU]

Report prepared by FIRE-EARTH Science (FESC, MIU).

  • Presented via FIRE-EARTH PULSARS.

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‘A Real Disaster’: Surge in the spread of deadly superbug in NZ

Posted by feww on September 23, 2018

Submitted by the Zombie Democracy Blog

48 New Zealanders test positive to carrying CPE superbug 

“Doctors are warning a powerful superbug could become deadly if it continues to spread in New Zealand at its present rate.

“So far this year, 48 New Zealanders have tested positive to carrying the bacteria known as carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE), up from 33 people last year. It was found in just 30 people in the six years from 2009 to 2014.

“CPE are bacteria that produce an enzyme that deactivates a powerful group of antibiotics called carbapenems, meaning they are difficult to treat.

“In most cases, the bug sits in the body, usually the bowel or gut, and causes no harm. But if it gets the bloodstream or urine it can be life threatening.”
Read more. . .

New Zealand’s cases of “flesh-eating” disease have surged by 300 percent since 1990

The astronomical rise in the necrotising fasciitis in New Zealand was revealed to scientists at the UK Health Protection Agency conference in Warwick, England.

The International Journal of Infectious Diseases has published a paper by Dr Dilip Das and others who identified necrotising fasciitis and cellulitis as emerging major health problems in New Zealand.

Late diagnosed necrotizing fasciitis in a 43-year-old male. Preoperative photograph on the day of admission. Extensive erythema and necrosis of the left leg. Source: Cases Journal. Image may be subject to copyright.

Das says the reasons for the meteoric rise in the number of NZ cases remain a mystery, “but the researchers had ruled out changes made in 2004 to the way diseases were recorded,” a report said.

See also: Viruses

Serious threats 2013-cdc
Microorganisms with a threat level of SERIOUS. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States 2013. Source: CDC

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FIRE-EARTH Conference: Pathogens from Hell

Posted by feww on May 31, 2018

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FIRE-EARTH Conference: Surgical Superbus colonizing medical devices

Background: Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI)

The HAI Prevalence Survey, published In 2014, described the burden of HAIs in U.S. hospitals, and reported that, in 2011, there were an estimated 722,000 HAIs in U.S. acute care hospitals (see chart below). Additionally, about 75,000 patients with HAIs died during their hospitalizations. More than half of all HAIs occurred outside of the intensive care unit. –CDC

[The actual figures may be twice as many. Additionally, the estimated post hospitalization death toll could be as high as 150,000.]

“Global Rise in Human Infectious Disease Outbreaks,” a study released in 2014, examines the global changes in the frequency of outbreaks of infectious disease between 1980 and 2013. Some 12,102 outbreaks of 215 diseases were covered, with 44 million individual cases in 219 countries.

Prepared and presented by FIRE-EARTH Science (FSCT, MIU) and affiliated scientists.

  • Details are available via FIRE-EARTH PULSARS.

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  • Latest FIRE-EARTH ALERTS, FORECASTS, BULLETINS and MESSAGES are available via FIRE-EARTH PULSARS.

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FIRE-EARTH Conference: Antimicrobial Resistance — GEID 052402

Posted by feww on May 24, 2018

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FIRE-EARTH Conference: Antimicrobial Resistance — GEID 052402

  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
  • Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonorrhea)
  • Prepared and presented by FIRE-EARTH Science (FSCT, MIU) and affiliated scientists.

Details are available via FIRE-EARTH PULSARS.

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Latest FIRE-EARTH ALERTS, FORECASTS, BULLETINS and MESSAGES are available via FIRE-EARTH PULSARS.

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FIRE-EARTH Conference: ‘Nightmare Bacteria’ (2)

Posted by feww on April 10, 2018

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FIRE-EARTH Medical Conference (041002)

Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vibrio vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis…

[Genetic Legacy of Interbreeding with Neanderthals]

Background summary:

  • Germs with unusual antibiotic resistance are widespread.
  • At least 2 million Americans become infected with germs resistant to antibiotics each year and more than 23,000 die from these infections, CDC has revealed.
  • Researchers have uncovered 221 instances of especially rare resistance gene in the so-called “nightmare bacteria” —carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE).
  • CRE can kill if it gets into the bloodstream, urinary tract or lungs.
  • “The report shows that in nine months in all states and Puerto Rico health departments in the AR Lab Network tested 5,776 samples of highly resistant germs.”
  • One in four germ samples sent for testing had special genes that allow them to spread their resistance to other germs.
  • About one in 10 screening tests, from patients without symptoms, identified an AR germ that spreads easily. “This means the germ could have spread undetected in that health care facility.”
  • Resistance genes with the capacity to turn regular germs into nightmare bacteria have been introduced into 27 different states.
  • Nightmare bacteria studies suggest fatality rate of up to 50 percent.

[Prepared by an affiliated team of medical experts.]

Report 041002 available via FIRE-EARTH PULSARS.

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‘Antibiotics Resistance Could Spell End of Modern Medicine’

Posted by feww on October 13, 2017

Bacteria containing antibiotic resistant gene mcr-1 spreading around the world like wildfire

England’s chief medical officer has warned again of a “post-antibiotic apocalypse,” urging  world leaders to address the rising threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Prof Dame Sally Davies says that if antibiotics lose their effectiveness it would spell “the end of modern medicine.”

“We really are facing—if we don’t take action now—a dreadful post-antibiotic apocalypse. I don’t want to say to my children that I didn’t do my best to protect them and their children,” Davies said.

Scientist have revealed that “bacteria containing a gene known as mcr-1,  which confers resistance to the antibiotic colistin, had spread round the world at an alarming rate since its original discovery 18 months earlier. In one area of China, it was found that 25% of hospital patients now carried the gene.”

 

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Suspected Meningococcal Kills in 2 Hours

Posted by feww on September 5, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,288 Days Left

[September 5, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016. 

  • SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,288 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History…

Global Disasters/ Significant Events

  • Wellington, New Zealand.  Suspected meningococcal disease in New Zealand killed a Wellington schoolgirl two hours after ‘plague-like’ rashes appeared on her body. Amanda Crook, aged 12, became ill on Monday. She developed a rash at 3:00pm and was pronounced dead by 5:00 pm, just two hours later, despite being vaccinated, reports said.
    • ”. . . the aftermath of what it did to her – that wasn’t my daughter. It was almost like she had been attacked by the plague, that’s how horrific it was,” her mother told media.
    • “You’d think there would be warning, but there was just nothing. Even once she got to hospital and got antibiotics, she was talking. We thought she was coming right. [Suddenly] her heart, I think, just gave in.”
    • “It’s like it just selects its victims. I feel like we are dealing with the grim reaper,” said her mother.
    • “She was immunised, that’s what I don’t understand. But they don’t always work and to me that’s not fair. I just keep thinking I’m going to wake up. I feel like someone is going to shake me awake.”


Amanda Crook-Barker, 12, died in under two hours after showing symptoms of  suspected meningococcal disease, despite being vaccinated. Photo: Supplied by victim’s family, via local media

Meningococcal disease is a severe bacterial infection of the bloodstream or meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord) caused by the meningococcus bacteria.

The disease has a fatality rate of about 10 percent, if identified and treated immediately. The survivors,  however, can expect permanent damage including brain injury and limb amputation.

‘Five confirmed cases of meningococcal disease have been reported across the Auckland region in the past week,’ said a report.


Dr Jeannette Adu-Bobie, an expert on meningococcal vaccines, contracted meningitis while working in NZ govt. Wellington lab. and had both legs, left arm and the digits of her right hand amputated. Source:
Apartheid Fort New Zealand

Continued…

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Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

GLOBAL WARNING

Posted in Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2012, global health catastrophe | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Superbugs Invasion Has Begun

Posted by feww on May 19, 2012

Post-antibiotic era emerging

A wide range of infectious bacteria are evolving, which even the most potent medicines cannot treat.

The Super Superbug C. difficile

The deadliest superbug is the antibiotic-resistant bacterium, Clostridium difficile, which a new super superbug on the rise, killing three times as many people as MRSA.

C. difficile infections have increased since 2007, according to a report.

“During a 24-month period, there were 847 cases of C. difficile infections in the 28 hospitals and the rate of C. difficile infection was 25 percent higher than the rate of infection due to MRSA.”


Latest figures from the Health Protection Agency show there were 55,681 cases of Clostridium difficile infection reported in patients aged 65 years and above in England in 2006. (Source: SIMeL Italy)


The bacteria are naturally present in the intestine but kept under control by other bacteria. Antibiotics can kill some of these, allowing C.difficile to take hold. Image source and other images. Click image to enlarge.

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Staphylococcus Aureus

The best known SUPERBUG is the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA. About 2 percent of the population in the U.S.  carry an antibiotic-resistant strain of staph, the National Institutes of Health has reported.

MRSA was discovered in the United Kingdom in 1961, but it is now a global concern. MRSA (also known as CA-MRSA, community-acquired MRSA, and HA-MRSA, hospital-acquired MRSA) is a variation of a common bacterium, which has evolved as a “superbug” with the ability to resist treatment with antibiotics, including methicillin and penicillin.

According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MRSA is responsible for 94,000 serious infections and nearly 19,000 deaths each year in the United States. [In comparison, the AIDS virus killed about 12,500 Americans  in 2005. ]

Necrotizing fasciitis

Necrotizing fasciitis is a complication of severe group A streptococcal infection (GAS) (Streptococci pyogenes), which could lead to additional complications resulting in shock, organ failure and death.

CDC has estimated that necrotizing fasciitis causes about 15,000 infections each year in the United States, resulting in up to 3,000 deaths. UNFORTUNATELY,  “intensive surveillance efforts for necrotizing fasciitis in the United States have not been conducted since 1991,” according to the Department of Health Services.

“It usually begins with a cut or maybe a major surgery or just some trauma we experience in our everyday life,” according to a doctor.

“Necrotizing fasciitis can spread through touch contact from person to person or if you touch something that is contaminated,” said the doctor, adding that up to 50% of people “have no known entrance point.” That is  the victim does not need an open sore to acquire the deadly bacteria.

NEW NT-MRSA Strains

The Emerging Infectious Diseases of U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention discovered a new strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is responsible to more than 20 percent of all human MRSA infections in the Netherlands.

“Persons working or living in close contact with pigs or cows are at increased risk of becoming colonized and infected with MRSA. Infections can be severe, as is indicated by the hospital admission rate.”

According to other research MRSA was also prevalent in Canadian pigs and pig farmers. Full report

H041

H041 is a superbug strain of gonorrhea which was discovered by a Swedish researcher, Magnus Unemo, who received the samples from his colleagues in Kyoto, Japan.

The strain is said to be extremely resistant to all cephalosporin-class antibiotics—the only antibiotics still effective in treating gonorrhea.

He described the discovery as “alarming” and “predictable.”

“Since antibiotics became the standard treatment for gonorrhea in the 1940s, this bacterium has shown a remarkable capacity to develop resistance mechanisms to all drugs introduced to control it,” he said.

The fact that the new strain had been found in Japan also follows an alarming pattern, he told reporters.

“Japan has historically been the place for the first emergence and subsequent global spread of different types of resistance in gonorrhea [more than 600,000 new cases recorded annually,]” he said.

In the past few years trends of gonorrhea drug resistance have emerged in Australia, China, Hong Kong and other Asian countries.

The H041 “first emerged in Japan in 1999 and began spreading around the globe from there, arriving in California in 2008 and moving across to the East Coast by last year.”

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a common sexually-transmitted disease (STD), caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.


An electron micrograph of gonorrhea bacteria. Image courtesy http://women.webmd.com/slideshow-pelvic-pain-causes

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Other Superbugs on the Move

Tuberculosis (TB). The once cured by antibiotics, about 5 percent of the reported cases of TB [12 million cases reported in 2010, including 1.4 million fatalities] have become multidrug resistant, according to WHO.

The Food-borne Bugs: Escherichia Coli (E. coli) and Salmonella

“During the past decade, the emergence of drug-resistant E. coli has dramatically increased. As a consequence, the management of [urinary tract infections] UTIs, which was previously straightforward, has become more complicated; the risks for treatment failure are higher, and the cost of UTI  treatment is increasing,” said a report.

Hospital-borne pathogens: ESKAPE

The six hospital-bourne bacteria, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter, are escaping antibiotics.

These pathogens are associated with vulnerable patients which acquire the infections from hospital equipment and surgical implants.

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

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Resurgence of C. difficile in Ontario, Canada

Posted by feww on July 4, 2011

Super superbug that takes your breath away

C. difficile kills three times as many people as MRSA

2011 Disaster CalendarJuly 4 Entry

[July 4, 2011]  Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016.  SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,717 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

  • Ontario, Canada. Death toll from the latest outbreak of C. difficile in the Niagara region has climbed to 15, with the latest death reported at Welland Hospital.
    • Demonstrators are planning to protest management of Greater Niagara General Hospital, where 4 people died from the infection, on Wednesday, The report said.
    • Nine others have died at the St. Catharines General hospital and at two the Welland Hospital.
    • At least 42 other patients remain in hospital, 26 of whom contracted the infection there.


Latest figures from the Health Protection Agency show there were 55,681 cases of Clostridium difficile infection reported in patients aged 65 years and above in England in 2006. (Source: SIMeL Italy)


“Diarrhea can range from being a nuisance to a life threatening or even fatal disease.” The Clostridium difficile bacteria are naturally present in the intestine but kept under control by other bacteria. Antibiotics can kill some of these, allowing C. difficile to take hold. Image source and other images. Click image to enlarge.

  • Wisconsin and Minnesota, USA.  A state of emergency was declared in Burnett County after a massive storm tore across three-quarters of the county Friday with straight line winds in excess of 110MPH, reports said.
    • The storm reportedly killed two people and left at least 39 others injured, including three critically.
    • Downed powerlines, which have left thousands of northwestern Wisconsin without power, started dozens of fires across several counties.
    • In Minnesota, the storm affected Marshall (state of emergency declared), Redwood Falls, the Twin Cities and St. Cloud. In Wisconsin, damage was reported in  Ashland, Burnett, Douglas, Marathon, Polk, Sawyer and Washburn counties.
    • “The heavy rain was a factor in several motor vehicle accidents, including a collision between a car and train in Douglas County,” said a report.
  • Bukidnon province, Philippines. Up to two dozen people have been killed or reported as missing after a large landslide triggered by weeks of torrential rain buried a part of Valencia City.

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Mega Disasters:

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Super Superbug C. difficile

Posted by feww on March 23, 2010

New super superbug surpasses MRSA infection rates

Were you afraid of MRSA?

A deadly antibiotic-resistant bacterium, Clostridium difficile, a new super superbug is on the rise, which might literally take your breath away.

C. difficile kills three times as many people as MRSA


Latest figures from the Health Protection Agency show there were 55,681 cases of Clostridium difficile infection reported in patients aged 65 years and above in England in 2006. (Source: SIMeL Italy)


The bacteria are naturally present in the intestine but kept under control by other bacteria. Antibiotics can kill some of these, allowing C.difficile to take hold. Image source and other images. Click image to enlarge.

Related Links:

The following is a Public Release note by Duke University Medical Center:

New superbug surpasses MRSA infection rates in community hospitals

ATLANTA, GA – While prevention methods appear to be helping to lower hospital infection rates from MRSA, a deadly antibiotic-resistant bacterium, a new superbug is on the rise, according to research from the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network.

New data shows infections from Clostridium difficile are surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in community hospitals.

“We found that MRSA infections have declined steadily since 2005, but C. difficile infections have increased since 2007,” said Becky Miller, M.D., an infectious diseases fellow at Duke University Medical Center.

C. difficile is a multi-drug resistant bacterium that causes diarrhea and in some cases life-threatening inflammation of the colon. The infections are currently treated with one of two antibiotics. But relapses are common and occur in one-quarter of patients despite treatment, according to Miller.

“This is not a nuisance disease,” said Daniel Sexton, M.D., director of the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network (DICON). “A small percentage of patients with C. difficile may die, despite treatment. Also, it is likely that the routine use of alcohol-containing hand cleansers to prevent infections from MRSA does not simultaneously prevent infections due to C difficile.”

Miller and her team evaluated data from 28 hospitals in DICON, a collaboration between Duke and 39 community hospitals located in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The group tries to improve infection control programs by compiling data on infections occurring at member hospitals, identifying trends and areas for improvement, and providing ongoing education and leadership to community providers.

During a 24-month period, there were 847 cases of C. difficile infections in the 28 hospitals and the rate of C. difficile infection was 25 percent higher than the rate of infection due to MRSA.

C. difficile is very common and deserves more attention,” she said. “Most people continue to think of MRSA as the big, bad superbug. Based on our data, we can see that this thinking, along with prevention methods, will need to change.”

In the past, hospitals were focused on MRSA and developed their prevention methods on MRSA as the issue, Sexton said.

“I have always thought that we need to be looking more globally at all the problems and this new information about C. difficile provides more data to support that,” he said.

C. difficile has been a low priority for hospitals, but now it is relatively important priority, Sexton said.

“The key is to develop prevention methods aimed at C. difficile while still maintaining the success we have had with MRSA,” Miller said.

Contact: Erin Pratt
erin.pratt@duke.edu
Duke University Medical Center

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Posted in antibiotics, Clostridium difficile, inflammation of the colon, NSAIDs, Nurofen | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

“Flesh Eating Bacteria” Linked to NSAIDs

Posted by feww on September 19, 2009

Global Health Alert  Bulletin # 30 – New Zealand cases of “flesh-eating” disease have surged by 300 percent

Flesh Eating Bug is linked to Nurofen, and similar non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) medicine including Voltaren

Caution has also been issued on using ibuprofen in chickenpox!

Preoperative view (NF Patient)

NF NZ Med-Js
Areas of blistering and skin necrosis became evident 12 hours after patient was admitted to hospital with lower abdominal pain, swelling of the labia and erythema across the lower suprapubic area. Photo: The New Zealand Medical Journal.

Post debridement defect

NF NZ Med-J 02 sl
Post debridement (removal of infected tissues) photo. Image source: The New Zealand Medical Journal.


What is Necrotizing Fasciitis, NF  [commonly know as flesh-eating disease]

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly called flesh-eating disease or flesh-eating bacteria, is an infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues.

  • Type I infection is a polymicrobial infection.
  • Type II infection is  a monomicrobial infection.

Many types of bacteria can cause necrotizing fasciitis

  • Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes)
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Vibrio vulnificus,
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Bacteroides fragilis

Historically, Group A streptococcus has been responsible for  most cases of Type II infections. However, since about 1999, another serious form of monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis,  the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterium has struck with increasing frequency.

What the bugs do!

“Flesh-eating bacteria” [they don’t actually eat flesh]  destroy skin and muscle tissue by releasing toxins (virulence factors), which include streptococcal pyogenic exotoxins.

Causes

  • Surgical procedures
  • IV infusions and IM injections
  • Minor insect bites
  • Superficial wounds
  • Local ischemia and hypoxia especially in patients with diabetes and cancer (and other systemic illnesses)
  • Up to 40 percent of the patients in various series were alcoholics
  • The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), such as Nurofen, Vultaren and Ibuprofen
  • Complications arising from varicella infections

NF Symptoms

  • Infection begins locally, at a site of trauma.
  • Infection may occur as the result of surgery, minor scratches, or even non-apparent.
  • Signs of inflammation may not be apparent if the bacteria are deep within the tissue, especially in the early stages,
  • Intense pain that may seem excessive given the external appearance of the skin.
  • As the disease progresses, tissue becomes swollen, often within hours.
  • Diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Signs of inflammation such as redness and swollen or hot skin show very quickly, unless infection is deep.
  • Skin color may progress to violet and blisters may form, with subsequent death of the subcutaneous tissues.
  • Fever and appearance of severe illness.
  • The infection will rapidly progress, and will eventually lead to death, unless treated.
  • Mortality rates are as high as 73 percent when left untreated.

Treatment

  • Aggressive surgical debridement (removal of infected tissue), which  is always necessary to keep the disease  from spreading, and is usually the only treatment available.
  • A combination of intravenous antibiotics including penicillin, vancomycin and clindamycin.
  • Hyperbaric oxygen treatment, when available, as  adjunctive therapy,
  • Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT, also known as vacuum assisted closure).
  • Amputation of the affected organ(s) .
  • Skin grafting to cover open wounds

MRSA

MRSA [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus] was discovered in the United Kingdom in 1961, but it is now a global concern. MRSA (also known as CA-MRSA, community-acquired MRSA, and HA-MRSA, hospital-acquired MRSA) is a variation of a common bacterium, which has evolved as a “superbug” with the ability to resist treatment with antibiotics, including methicillin and penicillin.

According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MRSA is responsible for 94,000 serious infections and nearly 19,000 deaths each year in the United States. [In comparison, the AIDS virus killed about 12,500 Americans  in 2005. ]

Causes

MRSA is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. S. aureus is a common type of bacteria that normally live on the skin and sometimes in the nasal passages of healthy people. MRSA refers to S. aureus strains that do not respond to some of the antibiotics used to treat staph infections.

The bacteria can cause infection when they enter the body through a cut, sore, catheter, or breathing tube. The infection can be minor and local (for example, a pimple), or more serious (involving the heart, lung, blood, or bone).

Serious staph infections are more common in people with weak immune systems. This includes patients in hospitals and long-term care facilities and those receiving kidney dialysis.

MRSA infections are grouped into two types:

  • Healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections occur in people who are or have recently been in a hospital or other health-care facility. Those who have been hospitalized or had surgery within the past year are at increased risk. MRSA bacteria are responsible for a large percentage of hospital-acquired staph infections.
  • Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections occur in otherwise healthy people who have not recently been in the hospital. The infections have occurred among athletes who share equipment or personal items (such as towels or razors) and children in daycare facilities. Members of the military and those who get tattoos are also at risk. The number of CA-MRSA cases is increasing.

MRSA Symptoms

Staph skin infections cause a red, swollen, and painful area on the skin. Other symptoms may include:

  • Drainage of pus or other fluids from the site
  • Fever
  • Skin abscess
  • Warmth around the infected area

Symptoms of a more serious staph infection may include:

  • Chest pain
  • Chills
  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • General ill feeling (malaise)
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Rash
  • Shortness of breath

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The above information was sourced from the CDC, MedLine Plus and other sources.

Posted in amputation, Group A Streptococcus, methicillin resistant, S. aureus, surgical debridement | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | 6 Comments »

Global Health Alert: New Zealand MRSA Infections Up 3500 pct

Posted by feww on March 15, 2009

Also Mirrored at: New Zealand MRSA Infections Up 3500 pct

New Zealand Cases of antibiotic-resistant superbug methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have exploded since 2004.

Infections have risen from 12 case in 2004 at least 420 reported cases in 2008  (a rise of 3500 percent), according to figures released by NZ Ministry of Health.

Group A streptococcus bacterium, which causes rheumatic fever and can lead arthritis and heart damage, is immune to common antibiotics. In some cases patients infected with the bacterium do not survive.

Unfortunately, New Zealand Government has hidden this information from the professionals and failed to warn the public for nearly 5 years.

In an outbreak at Wellington Hospital in 2004 three babies died and at least 30 others infected. Health workers also revealed an outbreak of group A streptococcus bacterium, which had infected at least 32 children in Kaikohe, New Zealand. However, the government prevented any follow-up information on that case from being released.


Bacterial cells of Staphylococcus aureus, which is one of the causal agents of mastitis in dairy cows. Its large capsule protects the organism from attack by the cow’s immunological defenses. Magnified 50,000X. (Source)

“A new, virulent superbug has established itself in New Zealand ,”  NZ Green Party health spokesperson Sue Kedgley reportedly said today.

Kedgley said New Zealand Government, in response to her written questions, had confirmed that the superbug USA300 had taken hold, with cases rising from 12 to 420 in the last four years, the report said.

“This strain is contagious, easily misdiagnosed and resistant to many antibiotics,” she said.

“It is a cause of huge concern overseas because it is virulent and contagious and is associated with serious skin infection outbreaks, particularly amongst sports teams.”

“This strain of MRSA is contagious, easily misdiagnosed and resistant to many antibiotics,” said Ms Kedgley.

“It is a cause of huge concern overseas, because it is virulent and contagious, and is associated with serious skin infection outbreaks, particularly amongst sports teams.”

“The Government has failed to set up a national surveillance system that the Green Party secured funding for last year. The weekly monitoring programme for the superbug MRSA was stopped in 2005. It appears that DHBs have been left to cope in isolation with this new outbreak,” Ms Kedgley said.

What is Staphylococcus aureus? [Source: CDC]

Staphylococcus aureus, often referred to simply as “staph,” is a bacteria commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Occasionally, staphylococci can get into the body and cause an infection. This infection can be minor (such as pimples, boils, and other skin conditions) or serious and sometimes fatal (such as blood infections or pneumonia). Staph. aureus is a common organism and can be found in the nostrils of up to 30% of persons. Person-to-person transmission is the usual form of spread and occurs through contact with secretions from infected skin lesions, nasal discharge or spread via the hands.

What is MRSA?

MRSA are staphylococci that are resistant to the antibiotic, methicillin, and other commonly used antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporins. These germs have a unique gene that causes them to be unaffected by all but the highest concentrations of these antibiotics. Therefore, alternate antibiotics must be used to treat persons infected with MRSA. Vancomycin has been the most effective and reliable drug in these cases, but is used intravenously and is not effective for treatment of MRSA when taken by mouth.

More information on MRSA from CDC:  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

In 2005, MRSA killed 19,000 people in the United States—more than 1.5 times as many people than died of AIDS that year.

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