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Posts Tagged ‘NOAA’

‘Dead Zone’ in Gulf of Mexico Largest Ever Measured

Posted by feww on August 6, 2017

Gulf of Mexico dead zone measured 22,720 km²

At 22,720 square kilometers (8,776 square miles), this year’s dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest ever measured, according to NOAA.

Image credit: N. Rabalais, LSU/LUMCON)

“Previously the largest Gulf of Mexico dead zone was measured in 2002, encompassing 8,497 square miles. The average size of the dead zone over the past five years has been about 5,806 square miles, three times larger than the Gulf Hypoxia Task Force target of 1,900 square miles.”

This large dead zone size shows that nutrient pollution, primarily from agriculture and developed land runoff in the Mississippi River watershed is continuing to affect the nation’s coastal resources and habitats in the Gulf.

These nutrients stimulate massive algal growth that eventually decomposes, which uses up the oxygen needed to support life in the Gulf. This loss of oxygen can cause the loss of fish habitat or force them to move to other areas to survive, decreased reproductive capabilities in fish species and a reduction in the average size of shrimp caught.

Additional graphics available from:

https://gulfhypoxia.net/

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Earth experiencing yet another exceptionally warm year –WMO

Posted by feww on June 21, 2017

Earth is Experiencing 2nd Warmest Year to Date

Multiple parts of the globe including regions in Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and the United States have experienced extremely high May and June temperatures, with a number of records broken. The heatwaves are unusually early and are occurring as the Earth experiences another exceptionally warm year.

Average global surface temperatures over land and sea were the second highest on record for the first five months of 2017, according to NOAA.

Statement by WMO

“Climate change scenarios predict that heatwaves will become more intense, more frequent and longer. It is also expected that the number of hot days will continue to rise,” said WMO.

Europe

The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), which acts as WMO’s Regional Climate Centre for Europe’s Node on Climate Monitoring, has issued a Climate Watch Advisory valid until at least 25 June. It states that a period with significantly above-normal temperatures and heat waves is expected for most parts of western Mediterranean (from Portugal to western Balkans).

National meteorological and hydrological services are issuing regular forecasts,  heat-health advice, as well as information on air quality, UV levels and wildfire risk.

The heatwave originated as a result of very hot air moving up from the Sahara to the Iberian Peninsula and parts of the Mediterranean.

Iberian Peninsula

Extremely high temperatures of around 40°C contributed to the severity of the disastrous wildfire in Portugal which has claimed dozens of lives.

An amber alert for heat – the second highest warning level – continues to be in place in the area on 20 June.

The Portuguese national meteorological service, IPMA, said that over the weekend, when the fire broke out, more than one third of its weather stations measured temperatures over 40°C. The meteorological service said that for 20 June, 5 municipalities are at maximum fire risk and 58 at very high risk.

Spain

Spring 2017 (from 1 March to 31 May 2017) has been extremely warm, with an average temperature of 15.4°C, which is 1.7°C above the average of this term (reference period 1981-2010). It has been the warmest spring since 1965, having exceeded by 0.06°C the previous highest value, which corresponded to the spring of 2011. It has therefore been also the warmest spring since the beginning of the 21st century.

The marked contrast observed between the maximum temperature anomalies, which were on average 2.5°C above the normal value of the term, and those of the minimum temperatures, which were only 0.9°C higher than the normal ones.

May was extremely warm, with a temperature that surpassed the normal value by 2.4°C. As of June, the average temperature is well above normal values.

A number of places broke temperature records for June for both maximum daytime temperatures and minimum overnight ones.

These include Granada airport, 41.5°C, Madrid Retiro 40.3°C and Madrid airport 40.1°C on 17 June. The peak if the minimum temperatures was on the 19th June, when Salamanca and Zamora had record overnight temperatures of 22.1°C and 23.7°C.

AEMET also reported extreme fire hazard for parts of the country on 20 June.

France

Fifty one departments in France have an amber alert for high temperatures on 20 June, according to Meteo France. Temperatures for Monday included 38°C for Bordeaux, 36°C forLimoges, 34°C for Mulhouse and 33°C for Paris, Toulouse, Brest and Lille, according to Meteo France.

A number of stations broke June records, including Cuers at 37.6°C and Toulon 35.3°C. Records for minimum night-time temperatures were also beaten (25.1°C in Montpellier, 25°C in Marseille) on Friday 16 June.

Meteo France said that very high temperatures will continue until Friday 23 June, with temperatures between 32 °C and 38 °C in the afternoon, or more than 10°C above the average for this time of year.

Other parts of Europe

Many other parts of Europe, including the United Kingdom, also witnessed above average temperatures into the low to mid 30°s.

USA

Near record to record heat has been reported in the desert southwest USA and into California, with highs near 120°F (49°C) in places. More than 29 million Californians were under an excessive heat warning or advisory at the weekend. The US National Weather Service has warned that dangerous heat will continue through at least Friday 23 June in Nevada, Arizona, parts of California and Las Vegas.

Phoenix recorded 118°C (47.8°C) on 19 June. In the 11,059 days since the start of record keeping, 118°C heat has only been recorded 15 times. A number of flights to Phoenix Sky Harbour International Airport were reportedly cancelled because it was too hot to fly.

Death Valley National Park, California, issued warnings to visitors to expect high temperatures of 100°F to over 120°F (38°C to over 49°C). Death Valley holds the world record for the highest temperature, 56.7°C recorded in 1913.
[On Monday the temperature reached 127°F (53°C), National Weather Service reported.]

North Africa, Middle East and Asia

The temperature in United Arab Emirates topped 50°C on 17 May, with 50.5°C in Mezaira.

In the center of Iran’s Kuzestan province in the south-east of the country, neighboring Iraq, temperatures reached 50°C on 15 June.

The heatwave in Morocco peaked on 17 May, when there was a new reported record of 42.9°C Larach Station in northern Morocco.

The high June temperatures follow above average temperatures in parts of the world at the end of May. The town of Turbat in southwestern Pakistan reported a temperature of 54°C. WMO will set up an international committee of experts to verify the temperature and assess whether it equals a reported 54°C temperature recorded in Kuwait last July.

WMO Statement is posted at: https://public.wmo.int/en/media/news/high-temperatures-and-heatwaves-take-hold

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Larger Summer ‘Dead Zone’ Predicted for Chesapeake Bay –NOAA

Posted by feww on June 15, 2017

Human activities threaten marine food sources

This year’s summer Chesapeake Bay hypoxic or “dead zone” will be larger than average, predicted to grow by about 9 percent to 7.88 km³, said researchers at NOAA.

The Bay’s dead zone measurement started in 1950, and the 30-year mean maximum dead zone volume is 7.25 km³.

“The Bay’s hypoxic (low-oxygen) and anoxic (oxygen-free) zones are caused by excess nutrient pollution, primarily from human activities such as agriculture and wastewater. The excess nutrients stimulate an overgrowth of algae, which then sinks and decomposes in the water. The resulting low oxygen levels are insufficient to support most marine life and habitats in near-bottom waters, threatening the Bay’s crabs, oysters and other fisheries.”

The Bay forecast is based on models developed by the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Scienceoffsite link and the University of Michigan.

 

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State of Emergency Declared in Louisiana amid Tornado Attacks

Posted by feww on February 8, 2017

Louisiana Gov declares state of emergency amid  severe weather

  • Dozens of people have been injured, with more than 100 buildings damaged or destroyed.
  • NASA’s Michaud Facility in New Orleans has been “severely damaged.”
  • About 2.7 million people in parts of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama are at the highest risk of severe weather.
  • SPC/NOAA has received 78 reports of severe weather across seven states, including 9 confirmed tornadoes, as of posting.

Additional details are available from FIRE-EARTH PULSARS.

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U.S. Autumn Warmest on Record

Posted by feww on December 8, 2016

U.S. autumn temperature 2.8ºC above average

The U.S. temperature in autumn was 14.2ºC, 2.8 degrees above average [57.6 degrees F, 4.1 degrees a.a.] surpassing last fall as the warmest on record, according to NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information.

  • November was the 2nd warmest on record, with an average temperature across the contiguous U.S. of 8.9ºC, 3.5 degrees above average [48 degrees F, 6.3 degrees a.a. ]
    • Every state in the Continental U.S. and Alaska were warmer than average during November. The precipitation total for the month was 0.50 inch below average.
  • The year-to-date (January-November) average temperature for the contiguous U.S. was 13.8ºC,  1.7 degrees above average [56.9 degrees F, 3.1 degrees a.a.]

Here's a map of significant climate events that occurred in the U.S. in November and during Autumn 2016.

November’s  Selected  Climate Events:

  • Drought: Extreme to exceptional drought in the Lower 48 increased from 4.9% to 8.7% of the area; in the Southeast from 19.7% to 36.2%.
  • Wildfires: In November, 8,560 wildfires raged across the Continental U.S. and burned more than 275,000 acres, most notably in the Southeast.
  • North Dakota Temperatures rocketed 7.1ºC [12.8 degrees F] above average, about 1.1 degrees above the previous record set in 1999.
  • Alaska experienced its warmest year to date on record, with the mercury rising more than 3.3 degrees [6 degrees F] above average.
  • Pacific Northwest Washington state had record rainfall.

NOAA’s report, related maps and images are posted at the NCEI website.

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Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters

Posted by feww on December 6, 2016

Cost of 200 disasters in the U.S. exceeds $1.1 trillion

Some 200 weather and climate disasters have occurred in the U.S. since 1980, each exceeding  $1 billion (including CPI adjustment to 2016) in overall damages/costs. The total cost of these 200 events exceeds $1.1 trillion, according to NCDC/NOAA.

Some 12 weather and climate disaster events with losses exceeding $1 billion each across the United States have occurred this year (as of  September), exceeding the 1980–2015 annual average of 5.2 events (CPI-adjusted); the annual average for the most recent 5 years (2011–2015) is 10.8 events (CPI-adjusted).

Four new billion-dollar disaster events have been added during the 3rd quarter, bringing the 2016 event total to 12. This represents the 2nd highest total number of events surpassing the 11 events observed in 2012. The record number of events in one year (since 1980) is 16, as observed in 2011.

The U.S. has also experienced 4 billion-dollar inland flood events during 2016, doubling the previous record, as no more than 2 inland flood events have occurred in a year since 1980. This is a notable record, further highlighted by the numerous other record flooding events that have impacted the U.S. in 2016.

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) U.S. Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters (2016). https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/

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FIRE-EARTH Alert: Global Drought Conditions

Posted by feww on December 4, 2016

Current Drought Conditions

201609_gpcc_spi03-sm

GPCC based 1-month SPI

gpcc-based-1-month-spi

For the second month in a row, the European Union’s crop monitoring service lowered the corn yield forecast for this year. In Asia, drought continues throughout central Russia and a ring from the Indian sub-Continent around eastern China and Mongolia. In China, drought in the northwestern Gansu Province led to implementation of the government’s level-IV emergency response plan. In Africa, short-term drought eased slightly in the western part of the continent while continuing to strongly impact South Africa. In South Africa, there has been a culling of hippo and buffalo herds due to the poor condition of vegetation. In North America, drought remains entrenched along the western coast as well as through New England and the US Southeast. In the US Northeast, the apple crop has suffered due to the drought with noticeably smaller fruit produced this year. In South America, drought continues in Brazil as well as from the equator down along the Andes. Irrigation water for farms was restricted in Espirito Santo, where rivers were largely dry. In Oceania, drought continued nearly unchanged.  [Images and text sourced from NOAA]

North America
http://www.drought.gov/nadm

Europe
http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/php/index.php?id=1120

Africa
http://drought.icpac.net/
http://hydrology.princeton.edu/~justin/research/project_global_monitor/

Australia
http://www.daff.gov.au/abares/monitor
http://www.bom.gov.au/

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May 2016 Hottest May Since 1880

Posted by feww on June 16, 2016

Combined global temp. for May 2016 rose 0.87°C above the 20th century average

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces (SST) for May 2016 was the highest for May in the 137-year period of record, at 0.87°C (1.57°F) above the 20th century average of 14.8°C (58.6°F), besting the previous record set in 2015 by 0.02°C (0.04°F). May 2016 marks the 13th consecutive month a monthly global temperature record has been broken—the longest such streak since global temperature records began in 1880. —NOAA

Land. The average global temperature across land surfaces was 1.17°C (2.11°F) above the 20th century average of 11.1°C (52.0°F)—the third highest May temperature on record, behind 2012 (+1.26°C / +2.27°F) and 2015 (+1.21°C / +2.18°F).

SST. The May globally-averaged sea surface temperature was 0.76°C (1.37°F) above the 20th century average of 16.3°C (61.3°F). This was the highest for May on record, besting the previous record set in 2015 by 0.05°C (0.09°F).

May 2016 Selected Climate Anomalies and Events Map

January – May

The average global land and SST for January–May 2016 was the warmest on record across the world at 1.08°C (1.94°F) above the 20th century average of 13.1°C (55.5°F), surpassing the previous record set in 2015 by 0.24°C (0.43°F).

Much-warmer-than-average conditions engulfed the vast majority of the world’s land surfaces, resulting in a record warm January–May period at 1.85°C (3.33°F) above the 20th century average of 6.0°C (42.8°F), besting the previous record set in 2015 by 0.45°C (0.81°F).

The average global SST for the year-to-date was the highest for January–May in the 137-year period of record, at 0.80°C (1.44°F) above average surpassing the previous record set in 2015 by 0.16°C (0.29°F). Record warm sea surface temperature during January–May 2016 was present across much of the Indian Ocean and Southwest Pacific Ocean, with scattered areas across the Atlantic Ocean and the tropical Pacific Ocean.

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for May 2016, published online June 2016, retrieved on June 16, 2016 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201605.

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Highest Temp. Departure for April in 137 Years

Posted by feww on May 19, 2016

Global Temperature Analysis – April 2016

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for April 2016 was 1.10°C (1.98°F) above the 20th century average of 13.7°C (56.7°F)—the highest temperature departure for April since global records began in 1880, according to NOAA.

  • Average global temperature across land for April 2016 was 1.93°C (3.47°F) above the 20th century average of 8.1°C (46.5°F).
  • Globally averaged SST was 0.80°C (1.44°F) above the 20th century monthly average, making it the highest global SST for April on record.
  • Overall, 13 out of the 15 highest monthly temperature departures in the record have all occurred since February 2015, with February 1998 and January 2007 among the 15 highest monthly temperature departures.

Year-to-Date 

  • Highest global land and SST average temperature for January–April at 1.14°C (2.05°F) above the 20th century average—beating the previous record set in 2015 by 0.30°C (0.54°F).
  • Record high average land surface temperature at 2.04°C (3.67°F) above average, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by 0.59°C (1.06°F).
  • Highest average SST temperature for the year-to-date at 0.81°C (1.46°F) above average.

 

April 2016 Selected Climate Anomalies and Events Map

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Source: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for April 2016, published online May 2016, retrieved on May 19, 2016 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201604.

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Highest March Temperatures Since Records Began

Posted by feww on April 21, 2016

Global Temperature in March a record 1.22°C warmer 

The global temperature for March 2016 was the highest for this month in the 1880–2016 record, at 1.22°C (2.20°F) above the 20th century average of 12.7°C (54.9°F), NOAA reported

  • This tops the previous record for the combined average temperature for global land and ocean surfaces set in 2015 by 0.32°C (0.58°F).
  • It’s also the highest monthly temperature departure among all 1,635 months on record.
  • The nine highest monthly temperature departures in the record have all occurred in the past nine months.
  • March 2016 also marks the 11th consecutive month a monthly global temperature record has been broken, the longest such streak in NOAA’s 137 years of record keeping.

The average global temperature across land surfaces was 2.33°C (4.19°F) above the 20th century average of 3.2°C (37.8°F), the highest March temperature on record, topping March record set in 2008 by 0.43°C (0.77°F).

  • Most of northwestern Canada and Alaska, along with vast regions of northern and western Asia, observed temperatures at least 3°C (5°F) above their 1981–2010 average.
  • The mean March temperature for Australia was the highest in the country’s 107-year period of record, at 1.70°C (3.06°F) higher than the 1961–1990 average.
  • Arctic temperature over land for 66°–90°N overall was 3.34°C (6.01°F) higher than the 1981‐2010 average… the second highest March, 0.03°C (0.05°F) lower than the record set in 2011.
  • Norway was 3.0°C (5.4°F) warmer than its 1961–1990 average.

March globally averaged SST remained 0.81°C (1.46°F) above the 20th century monthly average… highest global ocean temperature for March in the 1880–2016 record, surpassing the previous record set in 2015 by 0.18°C (0.32°F)

March 2016 Selected Climate Anomalies and Events Map

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January – March period

January – March 2016 were the warmest such period on record (global land and SST), at 1.15°C (2.07°F) above the 20th century average of 12.3°C (54.1°F), surpassing the previous record set in 2015 by 0.28°C (0.50°F)

  •  January–March 2016 marked the highest departure from average for any three-month period on record.
  • This record has been broken for seven consecutive months, since the July–September 2015 period.

January–March SST was the highest on record, at 0.82°C (1.48°F) above average… and 0.21°C (0.38°F) above previous records set in 2010 and 2015.

The average land surface temperature was also record high for the period, at 2.05°C (3.69°F) above average, surpassing the previous record set in 2015 by 0.47°C (0.85°F).

Source: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for March 2016, published online April 2016, retrieved on April 21, 2016 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201603.

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Oklahoma Governor Declares State of Emergency in 10 New Counties

Posted by feww on April 7, 2016

Wildfires converge; consume 60k acres in Kansas, Oklahoma; hundreds evacuated

Multiple wildfires raging across Kansas and Oklahoma have destroyed tens of thousands of acres (hectares). Four major blazes converged to form massive fire on Wednesday, forcing the evacuation of hundreds of residents from a small town in Oklahoma.

Dubbed the 350 Complex Fire, the blaze has blackened about 60,000 acres (243 km²), as of posting.

Oklahoma Gov. Mary Fallin declares state of emergency in 10 additional counties affected by wildfires.

The 10 counties covered by the executive order are Alfalfa, Blaine, Creek, Dewey, Garfield, Grant, Harper, Logan, Major and Woodward.

Fallin proclaimed a state of emergency in Woods County in March, which remains in effect in that county.

A large wildfire in northwestern Oklahoma was zero percent contained on Wednesday, but firefighters reportedly prevents the blaze from destroying the small town of Freedom, or engulfing an iodine-manufacturing plant.

In the neighboring state of Kansas, “rapid outbreak of wildfires” in the northeast prompted the governor to issue a state disaster declaration for Wabaunsee, Riley, and Pottawatomie Counties. The counties had separately declared local states of disaster emergency, earlier.

Brownback had earlier declared a State of Disaster Emergency for an area in south central Kansas threatened by major wildfires that spread into Kansas from Oklahoma.

Red Flag Warnings are currently in effect across most or parts of at least six states.

April 7, 2016. [The following fire stats are based on NIFC data and local media reports.] At least 26 new large fires have been reported across the U.S. since March 25. In Oklahoma, six large fires have burned up to 425,000 acres. Other states with uncontained large fires include Florida, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.

Wildfires destroying more acres than ever before

Wildfire Stats [NOAA]

  • In March, 6,324 fires (9th least since 2000) burned 649,511 acres (2nd most on record), which is 102.7 acres burned/fire (most on record).
  • For January – March, 9,218 fires (5th least since 2000) burned 776,132 acres (2nd most on record), which is 84.2 acres burned/fire (2nd most on record).

Data Source: The National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC).

NOTE: See previous comments posted on this blog concerning quality of data provided by the above source.

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Global Temperature Analysis – February 2016

Posted by feww on March 18, 2016

February 2016 the warmest ever: NOAA

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces (SST) for February 2016 was the highest for February in the 137-year period of record, at 1.21°C (2.18°F) above the 20th century average of 12.1°C (53.9°F), surpassing the previous record set in 2015 by 0.33°C (0.59°F).

It also surpassed the all-time monthly record set just two months ago in December 2015 by 0.09°C (0.16°F).

  • The six highest monthly temperature departures on record have all occurred in the past six months.
  • February 2016 also marks the 10th consecutive month a monthly global temperature record has been broken.

Global Land Temp

The average global temperature across land surfaces was 2.31°C (4.16°F) above the 20th century average of 3.2°C (37.8°F), the highest February temperature on record, surpassing the previous records set in 1998 and 2015 by 0.63°C (1.13°F) and surpassing the all-time single-month record set in March 2008 by 0.43°C (0.77°F).

SST

February’s globally-averaged sea surface temperature was 0.81°C (1.46°F) above the 20th century average of 15.9°C (60.6°F). This was the highest for February on record, surpassing the previous records set in 1998 and 2015 by 0.36°C (0.20°F), and was the sixth highest departure from average among all 1,632 months in the record.

  • The nine highest monthly global ocean temperature departures have all occurred in the past nine months (since July 2015).

December–February

The December–February seasonal global temperature was 1.13°C (2.03°F) above the 20th century average of 12.1°C (53.8°F). This was the highest for December–February in the 1880–2016 record, surpassing the previous record set last year by 0.29°C (0.52°F). December 2015–February 2016 also marks the highest 3-month departure from average for any 3-month period on record, surpassing the previous record set last month, November 2015–January 2016, by 0.09°C (0.16°F).

  • The globally-averaged temperature across land surfaces was also the highest on record for December–February, at 1.93°C (3.47°F) above the 20th century average of 3.2°C (37.8°F). This surpasses the previous record set last year by 0.46°C (0.83°F) and marks the highest 3-month departure from average for any 3-month period on record, surpassing the previous record of November 2015–January 2016 by 0.40°C (0.70°F).
  • SST for the period was 0.84°C (1.51°F) above the 20th century average of 15.8°C (60.5°F), the highest for December–February on record, surpassing the previous record set in 2009/10 by 0.22°C (0.40°F).

The first two months of 2016 were the warmest such period on record across the world’s land and ocean surfaces, at 1.13°C (2.03°F) above the 20th century average of 12.1°C (53.8°F), surpassing the previous record set in 2015 by 0.29°C (0.52°F).

The average SST for the year-to-date was the highest for January–February in the 137-year period of record, at 0.83°C (1.49°F) above average, surpassing the previous record set in 2010 by 0.22°C (0.40°F). The average land surface temperature was also record high, at 1.95°C (3.51°F) above average, surpassing the previous record of 2002 by 0.41°C (0.74°F).

Source: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for February 2016, published online March 2016, retrieved on March 18, 2016 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201602.

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Deadly Storm System Slams Southern US

Posted by feww on February 24, 2016

Tornadoes kill or injure up to 50 people

A powerful storm system pummeled southern U.S. spawning deadly tornadoes that left at least eight people dead and dozens more injured.

At least 27 tornadoes have raked across Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida  and Georgia, destroying homes, businesses and just about anything else standing in their paths.

The deaths occurred in Louisiana and Mississippi. A tornado destroyed 90% of the homes in a trailer park in Convent, southern Louisiana.

“These travel trailers were picked up, thrown a considerable distance and just mangled,” Louisiana Gov. Edwards said.


At least 27 tornadoes have hit Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida  and Georgia, according to the reports received by SPC.

Severe weather continues on Wednesday

The NWS Storm Prediction Center expects severe weather to continue on Wednesday. For the early morning hours, the greatest risk will be in the Southeast. By Wednesday afternoon, the threat shifts to the Eastern United States, particularly the Carolinas, where strong tornadoes are possible.

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January Breaks Global Temperature Records

Posted by feww on February 18, 2016

January 2016 temperature breaks 2007 record —NOAA

The January 2016 globally-averaged temperature across land and ocean surfaces (SST) was 1.04°C (1.87°F) above the 20th century average of 12.0°C (53.6°F), the highest for January in the 137-year period of record, breaking the previous record of 2007 by 0.16°C (0.29°F).

  • This departure from average is the second highest among all months on record. December 2015 was the highest at 1.11°C (2.00°F) above average.
    • These two months are the only two to-date to surpass a monthly temperature departure of 1°C.
  • January 2016 also marks the ninth consecutive month that the monthly temperature record has been broken and the 14th consecutive month (since December 2014) that the monthly global temperature ranked among the three warmest for its respective month.

The global land surface temperature was 1.56°C (2.81°F) above average, the second highest on record for January, behind only 2007.

  • Record warmth was observed across a swath of northern Siberia where temperatures rose at least 5°C (9°F) above the 1981–2010 monthly average.
  • Parts of southeastern Asia, southwestern Asia and the Middle East, most of southern Africa, and areas of Central and South America, and Nearly all of the South American continent were much warmer than average.
  • Northern Mexico, Scandinavia, and Central Asia around Mongolia were cooler than average, with a couple of areas that experienced much cooler-than-average temperatures, while parts of far western Russia and central Asia observed temperatures at least 5°C below average for the month.

SST

Record warmth was observed in all major ocean basins. The SST globally-averaged temperature departure of +0.86°C (+1.55°F) from the 20th century average was the highest on record for January, surpassing the previous record of 2010 by 0.25°C (0.45°F).

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for January 2016, published online February 2016, retrieved on February 18, 2016 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201601.

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2015 Earth’s Warmest Year by Widest Margin on Record

Posted by feww on January 20, 2016

Warmest December makes 2015 warmest year on record: NOAA

The 2015 globally averaged temperature over land and ocean surfaces was the highest on record since 1880. The December combined global land and ocean average surface temperature was the highest on record for any month in the 136-year record, reported NOAA.

Global highlights: Calendar Year 2015

The 2015 average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was 1.62°F (0.90°C) above the 20th century average.

  • It is the warmest among all 136 years in the 1880–2015 record.
    • Fourth time a global temperature record has been set this century.
    • Largest margin by which the annual global temperature record has been broken.
    • Ten months had record high temperatures for their respective months during the year.
    • The five highest monthly departures from average for any month on record all occurred during 2015.
  • During 2015, the globally-averaged land surface temperature was 2.39°F (1.33°C) above the 20th century average. This was the highest among all years in the 1880–2015 record, surpassing the previous record of 2007 by 0.45°F (0.25°C). This is the largest margin by which the annual global land temperature has been broken.
  • During 2015, the globally-averaged sea surface temperature was 1.33°F (0.74°C) above the 20th century average. This was the highest among all years in the 1880–2015 record, surpassing the previous record of last year by 0.20°F (0.11°C).
  • The 1901-2000 average combined land and ocean annual temperature is 13.9°C (56.9°F), the annually averaged land temperature for the same period is 8.5°C (47.3°F), and the long-term annually averaged sea surface temperature is 16.1°C (60.9°F).

Global highlights: December 2015

December average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was 2.00°F (1.11°C) above the 20th century average of 12.2°C (54.0°F). This was the highest for December in the 1880–2015 record.

  • The globally-averaged land surface temperature was 3.40°F (1.89°C) above the 20th century average. This was the highest for December in the 1880–2015 record.
  • The globally-averaged sea surface temperature was 1.49°F (0.83°C) above the 20th century average, also the highest for December in the 1880–2015 record.

Sixteen Warmest Years (1880–2015)

All but one of the 16 warmest year on record (1998 tied with 2009 for the 6th warmest) have occurred this century.

Source:
NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for Annual 2015, published online January 2016, retrieved on January 20, 2016 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201513.

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Arctic’s Ice Cycle since 1990

Posted by feww on January 11, 2016

Arctic’s oldest ice each week since 1990 – NOAA Climate

Time lapse of the relative age of Arctic sea ice weekly since 1990. The oldest ice (9 or more years old) is white. Seasonal ice is darkest blue. Old ice drifts out of the Arctic through the Fram Strait (east of Greenland), but in recent years, it has also been melting as it drifts into the southernmost waters of the Beaufort Sea (north of western Canada and Alaska). Video produced by the Climate.gov team, based on data provided by Mark Tschudi, University of Colorado-Boulder.

Arctic Sea Ice – On the Decline 2015

At 4.41 million square kilometers or 1.79 million square miles, 2015 was the fourth-smallest summer sea ice minimum extent in recorded history. This is 1.87 million square kilometers below the 1981 to 2010 average extent.

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2015 Could Become Warmest Year on Record

Posted by feww on December 18, 2015

Three More Global Temperature Records Broken —NOAA

State of the Climate Report: November 2015

  • November 2015 was warmest November on record Globally
  • September–November was the warmest such period
  • Year-to-date was record warm

The November average temperature across land and ocean surfaces (SST) rose  1.75°F (0.97°C) above the 20th century average of 12.9°C (55.2°F), the highest for November in the 1880–2015 record, surpassing the previous record set in 2013 by 0.27°F (0.15°C).

  • November warmth broke a monthly global temperature record for the seventh consecutive month.
  • The temperature departure from average for November is also the second highest among all months in the 136-year period of record. The highest departure of 0.99°C (1.79°F) occurred last month.
  • Globally-averaged land surface temperature for November was 2.36°F (1.31°C) above the 20th century average.
  • Globally-averaged SST was 1.51°F (0.84°C) above the 20th century average. This was the highest for November in the 1880–2015 record, surpassing the previous record set last year by 0.36°F (0.20°C).
  • The average Arctic sea ice extent for November 2015 was 360,000 square miles (~ 930,000km² ), or 8.3 percent below the 1981–2010 average. This was the sixth smallest November extent since records began in 1979.
  • Antarctic sea ice extent during November 2015 was 80,000 square miles (1.2 percent) above the 1981–2010 average, the 14th largest for November in the 37-year period of record.


November 2015 Blended Land and Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies in degrees Celsius

Autumn Temperatures

Additionally, September, October, and November 2015 had the three highest monthly temperature departures on record.

Out of 1,630 monthly records (1880–2015 record):

  • Eight months of 2015 are among the 10 highest monthly temperature departures from their respective averages.
  • All 11 months of 2015  so far are among the 25 highest.


Selected Climate Events & Anomalies for November 2015

September–November  Temperature

The September–November seasonal temperature was 0.96°C (1.73°F) above the 20th century average of 14.0°C (57.1°F). This marks the highest departure from average for the season in the 136-year period of record, surpassing the previous record set last year by 0.21°C (0.38°F).

The globally-averaged temperature across land surfaces was also the highest on record for September–November, at 1.27°C (2.29°F) above the 20th century average of 9.1°C (48.3°F).

  • Most of the Americas from Mexico through the northern half of South America were record warm, as were scattered regions across Africa, southern and southeastern Asia, and southern Australia.
  • Across the world’s oceans, the September–November average sea surface temperature was 0.84°C (1.51°F) above the 20th century average of 16.0°C (60.7°F), the highest for September–November on record, surpassing the previous record set last year by 0.27°C (0.15°F).

Year-to-date Temperature

The first 11 months of 2015 were the warmest such period on record across the world’s land and ocean surfaces, at 0.87°C (1.57°F) above the 20th century average of 14.0°C (57.2°F), surpassing the previous record set last year by 0.14°C (0.25°F).

  • Nine of the first eleven months in 2015 have been record warm for their respective months, with January second warmest for January and April third warmest.
  • The December global temperature would have to be at least 0.81°C (1.46°F) below average—or 0.24°C (0.43°F) colder than the current record low December temperature of 1916—for 2015 to not become the warmest year in the 136-year period of record.

The average global sea surface temperature for the year-to-date was the highest for January–November in the 136-year period of record, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above average, surpassing the previous record set last year by 0.09°C (0.16°F).

The average land surface temperature was also record high, at 1.27°C (2.29°F) above average, surpassing the previous record of 2010 by 0.15°C (0.27°F).


January–November 2015 Blended Land and Sea Surface Temperature Percentiles

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for November 2015, published online December 2015, retrieved on December 18, 2015 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201511.

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WMO Admits Ozone Hole ‘Third Largest Ever’

Posted by feww on October 29, 2015

REALLY!

WMO, the UN’s climate and weather organization, reported today a record-size Antarctic Ozone Hole (AOH); however, it said there was no cause for alarm as it should shrink again!

[Be sure to familiarize yourself with the AOH narrative. See links to blog posts on the subject listed below—Ed.]

WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletin no. 4, 2015

The area of the region where total ozone is less than 220 DU, the so-called “ozone hole area”, averaged over the 30 worst consecutive days has reached 26.9 million square kilometres according to data from NASA. This places 2015 as the third largest ozone hole on record according to this criterion. One has to go back to 2006 and to 2000 to find a larger ozone hole area for this time period. A stable and large vortex, concentric around the south pole and characterised by low temperatures explains why 2015 experiences the largest ozone hole since 2006. […]

Antarctic ozone hole 2015
The figure shows the partial ozone column between 12 and 20 km altitude above the South Pole station. This is measured with electrochemical ozonesondes launched on balloons from the ground. The small light blue dots show all observations done from 1991 to 2014. The medium blue circles show the measurements from 2006, the year that saw the most severe ozone hole on record. The orange diamonds show data from 2015. Although the 2015 minimum is not as low as in 2006, the 2015 observations still show some of lowest partial columns measured throughout the history of the Antarctic ozone hole. This figure has been provided by Bryan Johnston and Kirk Thoning at the Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Source: WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletin no. 4, 2015.

On 5th August the NAT area reached a maximum for the season with 28.2 million km2, which is higher than the maximum reached in recent years. One has to go back to 2009 to find a higher PSC area maximum (28.4 million km2). Also in September and so far in October, the NAT area has been well above the long-term mean. Since mid October, the NAT area has oscillated around the long term maximum for this time of the year.

WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletin no. 4, 2015 (PDF Download Available). Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/283301743_WMO_Antarctic_Ozone_Bulletin_no._4_2015 [accessed Oct 29, 2015].

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Die-off of Large Whales Continues in Gulf of Alaska

Posted by feww on October 1, 2015

Dozens of whales found dead in Gulf of Alaska

At least 34 large whales including humpback, fin and gray whales have been found dead around the islands of the western Gulf of Alaska and the southern shoreline of the Alaska Peninsula since May 2015.

NOAA declared the recent deaths an unusual mortality event (UME) in August. An UME is a stranding event that is unforeseen, involving a significant die-off of a marine mammal population, and demanding immediate response.

“NOAA Fisheries scientists and partners are very concerned about the large number of whales stranding in the western Gulf of Alaska in recent months,” said Dr. Teri Rowles, NOAA Fisheries’ marine mammal health and stranding response coordinator.

“Large whale UMEs are the most difficult UMEs to deal with, principally because the animals are floating and rarely beached and we have a difficult time getting to the carcasses to actually examine them.”

Biotoxins cannot be ruled out, despite one sample testing negative, Rowles added. “It’s my understanding that sea surface water and air temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska have been high, and that always concerns us because that means there’s probably a change in overall pathogen exposure—possibly HABs and other factors.”

“It takes a fair amount of time to pull data together even if the event is over, and a lot of deliberation and analyses have to happen in order to determine what’s going on,” Rowles said. “It could be quite a period of time before we actually have an answer, if indeed we end up with a definitive answer for this UME.”

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Researchers Refute Global Surface Warming Hiatus

Posted by feww on June 5, 2015

Warming rate this century “virtually identical” to the 2nd half of 20th century —NOAA

Researchers at National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) say new evidence show global surface temperatures did not plateau this century, and that there was no “pause” in global surface warming.

The warming rate this century is “virtually identical” to the 20th century, they report in a new study published by Science.

Abstract: Much study has been devoted to the possible causes of an apparent decrease in the upward trend of global surface temperatures since 1998, a phenomenon that has been dubbed the global warming “hiatus.” Here we present an updated global surface temperature analysis that reveals that global trends are higher than reported by the IPCC, especially in recent decades, and that the central estimate for the rate of warming during the first 15 years of the 21st century is at least as great as the last half of the 20th century. These results do not support the notion of a “slowdown” in the increase of global surface temperature.

For 1998–2014, NOAA’s new global trend is 0.106± 0.058°C dec−1, and for 2000–2014 it is 0.116± 0.067°C dec−1,  which is similar to the warming over the second half of the 20th century.

However, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) had concluded that global average temperatures increased by about 0.05°C dec−1 between 1998 and 2012, compared to an average of 0.11°C dec−1 between 1951 and 2012.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (1) concluded that the global surface temperature “has shown a much smaller increasing linear trend over the past 15 years [1998-2012] than over the past 30 to 60 years.” The more recent trend was “estimated to be around one-third to one-half of the trend over 1951-2012.” The apparent slowdown was termed a “hiatus,” and inspired a suite of physical explanations for its cause, including changes in radiative forcing, deep ocean heat uptake, and atmospheric circulation changes.

In fact, the latest data shows a figure of 0.116°C dec−1 for 2000-2014, compared with 0.113°C dec−1 for 1950-1999.

“Our new analysis now shows the trend over the period 1950-1999, a time widely agreed as having significant anthropogenic global warming, is virtually indistinguishable with the trend over the period 2000-2014.”

Based on NOAA’s latest analysis, therefore, the IPCC’s 2013 statement—that the global surface temperature “has shown a much smaller increasing linear trend over the past 15 years than over the past 30 to 60 years” —is invalid, said the director of NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC).

Science DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa5632 –

Published Online June 4 2015

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Global Temperature Reaches Record High in September: NOAA

Posted by feww on October 21, 2014

EXTREME WEATHER & CLIMATIC DISASTERS
RISING TEMPERATURES
ECOLOGICAL COLLAPSE
SPECIES EXTINCTION 
MAIN SCENARIOS 900, 808, 800, 797,  777, 666, 555, 444, 300, 123, 111, 101, 090, 067, 066, 033, 011, 04, 03, 02, 01
.

Global temperature breaks September record; ties record highest for January-September

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces reached a record high for September, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above the 20th century average of 15.0°C (59.0°F), according to  NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC).

Additionally, the first nine months of 2014 (January–September) tied with 1998 as the warmest such period on record, with a combined global land and ocean average surface temperature 0.68°C (1.22°F) above the 20th century average of 14.1°C (57.5°F), said NCDC.

If 2014 maintains this temperature departure from average for the remainder of the year, it will be the warmest calendar year on record. The past 12 months—October 2013–September 2014—was the warmest 12-month period among all months since records began in 1880, at 0.69°C (1.24°F) above the 20th century average. This breaks the previous record of +0.68°C (+1.22°F) set for the periods September 1998–August 1999, August 2009–July 2010; and September 2013–August 2014.

Global Highlights

  • The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for September 2014 was the highest on record for September, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above the 20th century average of 15.0°C (59.0°F).
  • The global land surface temperature was 0.89°C (1.60°F) above the 20th century average of 12.0°C (53.6°F), the sixth highest for September on record.
  • Heating Ocean. The September global sea surface temperature was 0.66°C (1.19°F) above the 20th century average of 16.2°C (61.1°F), the highest on record for September and also the highest on record for any month.
  • The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for the January–September period (year-to-date) was 0.68°C (1.22°F) above the 20th century average of 14.1°C (57.5°F), tying with 1998 as the warmest such period on record.

 

Details posted at: NOAA National Climatic Data Center, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for September 2014, published online October 2014, retrieved on October 20, 2014 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/2014/9

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August Global Temperature Breaks Record

Posted by feww on September 20, 2014

EXTREME WEATHER & CLIMATIC EVENTS
RISING TEMPERATURES
MAIN SCENARIOS 797,  777, 555, 444, 300, 123, 111, 101, 066, 033, 011, 04, 03, 02
.

Warmest Summer on Record: Global Temperatures Continue Rising

The combined average global temperature for land and ocean surfaces during August 2014 was a record high for the month, at 0.75°C (1.35°F) above the 20th century average of 15.6°C (60.1°F), beating the previous record set in 1998, said NOAA in its monthly State of the Climate Report.

Other Global Highlights [Source: NOAA]

  • The August global sea surface temperature was 0.65°C (1.17°F) above the 20th century average of 16.4°C (61.4°F). This record high departure from average not only beats the previous August record set in 2005 by 0.08°C (0.14°F), but beats the previous all-time record set just two months ago in June 2014 by 0.03°C (0.05°F).
  • The global land surface temperature for the month was 0.99°C (1.78°F) above the 20th century average of 13.8°C (56.9°F), the second highest on record for August, behind 1998.

Warmest Summer on Record

  • The combined average global land and ocean surface temperature for the June–August period was also record high for this period [record keeping began in 1880,] at 0.71°C (1.28°F) above the 20th century average of 16.4°C (61.5°F), shattering the previous record set in 1998.
  • The first eight months of 2014 (January–August) were the third warmest such period on record across the world’s land and ocean surfaces, with an average temperature that was 0.68°C (1.22°F) above the 20th century average of 57.3°F (14.0°C). If 2014 maintains this temperature departure from average for the remainder of the year, it will be the warmest year on record.
  • The average global sea surface temperature tied with 2010 as the second highest for January–August in the 135-year period of record, behind 1998.

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Hottest June on Record

Posted by feww on July 22, 2014

EXTREME WEATHER & CLIMATIC EVENTS
RISING TEMPERATURES
MAIN SCENARIOS 797,  777, 555, 444, 300, 123, 111, 101, 066, 033, 011, 04, 03, 02
.

June 2014 average land and ocean temperature highest for the month since records began in 1880

The combined global average temperature across land and ocean for June 2014 was the highest for the month, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above the 20th century average. The previous record was set in June 1998, by 0.03°C (0.05°F), according to the State of Climate Report released by NOAA.

Nine of the ten warmest Junes on record have occurred during the 21st century, including five consecutively since 2010.

“June 2014 also marks the second consecutive month with record high global temperatures. With the exception of February (21st warmest), every month to date in 2014 has ranked among the four warmest for its respective month.”

June 2014 also marked the 38th consecutive June and 352nd consecutive month with a global temperature above the 20th century average.

Selected highlights mirrored from NOAA’s June 2014 State of Climate Report:

  • The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for June 2014 was the highest on record for the month, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above the 20th century average of 15.5°C (59.9°F).
  • The global land surface temperature was 0.95°C (1.71°F) above the 20th century average of 13.3°C (55.9°F), the seventh highest for June on record.
  • For the ocean, the June global sea surface temperature was 0.64°C (1.15°F) above the 20th century average of 16.4°C (61.5°F), the highest for June on record and the highest departure from average for any month.
  • The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for the January–June period (year-to-date) was 0.67°C (1.21°F) above the 20th century average of 13.5°C (56.3°F), tying with 2002 as the third warmest such period on record.

The Ocean

The June global ocean surface temperature was record high, at 0.64°C (1.15°F) above the 20th century average of 16.4°C (61.5°F). “This marks the first time that the monthly global ocean temperature anomaly was higher than 0.60°C (1.08°F) and surpasses the previous all-time record for any month by 0.05°C (0.09°F); the previous record of +0.59°C (1.06°F) was first set in June 1998 and tied in October 2003, July 2009, and just last month in May 2014.”

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May Global Temperature Reaches All-time High

Posted by feww on June 24, 2014

EXTREME WEATHER & CLIMATIC EVENTS
RISING GLOBAL TEMPERATURES
CROP DISASTERS
SCENARIOS 900, 777, 555, 444, 111, 03
.

Global Temperature Analysis – May 2014

The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for May 2014 reached record highest for this month, at 0.74°C (1.33°F) above the 20th century average of 14.8°C (58.6°F), according to NOAA.

“This surpassed the previous record high anomaly of 0.72 degrees Celsius set in 2010,” said NOAA in its monthly state of the climate report.

“Four of the five warmest Mays on record have occurred in the past five years: 2010 (second warmest), 2012 (third warmest), 2013 (fifth warmest), and 2014 (warmest).”

Fourth warmest May on record was in 1998.

Other Global Highlights

  • The global land surface temperature was 1.13°C (2.03°F) above the 20th century average of 11.1°C (52.0°F), the fourth highest for May on record. For the ocean, the May global sea surface temperature was 0.59°C (1.06°F) above the 20th century average of 16.3°C (61.3°F), making it the record highest for May and tying with June 1998, October 2003, and July 2009 as the highest departure from average for any month on record.
  • The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for the March–May period was 0.74°C (1.33°F) above the 20th century average of 13.7°C (56.7°F), making it the second warmest such period on record, behind 2010.
  • The March–May worldwide land surface temperature was 1.26°C (2.27°F) above the 20th century average, the third warmest such period on record. The global ocean surface temperature for the same period was 0.54°C (0.97°F) above the 20th century average, also the third warmest March–May on record.
  • The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for the January–May period (year-to-date) was 0.66°C (1.19°F) above the 20th century average of 13.1°C (55.5°F), the fifth warmest such period on record.
  • While most parts of the globe experienced warmer-than-average temperatures in May, record warmth occurred across eastern Kazakhstan, parts of Indonesia, and central and northwestern Australia.
  • May 2014 marked the 39th consecutive May and 351st consecutive month with a global temperature above the 20th century average.

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Freezing Temperatures Impact U.S. Deep South to Mid-Atlantic

Posted by feww on April 16, 2014

EXTREME WEATHER & CLIMATIC EVENTS
DEEP FREEZE
.

Temperatures fall as much as 20 degrees below normal over Northern Plains

A powerful cold front has brought freezing temperatures to the central and eastern U.S. —NWS

Freezing temperatures will dive into the Deep South and to the Mid-Atlantic through Wednesday morning. This will be damaging to sensitive vegetation. Numerous Frost Advisories and Freeze Warnings are in effect. —NOAA

hazmap 16apr14
US Weather Hazards Map (Hazmap). UPDATE 

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