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Posts Tagged ‘poliovirus’

AFM in Kids: More Cases Confirmed by CDC

Posted by feww on November 14, 2018

IN PROGRESS…

TIA [September 24, Confidential 10]
TNWG [October 22, Confidential 10]
MIRR [Nov. 14, Confidential10]


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Paralyzing Illness AFM in kids: CDC Confirms 90 Cases

At least 90 kids in 27 states have been diagnosed polio-like neurological condition acute flaccid myelitis, aka AFM, so far this year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported. The reported total includes 18 new cases since last week. CDC is also investigating an additional 162 cases for potential AFM infection.

In October, health officials in 26 states told NBC News they were investigating or had reported 87 cases of AFM.

About Acute Flaccid Myelitis

Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a rare but serious condition. It affects the nervous system, specifically the area of the spinal cord called gray matter, which causes the muscles and reflexes in the body to become weak. This condition is not new. However, the large number of AFM cases reported since 2014, when we first started our surveillance for this condition, is new. The risk of getting AFM varies by age and year. We have seen increases in AFM cases every two years since 2014 and mostly in young children. Still, CDC estimates that less than one to two in a million children in the United States will get AFM every year. Since 2014, most patients (more than 90%) had a mild respiratory illness or fever consistent with a viral infection before they developed AFM. All patients tested negative for poliovirus. We are working closely with national experts to better understand the possible causes of AFM and update our information on treatment. [CDC]

Symptoms

Most people will have sudden onset of arm or leg weakness and loss of muscle tone and reflexes. Some people, in addition to arm or leg weakness, will have:

  • facial droop/weakness,
  • difficulty moving the eyes,
  • drooping eyelids, or
  • difficulty with swallowing or slurred speech.

Numbness or tingling is rare in people with AFM, although some people have pain in their arms or legs. Some people with AFM may be unable to pass urine (pee). The most severe symptom of AFM is respiratory failure that can happen when the muscles involved with breathing become weak. This can require urgent ventilator support (breathing machine). In very rare cases, it is possible that the process in the body that triggers AFM may also trigger other serious neurologic complications that could lead to death. [CDC]

Diagnosis

AFM is diagnosed by examining a patient’s nervous system in combination with reviewing pictures of the spinal cord. A doctor can examine a patient’s nervous system and the places on the body where he or she has weakness, poor muscle tone, and decreased reflexes. A doctor can also do an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to look at a patient’s brain and spinal cord, do lab tests on the cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid around the brain and spinal cord), and may check nerve conduction (impulse sent along a nerve fiber) and response. It is important that the tests are done as soon as possible after the patient develops symptoms. [CDC]

AFM can be difficult to diagnose because it shares many of the same symptoms as other neurologic diseases, like transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. With the help of testing and examinations, doctors can distinguish between AFM and other neurologic conditions. [CDC]

Learn more about the type of information that helps to determine if a patient has AFM or not.

Possible Causes of AFM

Certain viruses are known to cause AFM including enteroviruses, such as poliovirus and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), and West Nile virus. Since 2014, most patients with AFM (more than 90%) had a mild respiratory illness or fever consistent with a viral infection before they developed AFM. All patients tested negative for poliovirus. Most patients had onset of AFM between August and October, with increases in AFM cases every two years since 2014. At this same time of year, many viruses commonly circulate, including enteroviruses, and will be temporally associated with AFM. [CDC]

We detected coxsackievirus A16, EV-A71, and EV-D68 in the spinal fluid of four of 404 confirmed cases of AFM since 2014, which points to the cause of their AFM. For all other patients, no pathogen (germ) has been detected in their spinal fluid to confirm a cause. When a pathogen (germ) is found in the spinal fluid, it is good evidence that it was the cause of a patient’s illness. However, oftentimes, despite extensive testing of AFM patients, no pathogens are found in the spinal fluid. This may be because the pathogen has been cleared by the body or it is hiding in tissues that make it difficult to detect. Another possibility is that the pathogen triggers an immune response in the body that causes damage to the spinal cord. We are searching for what triggers AFM in some children who have had a fever and/or respiratory illness compared to most children who don’t get AFM. [CDC]

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for AFM, but a neurologist may recommend certain interventions on a case-by-case basis. For example, neurologists may recommend physical or occupational therapy to help with arm or leg weakness caused by AFM. CDC is researching prognosis of AFM victims.

Prevention

Since we don’t know the cause of most of these AFM cases or what triggers this condition, there is no specific action to take to prevent AFM.

Certain viruses are known to cause AFM including enteroviruses, such as poliovirus and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), and West Nile virus. [CDC]

Laboratory engineered virus?

See full report. [FEWW -ER05]

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Global Health Emergency Declared as Poliovirus Spreads

Posted by feww on May 5, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
INTERNATIONAL SPREAD OF WILD POLIOVIRUS
GLOBAL HEALTH EMERGENCY
NIGHTMARE SCENARIO 011
.

Global Health Emergency Declared as Wild Poliovirus Spreads

The international spread of wild poliovirus in 2014 is a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC),” the Director General of WHO  declared on 5 May 2014, based on the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee’s assessment.

“… the international spread of polio to date in 2014 constitutes an ‘extraordinary event’ and a public health risk to other states for which a co-ordinated international response is essential,” said the WHO’s Emergency Committee.

At end-2013, 60% of polio cases were the result of international spread of wild poliovirus, and there was increasing evidence that adult travellers contributed to this spread. During the 2014 low transmission season there has already been international spread of wild poliovirus from 3 of the 10 States that are currently infected: in central Asia (from Pakistan to Afghanistan), in the Middle East (Syrian Arab Republic to Iraq) and in Central Africa (Cameroon to Equatorial Guinea). A coordinated international response is deemed essential to stop this international spread of wild poliovirus and to prevent new spread with the onset of the high transmission season in May/June 2014; unilateral measures may prove less effective in stopping international spread than a coordinated response. The consequences of further international spread are particularly acute today given the large number of polio-free but conflict-torn and fragile States which have severely compromised routine immunization services and are at high risk of re-infection. Such States would experience extreme difficulty in mounting an effective response were wild poliovirus to be reintroduced. As much international spread occurs across land borders, WHO should continue to facilitate a coordinated regional approach to accelerate interruption of virus transmission in each epidemiologic zone.

States currently exporting wild poliovirus

Pakistan, Cameroon, and the Syrian Arab Republic pose the greatest risk of further wild poliovirus exportations in 2014.

States infected with wild poliovirus but not currently exporting

Afghanistan, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Israel, Somalia and particularly Nigeria, given the international spread from that State historically, pose an ongoing risk for new wild poliovirus exportations in 2014.

Global Public Health Emergency

Based on the Committee’s assessment, the Director General of WHO  on 5 May 2014 declared the international spread of wild poliovirus in 2014 a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).”

Scanning electron photomicrograph of polio virions

poliovirus - PHIL_2446_lores-small
The poliovirus lives in the human pharynx and intestinal tract. Poliomyelitis is an acute infection that involves the gastrointestinal tract and, occasionally, the central nervous system. It is acquired by fecal-oral transmission. Source: CDC

What’s Polio

Polio is a crippling and potentially deadly infectious disease caused by a virus that spreads from person to person invading the brain and spinal cord and causing paralysis. Because polio has no cure, vaccination is the best way to protect yourself and the only way to stop the disease from spreading. The spread of polio has never stopped in Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. Poliovirus has been reintroduced and continues to spread in Syria, Cameroon and the Horn of Africa after the spread of the virus was previously stopped.

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases

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