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Posts Tagged ‘Popocatépetl’

Popocatépetl Volcano Erupts

Posted by feww on July 3, 2017


Popocatépetl eruption sends 2-km high column of smoke and ash into air

Mexico’s Popocatépetl volcano erupted on Sunday (July 2), ejecting 2-km high column of smoke and ash into air, officials said.

Ash fallout was reported across multiple areas in Mexico State, including Ozumba, Amecameca, Tlalmanalco, Chalco, Ayapango, Tenango del Aire and San Pedro Nexapa.

Alert level for the volcano was raise to “Yellow,” which means it could continue to erupt at low to intermediate intensity, as authorities advised nearby residents to evacuate areas within a 12km.


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Volcanoes Awakening Globally by Strong Seismicity

Posted by feww on April 19, 2016


Interesting times: 25 volcanoes firing

Popocatépetl volcano erupts again shooting ash 3km into the sky

The 5,426-meter stratovolcano, Mexico’s most active volcano, erupted overnight ejecting a large column of ash into the air and spewing lava.

The latest eruption forced the authorities to close Puebla airport, located east of the volcano, urging residents to wear masks and avoid inhaling volcanic ash.

About 25 million people live within a 100-kilometer radius of the active volcano.

Popocatépetl Volcano (“smoking mountain” in Aztec) is North America’s 2nd-highest volcano. The massive stratovolcano stands 5,450m high and lies about 65 kilometers (40 miles)  southeast of  Mexico City (19.023°N, 98.622°W) in the eastern segment of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt.

Latest Volcanic Eruptions/ Recent Activity [AZ]

  • Aso (Kyushu, Japan)
  • Cleveland (Alaska)
  • Kerinci (Indonesia)
  • Klyuchevskoy (C. Kamchatka, Russia)
  • Langila (New Britain – PNG)
  • Pavlof (Alaska)
  • Popocatepetl (Mexico)
  • Sangay (Ecuador)
  • Villarrica (Chile)

Ongoing Activity

  • Aira Kyushu (Japan)
  • Alaid (Kuril Islands, Russia)
  • Chirpoi (Kuril Islands, Russia)
  • Colima (Mexico)
  • Dukono (Halmahera, Indonesia)
  • Fuego (Guatemala)
  • Karymsky (E. Kamchatka,Russia)
  • Kilauea (Hawaii)
  • Masaya (Nicaragua)
  • Momotombo (Nicaragua)
  • Sheveluch (C. Kamchatka, Russia)
  • Sinabung (Indonesia)
  • Soputan (Sulawesi, Indonesia)
  • Telica (Nicaragua)
  • Tengger Caldera (E. Java, Indonesia)
  • Zhupanovsky (E. Kamchatka, Russia)

[Sources: AVO, HVO, USGS, CENAPRED, GVP and others.]

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Volcano Eruption Alert: Popocatépetl Explodes

Posted by feww on April 5, 2016

Pyroclastic surge from Popocatépetl volcano sets forest alight

Violent eruption at Mexico’s Popocatépetl produced  a Pyroclastic surge climbing 2km above the crater  and setting the nearby forest alight, said Mexico’s National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENPRED ).

The explosion also caused ashfall in the towns of Juan C. Bonilla and Coronango, in the state of Puebla.

Popocatépetl Volcano (“smoking mountain” in Aztec) is North America’s 2nd-highest volcano. The massive stratovolcano stands 5,450m high and lies about 65 kilometers (40 miles)  southeast of  Mexico City (19.023°N, 98.622°W ) in the eastern segment of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt.

Popocatépetl explodes (image #8). Credit: CENPRED

The following is latest report posted at CENPRED official website:

As of posting,  the volcano exhibited “continuous emission of steam and gas” in easterly direction (image 9), said the report.

April 05 at 11:15 (16:15 GMT)

During the last 24 hours, 96 long period events were registered and five explosions yesterday at 16:44 h (image no. 1) and 20:31 h the latter generated a ash column of 2 km height above the crater, which moved towards the northeast. Likewise, the fall of incandescent fragments were observed, mainly on the east and southeast slopes of the volcano at a distance of 3.5 km, because of this some fires were generated in the upper part of the forest (image 2), (image 3), (image 4), (video 1), (video 2), (video 3). This explosion caused ash fall in the towns of Juan C. Bonilla and Coronango, both in the state of Puebla. The remaining three explosions were recorded today at 06:54, 7:14 and 07:49 h (image 5), (image 6), (image 7), (image 8).

Additional materials: (video 4), (video 5), (figure 10), (figure 11), (figure 12).

CENAPRED emphasizes that people SHOULD NOT go near the volcano, especially near the crater, due to the hazard caused by ballistic fragments (image 13).

This type of activity is included within the scenarios Volcanic Traffic Light Yellow Phase 2.

The scenarios forecast for this phase are:

1. Explosive activity of low to intermediate level.

2. Ash fall in nearby towns.

3. Possibility of short range pyroclastic flows and mudflows .

Special emphasis is placed on the following recommendations: Continue the safety radius of 12 km, so staying in that area is not allowed.

Related Links

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Hundreds Evacuated as Ecuador’s Tungurahua Erupts

Posted by feww on July 16, 2013

The “Throat of Fire” Erupts

Hundreds of people were evacuated on Sunday as Tungurahua volcano [“Throat of Fire” in Quichua] in central of Ecuador erupted.

The volcano ejected “ashes and hot solids into the air,” said the National Risk Management Secretariat, as they raised the volcano alert level to “orange.”

“The explosion from the volcano could be heard from various cities such as Riobamba, Ambato, and Guayaquil [which is 250 km from the volcano] and the tremor was felt in volcano’s region, ” said the Ecuadorian Geophysics Institute.

The eruptions and smoke could be seen from the capital, Quito, some 140 km  north of the volcano.

The 5,023-m “Throat of Fire” has been active since 1999.

Tungurahua eruption viewed from the city of Banos in this AFP photo dated December 17, 2012. Image may be subject to copyright.


Volcanic Activity Continues at Popocatépetl

Latest Activity at Popocatépetl. Image Credit: CENAPRED

Close-up of
Popocatépetl Summit Crater – July 15,2013. Image Credit: CENAPRED – Mexico

Latest statement issued Mexico’s CENAPRED, as Popocatépetl continued to spee ash and volcanic matter Late Monday.

July 15 18:00 h (July 15 23:00 GMT)

During the last 7 hours the monitoring system at Popocatepetl volcano registered 6 low intensity exhalations, which were probably followed by emissions of gases and ash, although this could not be corroborated due to the prevailing cloud cover. Aditionally, two volcanotectonic microseisms of Mc 2.0 and 2.1 were detected at 12:03 and 15:32, respectively.

Today an overflight was made with the aid of the mexican Navy, in which it could be seen that the dome reported on the previous overflight was destroyed by the explosions which ocurred and were reported on the last few days. In its place a new crater 200 m in diameter and 20 to 30 m deep was seen (see image) (see image) (see image) (see image).

The Volcanic Alert Level is at Yellow, Phase 3.

major volcanoes of Mexico

Posted in environment, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2013, Significant Event Imagery, significant events, significant geophysical disturbances | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

FIRE-EARTH Disaster Diary – June 18, 2013

Posted by feww on June 18, 2013

73 killed, tens of thousands stranded in north India extreme monsoon

Death toll from flooding and landslides triggered by extreme monsoon rains in north India climbed to at least 73 on Tuesday, said a report.

Meantime, about 73,000 pilgrims bound for the Himalayan shrines weer reportedly stranded in monsoon-ravaged Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.

Severe flooding and landslips have also destroyed hundreds of homes and dozens of hotels and other commercial buildings, as well as roads and other infrastructure.

The authorities have evacuated thousands of people  living in low-lying areas along the River Yamuna, as  the water level rose above the “danger mark,” said the report.

uttarakhand -AFP
Road collapses, as flooded river rages in Uttarakhand. Photo credit: AFP. Image may be subject to copyright.

“We are on a war footing, we are working day and night,” said an official in Uttarkashi, where two national highways were blocked by landslides.

Related Links


Other Global Disasters/ Significant Events

Red Flag Warnings and Fire Weather Watch for eight states

US weather hazmap 18jun13
U.S. Weather Hazards Map. June 18, 2013. Source: NWS

Severe Weather Possible for Parts of northern Rockies, High Plains, Ohio Valley, and Carolinas: NWS

The NWS Storm Prediction Center is forecasting a risk of severe thunderstorms Tuesday afternoon and evening for four distinct areas across the U.S.: from central Idaho into northwestern Montana; from northwest Texas to extreme southeastern Montana; across central Illinois, southern Indiana and into northern Kentucky; and across the central and eastern Carolinas.

High and Low Temperature for the Contiguous U.S.

High Temperature for Monday, June 17, 2013 (as received by 8 am EDT June 18)

  • 115 degrees (46.1ºC) recorded at Ocotillo Wells, CA

Low Temperature for Teusday, June 18, 2013 (as received by 8 am EDT June 18)

  • 29 degrees (-1.7ºC) recorded at Kenton, MI
  • 29 degrees (-1.7ºC) recorded at Doe Lake, MI


Popocatépetl Volcano Erupts [again]

Popocatépetl volcano erupted on Monday, sending a column of ash and volcanic gases and into the air and prompting the authorities  to raise the volcano alert level to Yellow (Phase 2.) Access to a 12-km zone around the volcano is  restricted.

Popocatépetl volcano Erupts.  Image Source: CENAPRED

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Explosive Activity Increases at Popocatépetl

Posted by feww on May 13, 2013

Volcán Popocatépetl Alert Level Raised to 3

Mexcio’c National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED), has raised the volcanic activity alert to Yellow Phase 3  from Yellow Phase 2 on Sunday, after detecting  increased level of explosive activity at the towering volcano.

Yellow Phase 3 alert means the volcano could explode ejecting lava and other volcanic matter over considerable distances, according to CENAPRED chart.

The 5,452-m Volcán Popocatépetl, or “smoking mountain” in Aztec, North America’s 2nd-highest volcano, sits about 70 km SE of Mexico City.

Volcán Popocatépetl 

Volcán Popocatépetl- p0512135
(Image source: CENAPRED)


Posted in Global Volcanism, Significant Event Imagery, significant events, significant geophysical disturbances, volcano, volcano alert | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Severe Floods Affect 100,000 in Kenya

Posted by feww on April 23, 2012

Kenya plagued by extreme rain events, storms and rising temperatures

Dozens of people have lost their lives, and at least 100,000 others have been affected by torrential rains, which have triggered widespread flooding, strong winds and rising temperatures across Kenya.

Floods have destroyed homes and infrastructure, washed away crops and drowned livestock. The worst hit areas include Nairobi, Coast and Nyanza provinces.

In Nyanza Province alone, thousands of families have lost their homes and livelihoods, reports said.

“Heavy rainfall events of between 20mm and 50mm a day occurred in various areas that include parts of North-eastern areas, vast areas of Western Kenya, parts of the Rift Valley, central Kenya and Nairobi. In some cases, these were accompanied with very strong winds and hailstones that caused damage to property,” according to a report by Kenya Meteorological Department.

“Heavy rainfall events leading to swelling of rivers and flash floods are expected to occur in various counties in Nyanza and Western Regions,” the report said.

Other Global Disasters, Significant Events

  • Balkh Province, Afghanistan. Heavy monsoon rains in Afghanistan’s Balkh province have caused severe flooding, leaving at least 15 people dead and destroying hundrdes of homes, reports said.
  • Mexico. Popocatépetl Volcano Update

The following is the latest report of activity at Popocatépetl volcano released by CENAPRED

Apr 23 at 12:00 local time (01:00 GMT)

Since the last report, 11 hours ago, Popocatépetl volcano has remained relatively calm, registering only 4 low intensity exhalations and very short segments of spasmodic tremor accompanied by steam, gas emissions and in some times by small amounts of ash, transported to the southeast.

Incandescence was seen 100 m over the crater rim throughout the night, which slightly increased during the occurrence of some of the exhalations.

Popocatépetl continues to eject a column of ash, steam and volcanic gasses to a height of about 200 m above the summit crater. The plume is being carried several kilometers away by strong southeasterly winds, CENAPRED said.

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

Posted in global change, global deluge, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2012, global Precipitation, global precipitation patterns, Global SST anomalies, global Temperature Anomalies, global temperatures | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Texas Drought: Emergency Disaster Proclamation Renewed

Posted by feww on April 21, 2012

Historic levels of drought pose “imminent threat to public health, property and the economy”:  Rick Perry

Governor of the State of Texas has renewed an Emergency Disaster Proclamation which he initially issued on July 5, 2011, due to exceptional drought conditions.

“Record high temperatures, preceded by significantly low rainfall, have resulted in declining reservoir and aquifer levels, threatening water supplies and delivery systems in many parts of the state …” and ” prolonged dry conditions continue to increase the threat of wildfire across many portions of the state… these exceptional drought conditions have reached historic levels and continue to pose an imminent threat to public health, property and the economy,” the disaster proclamation said.

The renewed state of disaster includes the counties of Andrews, Aransas, Archer, Armstrong, Atascosa, Austin, Bailey, Bandera, Bastrop, Baylor, Bee, Bell, Bexar, Blanco, Borden, Btazona, Brewster, Briscoe, Brooks, Brown, Burnet, Caldwell, Calhoun, Callahan, Cameron, Carson, Castro, Childress, CIay, Cochran, Coke, Coleman, Collingsworth, Colorado, Comal, Concho, Coryell, Cottle, Crane, Crockett, Crosby, Culberson, Dallam, Dawson, Deaf Smith, DeWitt, Dickens, Dimmit, Donley, Duval, Eastland, Ector, Edwards, El Paso, Fayette, Fisher, Floyd, Foard, Fort Bend, Franklin, Frio, Gaines, GaÍza, Gillespie, Glasscock, Goliad, Gonzales, Guy, Gregg, Guadalupe, Hale, Hall, Hansford, Hardeman, Harrison, Hartley, Haskell, Hays, Hemphill, Hidalgo, Hockley, Howard, Hudspeth, Hutchinson, Irion, Jackson, Jeff Davis, Jim Hogg, Jim Wells, Jones, Karnes, Kendall, Kenedy, Kent, Kerr, Kimble, Krg, Kinney, Kleberg, Knox, Larnb, Lampasas, La Salle, Lavaca, Lee, Lipscomb, Live Oak, Llano, Loving, Lubbock, Lynn, Marion, Martin, Mason, Matagorda, Maverick, McCulloch, Mclennan, McMullen, Medina, Menard, Midland, Milam, Mills, Mitchell, Moore, Motley, Nolan, Nueces, Ochiltree, Oldham, Panola, Parmer, Pecos, Potter, Presidio, Randall, Reagan, Real, Reeves, Refugio, Roberts, Runnels, Rusk, San Patricio, San Saba, Schleicher, Scurry, Shackelford, Sherman, Starr, Stephens, Sterling, Stonewall, Sutton, Swisher, Taylor, Terrell, Terry, Throckmorton, Tom Green, Travis, Upshur, Upton, Uvalde, Val Verde, Victoria, Ward, Webb, Wharton, Wheeler, Wichita, Wilbarger, Willacy, Williamson,’Wilson, Winkler, Yoakum, Young, Zapata and Zavala.

Global Drought

Other Global Disasters, Significant Events

  • Michigan, USA. Frost has wiped out up to 95 percent of grape crops in SW Michigan, prompting a State Senator to  introduce a resolution asking the Disaster President declare the region a disaster area.
  • California, USA.A deadly bacterial disease called Huanglongbing  (“Yellow Dragon Disease”), or citrus greening disease, threatens to destroy  California’s citrus industry,  according to The California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA).
    • “The disease was detected in an Asian citrus psyllid sample and plant material taken from a lemon/pummelo tree in a residential neighborhood in the Hacienda Heights area of Los Angeles County.”
    • “HLB is a bacterial disease that attacks the vascular system of plants. It does not pose a threat to humans or animals. The Asian citrus psyllid can spread the bacteria as the pest feeds on citrus trees and other plants. Once a tree is infected, there is no cure; it typically declines and dies within a few years.”
    • California produces about 80 percent of the nation’s fresh citrus fruit, and nearly 90 percent of the lemons.
    • “HLB is known to be present in Mexico and in parts of the southern U.S. Florida first detected the pest in 1998 and the disease in 2005, and the two have now been detected in all 30 citrus-producing counties in that state. The University of Florida estimates the disease has tallied more than 6,600 lost jobs, $1.3 billion in lost revenue to growers and $3.6 billion in lost economic activity. The pest and the disease are also present in Texas, Louisiana, Georgia and South Carolina. The states of Arizona, Mississippi and Alabama have detected the pest but not the disease,” said CDFA.
    • The Asian citrus psyllid was first detected in California in 2008.
    • The deadly bacteria has also devastated crops in Brazil, China and the Philippines.
  • Bolivia. Disasters caused by extreme weather events have left more than a quarter million Bolivians homeless since late December 2011, officials said.
  • China. Torrential rains have unleashed widespread flooding across south China’s Guangdong province
    • Some 235,100 people in 23 counties have been affected by the storms, and 13,300 people have been relocated, the  flood control and drought relief headquarters said.
    • The storms have also damaged 23,120 hectares of crops and toppled 379 houses, the report said.
  • Mexico. Popocatépetl Volcano Update

The following is the latest image of Popocatépetl’s ongoing eruption released by CENAPRED

Popocatépetl continues to eject ash, steam and volcanic gasses to a height of about 800 m above the summit crater, with lava spewing out of the volcano and pouring down its flanks, CENAPRED said.  “There were reports of ash fall in San Pedro Benito Juarez, Santiago Xalitzintla, San Nicolas de los Ranchos, San Pedro and San Mateo Yancuictlalpan Ozolco.”

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background 

Posted in Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2012, global drought, global health catastrophe, global heating | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Food Insecurity Threatens Nepal

Posted by feww on April 20, 2012

Droughts, deluges and poverty leave 4 million Nepalese facing food insecurity 

Acute food shortages in 63 percent of households in the Mid-West and Far-West regions of Nepal has created a severe problem in the country, UN said.

  • Acute malnutrition is at a critical level affecting about 400,000 Nepalese children.
  • More than 91,000 children under the age of 5  are suffering from severe acute malnutrition.
    • “Severe acute malnutrition is defined by a very low weight for height (below -3z scores of the median WHO growth standards), by visible severe wasting, or by the presence of nutritional oedema. Decreasing child mortality and improving maternal health depend heavily on reducing malnutrition, which is responsible, directly or indirectly, for 35% of deaths among children under five.” WHO said.

Global Drought

Other Global Disasters, Significant Events

  • Mexico. Popocatépetl Volcano Update

The following is the latest bulletin issued by CENAPRED

Apr 19 20:00 ( Apr 20 at 01:00 GMT)

Since the last report at 13:00 h. (local time), the monitoring system registered 9 low intensity exhalations. Additionally a volcanotectonic event of low magnitude was recorded at 18:50 h. (local time). After, since 18:42 h. and until the moment of this report several segments of spasmodic tremor of medium amplitude were registered including exhalation signals inside. Possibly, the first exhalations of this tremor were accompanied by moderate amounts of ash.

The volcano cannot be observed this afternoon, due to the cloudy conditions at the area. The steam and gas plume could be partially seen traveling to northeast.

[The alert level remains in Phase 3 “Yellow.”]

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background 

Posted in global deluge, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2012, global drought | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Popocatépetl Volcano Erupts Explosively

Posted by feww on April 18, 2012

‘El Popo’ forecast: Large-scale explosions, high probability of incendiary fragments and ash showers

Mexican authorities have raised the alert level for the Popocatepetl southeast of Mexico City following recent activity. The volcano’s eruption in 2000 forced the evacuation of tens of thousands of people from the three states that surround the volcano in central Mexico.

Popocatépetl Volcano (“smoking mountain” in Aztec) is North America’s 2nd-highest volcano. The massive stratovolcano stands 5,450m high and lies about 65 kilometers (40 miles)  southeast of  Mexico City (19.023°N, 98.622°W ) in the eastern segment of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. Mexico’s Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) has warned of large scale explosions, with high probability of  incendiary fragments and ash showers. Image source:  CENAPRED, Mexico.

A lava dome is growing in the volcano’s crater, CENAPRED said in a recent bulletin. The massive volcano also has been ejecting incandescent fragments and ash, and spewing steam and volcanic gasses.

The volcano is expected to experience “significant explosions with growing intensity, hurling incandescent rocks significant distances,” with a high probability of ash showers, the center said.  Adding that local residents should expect possible flows of lava and lahar down the volcano’s flanks.

The following is the latest bulletin issued by CENAPRED

Abr 18 07:00 (12:00 Abr 18 GMT)

At 06:35 h (local time), the monitoring system recorded the beginning of an exhalation sequence with tremor, that continues at the moment of this report. The first exhalation of this sequence had an explosive component. It generated the emission of incandescent fragments over the north and northeast flanks at distances of 500-800 m (see image 1) and a dense plume of steam, gases and ash (see image 2). The incandescent fragments fall over the snow and generated a small water and ash flow.

Likely, ash fall will occur over the villages in the eastern and southeastern sectors of the volcano.

During the 12 previous hours the monitoring system registered 6 low intensity exhalations, accompanied by steam, gas and small amount of ash. The most important occurred at 00:46 h y 04:59 h (see image 3), which increased the incandescence over the crater rim.

During the night the cloudy conditions doesn##t allow to observe the volcano. During the early morning the volcano could be seen with a continuous emission of steam and gas, that increased the amounts of ash and the density since 06:36 h.

The traffic light alert signal remains in Yellow Phase 3. This level implies:

1. Announcing the situation and measures taken to the public and the media. 2. Prepare personnel, equipment and evacuation shelters. 3. Implement specific measures in the most vulnerable. 4. Implement preventive measures against ash fall, lahars and against fragments in vulnerable regions. 5. Alert air navigation systems. 6. Limit access to the volcano over a larger area.

See also:

Related Links

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

Posted in active volcano, active volcanoes, erupting volcano image, major volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [9 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 11, 2009

VOW: Toba the Sleeping Colossus

Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia – Landsat photo – Source: NASA

Lake Toba is a supervolcano, 100 kilometres long and 30 kilometres wide, and 505 metres (1,666 ft) at its deepest point. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft), the lake stretches from 2.88°N 98.52°E  to 2.35°N 99.1°E.  It is the largest volcanic lake in the world. It’s also the site of a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 74,000 years ago, a massive climate-changing event. The eruption is believed to have had a VEI intensity of 8. This eruption, believed to have been the largest anywhere on Earth in the last 25 million years, may have had catastrophic consequences globally; some anthropologists and archeologists believe that it killed most humans then alive, creating a population bottleneck in Central Eastern Africa and India that affected the genetic inheritance of all humans today. (Source: Wikipedia).

Toba Large
Lake Toba Topography.
Source: Andaman Org.

Toba catastrophe theory

The Toba catastrophe theory holds that 70,000 to 75,000 years ago, a supervolcanic event at Lake Toba, on Sumatra, plunged the Earth into a mini-ice-age lasting several thousand years, reducing the world’s human population to 10,000 or even a mere 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution. The theory was proposed in 1998 by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

The Toba eruption (the Toba event) occurred at what is now Lake Toba about 67,500 to 75,500 years ago. It had an estimated Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8 (described as “mega-colossal”), making it possibly the largest explosive volcanic eruption within the last twenty-five million years. It had a volume 300 cubic km greater than the Island Park Caldera supereruption (2500 cubic km) of 2.1 million years BP.

The total amount of erupted material was estimated at about 2,800 km³ — about 2,000 km³ of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground, and some 800 km³ that fell as ash, with the wind blowing most of it to the west. The pyroclastic flows of the eruption destroyed an area of 20,000 square kilometers, with ash deposits as thick as 600 metres near the main vent [ cf, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens ejected about 1.2 km³;  of material, whilst the largest volcanic eruption in historic times, at Mount Tambora in 1815, emitted the equivalent of 100 km3 of dense rock.] The eruption was also about three times the size of the latest Yellowstone eruption of Lava Creek 630,000 years ago. (Source: Wikipedia).

volcanic features of toba
The eruption of 73,000 years ago left the Sibandung caldera.  Lake Toba is surrounded by two small, active volcanos as well as several updomed areas and hot springs. These features indicate that there is activity below the surface today and that pressure is rising. Samosir island, too, is evidence for upthrust from below. From the record it seems that Toba produces major eruptions every 300-400,000 years. Source: Andaman Org.

Volcanic features in and around Lake Toba:

Grey area: Present-day topographic depression
green area: Updomed areas

Area # 1.  Sibandung caldera: made 73,000 years ago by the Toba YTT event (Young Toba Ash)
Area # 2. Haranggaol caldera: made 500,000 years ago by the Toba MTT event (Middle Toba Ash)
Area # 3.  Sibandung caldera: made 800,000 years ago by the Toba OTT event (Old Toba Ash)

The MTT and OTT events were not as large as the YTT event of 73,000 years ago
but were still major eruptions of at least VEI 7.

V1 Tandukbenua (Sipisopiso) – young dacit-andesite volcano
V2 Pusubukit volcano – young dacit-andesite volcano
D1 Pardepur dacite domes
D2 Tuk-tuk rhyolite dome
HS Hot springs
Source: Andaman Org.

Recent Activity

Large earthquakes have occurred in the vicinity of the volcano more recently, notably in 1987.  Other earthquakes have occurred in the area in 1892, 1916, and 1920-1922.

Lake Toba lies near the Great Sumatran fault which runs along the centre of Sumatra called the Sumatra Fracture Zone. The volcanoes of Sumatra and Java are part of the Sunda Arc, a result of the northeasterly movement of the Indo-Australian Plate which is sliding under the eastward-moving Eurasian Plate. The subduction zone in this area is very active: the seabed near the west coast of Sumatra has had several major earthquakes since 1995, including the 9.3 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake [followed by the deadly tsunami] and the 8.7 2005 Sumatra earthquake, the epicenters of which were around 300 km from Toba Lake. (Source: Wikipedia).

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(26 August-1 September 2009)

New activity/unrest:

Notes [Source: GVP]

RVO reported that during 28 August-3 September white and gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera’s Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater and produced ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas.

The Washington VAAC reported that on 6 September an explosion from San Cristóbal produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude no higher than 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted 75 km W.

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Posted in Sumbawa Island, Supervolcanoes, toba, Toba catastrophe theory, toba lake, toba volcano, Volcanic Activity Report, VolcanoWatch, VolcanoWatch Weekly | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on VolcanoWatch Weekly [9 September 2009]

Weekly Volcano Watch: 26 March 2009

Posted by feww on March 26, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 18 March – 24 March 2009

Source: SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

VoW: Fonualei, Tonga Islands (SW Pacific)

  • Country: Tonga
  • Subregion Name: Tonga Islands
  • Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
  • Volcano Status: Historical
  • Last Known Eruption: 1957
  • Summit Elevation: 180 m (591 feet)
  • Latitude: 18.02°S  (18°1’0″S)
  • Longitude: 174.325°W  (174°19’30″W)
  • Source: USGS

Fonualei:  Seen from the NE, Fonualei volcano has an upturned saucer profile. The small, less than 2-km-wide island of Fonualei contains a fumarolically active crater, which is breached to the SW with a fresh lava flow extending to the sea and forming a rugged shoreline. Blocky lava flows from a central pyroclastic cone have reached the sea through notches in the rim of a small caldera. Eruptions at Fonualei have been recorded since 1791, with the two largest taking place in October 1846 and July 1847. [In 1847,] explosive eruptions produced large pumice rafts, and ashfall damaged crops on the island of Vavua (56 km away) and fell on vessels up to 950 km distant. In 1939 explosive and effusive activity occurred from summit and flank vents, and water spouts were reported 1.6 km SE of the island. Photo by Paul Taylor (published in Taylor and Ewart, 1997). Caption: GVP

FEWW Comment: Fonualei may be one of the next volcanoes in the Tonga region to erupt in the next 30-90 days.

Ongoing Volcanic Activity:

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program.

Elevated Volcanic Activity in the US [Source: USGS]

Mar 25, 2009 at 21:08:47 PDT [PDT is 7 hours behind of Coordinated Universal Time,UTC]

The following U.S. volcanoes are known to be above normal background (elevated unrest or eruptions) or have shown activity that warranted an Information Release (for example, an earthquake swarm).

Volcano Alert Levels & Aviation Color Codes defined at

Volcano Hazards

Redoubt: Alert Level=WATCH. Aviation Color Code=ORANGE. As of Mar 25, 2009, 13:35 ADT

  • No explosions in last 36 hours and seismicity has declined. Possible lava dome growth at the summit. Explosions could resume without much warning.
    (Change to current status occurred on Mar 25, 2009 13:35 ADT from Alert Level WARNING and Aviation Color Code RED )For more information see

Kilauea: Alert Level=WATCH. Aviation Color Code=ORANGE. As of Mar 25, 2009, 07:53 HST

  • Elevated SO2 and some tephra from Halema`uma`u vent; elevated SO2 from Pu`u `O`o vent; lava in tubes to ocean. (Change to current status occurred on Jul 2, 2007 20:09 HST from Alert Level ADVISORY and Aviation Color Code YELLOW ). For more information see

Cleveland: Alert Level=ADVISORY. Aviation Color Code=YELLOW. As of Mar 24, 2009, 12:46 ADT

Mauna Loa: Alert Level=ADVISORY. Aviation Color Code=YELLOW. As of Mar 2, 2009, 15:05 HST

Program Webcams page links to webcams at 19 of the 169 active volcanoes in the U-S.

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