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Posts Tagged ‘Shiveluch’

VolcanoWatch Weekly [22 July 2010]

Posted by feww on July 21, 2010

Plosky Tolbachik Volcano


The massive, flat-topped, 3,085-m Plosky Tolbachik Volcano (55°49’N, 160°24’E) last erupted in 1975-76. The cleaver-edged volcano to the left is Ostry Tolbachik. “The 1975-76 eruption from the summit and south-flank fissures was the largest historical basaltic eruption in Kamchatka.” Source:   KVERT. Image may be subject to copyright.

Kamchatka could experience major volcanic  eruptions 2010-2011

Holocene Volcanoes in Kamchatka

Map of Holocene Kamchatka volcanoes. Source KVERT

Summary of Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

[Source: SI/USGS]

New Activity/Unrest (14 July – 20 July 2010)

NOTE: Based on Fire-Earth Model, more volcanic activity/unrest may be expected in areas/groups shown in red.


Map of Volcanoes.
Background Map: University of Michigan. Designed and enhanced by Fire Earth Blog. Click image to enlarge.

Ongoing Activity:

For additional information, see source.

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FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

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Klyuchevskaya Volcano Still Active

Posted by feww on March 11, 2010

Hidden Surprises at Kamchatka Peninsula?


Klyuchevskaya Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula underwent  explosive ash and lava eruptions earlier this month, including one on two days ago which ejected a plume of smoke and ash to a height of 6,000 meters. Image acquired March 10, 2010. Credit NASA (Instrument: Terra – ASTER). Click images to enlarge.

Earlier images of Klyuchevskaya Volcano


Lava and Snow on Klyuchevskaya Volcano. “According to the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team, Klyuchevskaya Volcano has been displaying a range of volcanic activity over the past week, including gas-steam plumes reaching six kilometers (20,000 feet) above sea level, flowing lava, and Strombolian eruptions
reaching 300 meters (1,000 feet) above the summit, ” NASA reported. (date: Feb 13, 2010) Credit NASA.


Lava on Klyuchevskaya Volcano.
The dark streams in this satellite image are lava cascading down the southeast flank of Klyuchevskaya volcano. A thin plume of smoke and steam extends due west from the summit. Klyuchevskaya was active throughout most of 2009. (date: Dec 11, 2009) Credit NASA.

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Posted in Kamchatka peninsula, Kuriles, Northern Kuriles, volcanic eruption, volcanism | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [7 October 2009]

Posted by feww on October 9, 2009

VOW:  Ambrym

Destructive acid rain caused by eruption

According to press reports, an eruption from Benbow Crater occurred on 10 February [1979.]  Gases from the eruption caused acid rainfall on the SW portion of Ambrym Island, destroying most vegetation within 24 hours, contaminating water supplies, and burning some inhabitants. Jean-Luc Saos, Director of Mineral Resources for the New Hebrides government, reported a high concentration of HCl and sulfur compounds in the volcanic gases. Although heavy ashfalls have occurred in the area in the past, this is the first report of acid rains. More …


View of the Marum cone at Ambrym looking SW, 7 June 2007. Incandescence from the active lava lakes can be seen reflected in the clouds (left). Courtesy of Steven Clegg.


Lava lake inside Mbwelesu crater within Marum cone at Ambrym, 7 June 2007. Courtesy of Steven Clegg.

vanuatu_amo_2009279
A hazy layer of vog—volcanic fog—overlies Malekula and a few other islands of the Vanuatu archipelago in this natural-color satellite image. The source of the vog is Ambrym, a volcano in the southeast (lower right) corner of this scene. The haze extends over the Coral Sea several hundred kilometers to the northwest. Ambrym emits sulfur dioxide—the gas responsible for the formation of vog— intermittently. (Kilauea Volcano has recently affected the residents of Hawaii with similar vog emissions.)  The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired this natural-color image on October 6, 2009. [Large earthquake measuring up to 8.2 Mw struck Vanuatu region  on October 7, 2009 at 22:03 UTC. FEWW]
NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of this region. Caption by Robert Simmon.

Vanuatu.A2004278.2300.250m
Ash plume from Ambrym Volcano, Vanuatu October 4, 2004, 23:00 UTC.  Source: NASA/MODIS Rapid Response System.


View into the Mbwelesu crater on the Marum cone at Ambrym, captured 7 September 2008. Lava can be seen through two gaps in the crusted-over lava lake (enlarged insets). Courtesy of Arnold Binas.


Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations. Caption: GVP

Ambtym
Country: Vanuatu
Subregion Name: Vanuatu
Volcano Number: 0507-04=
Volcano Type: Pyroclastic shield
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2009
Summit Elevation: 1334 m 4,377 feet
Latitude: 16.25°S 16°15’0″S
Longitude: 168.12°E 168°7’0″E

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(30 September – 6 October 2009)

New activity/Unrest:

News From GVP:

On 29 September, people living in Chaitén town, 10 km SW of Chaitén’s Domo Nuevo 1 (Phase I) and Domo Nuevo 2 (Phase II) lava-dome complex, noticed that the eruption column was larger. Scientists conducted an overflight and saw a third lava dome (Phase III) in the SW area of the complex, which had filled up a depression left by a collapse on 19 February.

According to news articles from 2 October, increased seismicity at Gaua was detected during the previous two weeks. Villagers living nearby reported ashfall and sulfur odors.

An explosive eruption from Galeras on 30 September prompted INGEOMINAS to raise the Alert Level. An ash plume rose to an approximate altitude of 12.3 km (40,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, then N. —GVP

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

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Recent Posts on Chaitén:

Posted in California volcanoes, ecuador, FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast, Hawaii, island of Java, Kīlauea, Langila, Mexico, New Britain, Popocatépetl, Rabaul, Reventador, Sangay, volcanic hazard, volcanism, volcano services, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [30 September 2009]

Posted by feww on October 2, 2009

VOW: Golden Trout Creek

A cluster of 66 shocks have rocked a a 15 square km area centered about 36.392°N, 117.861°W, some 41 km east of the Golden Trout Creek volcano field in central California, in the past few days. Although most of the quakes were tremors measuring less than M 3.0, the largest shock measured 5.2.

Volcano Details:

Country:  United States
Region:  California (USA)
Volcano Type: Volcanic field
Volcano Status: Tephrochronology
Last Known Eruption: 5550 BC ± 1000 years
Summit Elevation: 2,886 m  (9,468 feet)
Latitude: 36.358°N   (36°21’30″N)
Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP)


The Golden Trout Creek volcanic field consists of a group of Quaternary alkali olivine basaltic cinder cones and lava flows in the Toowa valley of the Sierra Nevada about 25 km south of Mount Whitney. Lava flows from the Golden Trout Creek volcanic field erupted through Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith during several episodes dating back to about 743,000 years ago, when the Little Whitney cinder cone and lava flows were erupted. The South Fork cone was erupted about 176,000 years ago and produced the largest lava flow of the volcanic field, which traveled 10 km to the west, possibly as far as the floor of Kern Canyon. Tunnel cone to the north of South Fork (Red Hill) cone is undated, but its lava flow is overlain by glacial deposits and it is thought to be only slightly younger than South Fork cone. The youngest lava flow, from Groundhog cone, is unglaciated and thought to be about 5-10,000 years old (Moore and Lanphere 1983). The lava flow from Groundhog cone traveled 6 km west down Golden Trout Creek on top of the older flow from South Fork cone.—GVP.  
Photo: Rick Howard, 2002 (courtesy of Del Hubbs, U S Forest Service).

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(23 September – 29 September 2009)

New activity/Unrest:

News From GVP:

CVGHM reported that on 26 September a “thunderous” noise from Dieng was heard from 2 km away. The next day, a phreatic eruption from an unspecified crater ejected mud as far away as 140 m S.

KVERT reported that on 17 and 22 September a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was detected in satellite imagery. Scientists flying near Karymsky in a helicopter on 22 September saw ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. —GVP

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

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Posted in Central Kamchatka, Chaiten, FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast, island of Java, Karymsky, Kliuchevskoi, Mayon, Sakar, Shiveluch, Socorro, Sumatra, volcanism, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [23 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 24, 2009

Magnitude 6.4 EQ occurred off SW of Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico, at a depth of 35 km, today.

FEWW Comments: The strong earthquake may have primed for eruption either one or both of two volcanoes Bárcena, which forms the island of San Benedicto, and Socorro, located on island of the same name, about 380 km to the west of the EQ location.

VOW1: Bárcena


Bárcena volcano forms the elongated island of San Benedicto, seen here from the SW in March 1955. The tuff cone with the circular summit crater at the center and the lava delta to the right were formed during an eruption in 1952-53, the only eruption known from this volcano in historical time. Pleistocene trachytic lava domes are located at the far NE tip of the island. Dark-colored lava domes from the 1952-53 eruption can be seen in the summit crater. Photo by Adrian Richards, 1955. Caption: GVP

VOW2: Socorro


Cerro Evermann, the high point of Socorro Island, rises above a Mexican Naval camp near the southern tip of the island. Socorro lies in the Revillagigedo Islands south of Baja California. Cerro Evermann is a large tephra cone and lava dome complex that forms the 1050-m-high summit of the volcano. Rhyolitic lava domes have been constructed along flank rifts, and silicic lava flows erupted from summit and flank vents have created an extremely irregular shoreline. Only minor explosive activity has occurred in historical time. Photo by Martha Marin, 1998 (Mexican Navy).
Caption: GVP

map_ of mexico_volcanoes
Bárcena  and Socorro are shown to the lower left of the map.

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(16 September – 22 September 2009)

New activity/Unrest:

News From GVP:

  • KVERT reported that although seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi did not exceed background levels during 11-18 September, weak tremor was detected. Strombolian activity that ejected tephra 70 m above the crater was seen at night on 16 and 17 September.
  • KVERT reported that during 11-18 September seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels. On 13 September, pyroclastic flow deposits 5 km long were seen on the S part of the lava dome.  —GVP

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

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Posted in Supervolcanoes, Volcanic Activity Report, VolcanoWatch, VolcanoWatch Weekly | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [16 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 17, 2009

VOW: Krakatoa [Krakatau]

Krakatoa is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait located between Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. Both the volcano and island group share the same name.

Four enormous explosions almost entirely destroyed Krakatoa island on August 27, 1883. The violent explosions were reportedly heard in Perth, Western Australia,  some 3,500 km away. It was heard even on the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius, about 4,800 km away.

The shockwave from the last explosion, which ejected volcanic matter 80 km into the atmosphere, echoed around the planet seven times.

Karakatoa
An 1888 lithograph of the 1883 violent explosion of Krakatoa.

The eruption ejected about 21 cubic kilometers of volcanic matter and completely destroyed two-thirds of the Krakatoa island.

island map
The Island Map (Simkin and Fiske, 1983). Image may be subject to copyright.

Anak Krakatau (the Child of Krakatau)  is the only active vent left from Krakatoa. u is  This volcano has built itself slowly from the sea floor since the paroxysmal eruption of 1883.  Anak Krakatau is located between the northern two vents, Danan and Perboewatan, that were destroyed in the 1883 eruption.  For the most part, the eruptions are Vulcanian, slowly building the island with a combination of lava, ash, and pumice.

location map
Krakatoa: Location Map. Source of the original map: USGS

Krakatoa_01
Krakatoa: An early 19th Century image.

Early in the morning of May 20, 1883, the captain of the German warship Elizabeth reported seeing an ~11-km-high cloud of ash and dust rising above the uninhabited island of Krakatau, thus documenting the first eruption from this Indonesian island in at least two centuries. Over the ensuing two months, crews on commercial vessels and sightseers on charted ships would experience similar spectacles, all of which were associated with explosive noises and churning clouds of black to incandescent ash and pumice. From a distance, the largest of these natural fanfares impressed the local inhabitants on the coastal plains of Java and Sumatra, creating a near-festive environment. Little did they realize, however, that these awe-inspiring displays were only a prelude to one of the largest eruptions in historic times. A series of cataclysmic explosions began at mid-day on August 26, and ended on August 27 with a stupendous paroxysmal eruption. On this day, the northern two-thirds of the island collapsed beneath the sea, generating a series of devastating pyroclastic flows and immense tsunamis that ravaged adjacent coastlines. The events that began on August 26 would mark the last 24 hours on earth for over 36,000 people [possibly as many as 120,000,] and the destruction of hundreds of coastal villages and towns. —Geology-/SDSU [Spelling mistakes corrected by FEWW.]

ashcroft -riv thames
William Ashcroft painting “On the Banks of the River Thames” in London, November 26, 1883 [Exactly three months after Krakatoa’s cataclysmic 1883 eruption.]

The Krakatoa eruption affected the climate driving the weather patterns wild for the next 5 years. Average global temperatures fell by about 1.2 °C in the following years, returning to normal only in 1888.

landsat PP1
Krakatoa Image by Landsat Pathfinder Project (Dated May 18, 1992)

Anak Krakatau’s most recent eruptive episode began in 1994, with near continuous Strombolian eruptions, punctuated by larger explosions.  In its most recent eruption, which began in April 2008, the volcano released hot gases, rocks, and lava. Scientists monitoring the volcano have warned people to stay out of a 3 km zone around the island. By and large, the eruptions are Vulcanian, helping to slowly build the island with ash, lava and pumice at an average rate of about 60 cm per month.

Fearing an imminent eruption, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia raised Anak’s  eruption alert level to Orange on May 6, 2009.

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(9 September – 15 September 2009)

New activity/unrest:

News From GVP:

  • PHIVOLCS reported that 11 earthquakes from Mayon were detected during 14-15 September. On 15 September, three ash explosions produced a brownish plume that rose no more than 700 m above the crater and drifted SW.
  • On 11 September, KVERT reported strong explosions from Shiveluch. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes rose to an altitude greater than 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l. The seismic network then detected eight minutes of pyroclastic flows from the lava dome; resulting plumes rose to an altitude of approximately 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. —GVP

Tafu-Maka


A bathymetric map prepared during a NOAA Vents Program November 2008 expedition shows two submarine volcanoes, Tafu (Tongan for “source of fire”) and Maka (Tongan for “rock”). The volcanoes lie along a NE-SW-trending ridge on the southern part of the back-arc NE Lau Spreading Center (NELSC). The November 2008 expedition discovered submarine hydrothermal plumes consistent with very recent (days to weeks?) submarine lava effusion from Maka volcano.  Image courtesy of NOAA Vents Program, 2008. Caption: GVP.

Ongoing Activity:


HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE

Wednesday, September 16, 2009 8:30 AM HST (Wednesday, September 16, 2009 18:30 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (CAVW #1302-01-)
19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH

Activity Summary for past 24 hours: The third DI event in a week started yesterday morning and switched to DI inflation overnight. Moderate glow was visible after dark from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent (summit). Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. Lava from the TEB vent (east rift zone) flows through tubes to the ocean and feeds surface flows.

Past 24 hours at Kilauea summit:
Glow was visible from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent overnight. This morning, trade winds are blowing the plume, denser than yesterday morning, to the southwest over the Ka`u Desert. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 900 tonnes/day on September 11, which is well above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day. Very small amounts of ash-sized rock dust waft up from the vent and are deposited nearby on the crater rim.

halema uma u
This Quicktime movie shows two active vents on the floor of the Halema`uma`u cavity. Lava is just below the rim of the two vents, creating frequent spattering which falls around their rims. Within the larger of the two (on the right), lava can be seen vigorously sloshing. For scale, these vents are about 10 yards wide. The first half of the movie is shown in normal mode, with the second half shown in ‘nightshot’ mode.

The summit tiltmeter network recorded the third DI event in a week with deflation just before 8 am yesterday and inflation just after midnight last night. The GPS network, which is less sensitive than the tiltmeter network, recorded less than 2 cm of contraction over the last 3 months with brief periods of extension coinciding with strong DI inflation on September 1-2 and 11-12; they recorded contraction since 9/13.

Seismic tremor levels remain elevated; two weak hybrid earthquakes followed by 15-20 minutes of sustained tremor were recorded starting around 7:30 pm last night. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes continued to increase slightly but remained below background levels. Six earthquakes were recorded beneath Kilauea – three beneath the summit caldera, two deep quakes below the lower southwest rift zone, and one on south flank faults. —HVO

  • Videos and Images are available at: HVO

Related Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

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Posted in Chaiten, FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast, island of Java, Sumatra, volcanism, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [9 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 11, 2009

VOW: Toba the Sleeping Colossus

Toba
Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia – Landsat photo – Source: NASA

Lake Toba is a supervolcano, 100 kilometres long and 30 kilometres wide, and 505 metres (1,666 ft) at its deepest point. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft), the lake stretches from 2.88°N 98.52°E  to 2.35°N 99.1°E.  It is the largest volcanic lake in the world. It’s also the site of a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 74,000 years ago, a massive climate-changing event. The eruption is believed to have had a VEI intensity of 8. This eruption, believed to have been the largest anywhere on Earth in the last 25 million years, may have had catastrophic consequences globally; some anthropologists and archeologists believe that it killed most humans then alive, creating a population bottleneck in Central Eastern Africa and India that affected the genetic inheritance of all humans today. (Source: Wikipedia).

Toba Large
Lake Toba Topography.
Source: Andaman Org.

Toba catastrophe theory

The Toba catastrophe theory holds that 70,000 to 75,000 years ago, a supervolcanic event at Lake Toba, on Sumatra, plunged the Earth into a mini-ice-age lasting several thousand years, reducing the world’s human population to 10,000 or even a mere 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution. The theory was proposed in 1998 by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

The Toba eruption (the Toba event) occurred at what is now Lake Toba about 67,500 to 75,500 years ago. It had an estimated Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8 (described as “mega-colossal”), making it possibly the largest explosive volcanic eruption within the last twenty-five million years. It had a volume 300 cubic km greater than the Island Park Caldera supereruption (2500 cubic km) of 2.1 million years BP.

The total amount of erupted material was estimated at about 2,800 km³ — about 2,000 km³ of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground, and some 800 km³ that fell as ash, with the wind blowing most of it to the west. The pyroclastic flows of the eruption destroyed an area of 20,000 square kilometers, with ash deposits as thick as 600 metres near the main vent [ cf, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens ejected about 1.2 km³;  of material, whilst the largest volcanic eruption in historic times, at Mount Tambora in 1815, emitted the equivalent of 100 km3 of dense rock.] The eruption was also about three times the size of the latest Yellowstone eruption of Lava Creek 630,000 years ago. (Source: Wikipedia).

volcanic features of toba
The eruption of 73,000 years ago left the Sibandung caldera.  Lake Toba is surrounded by two small, active volcanos as well as several updomed areas and hot springs. These features indicate that there is activity below the surface today and that pressure is rising. Samosir island, too, is evidence for upthrust from below. From the record it seems that Toba produces major eruptions every 300-400,000 years. Source: Andaman Org.

Volcanic features in and around Lake Toba:

Grey area: Present-day topographic depression
green area: Updomed areas

Area # 1.  Sibandung caldera: made 73,000 years ago by the Toba YTT event (Young Toba Ash)
Area # 2. Haranggaol caldera: made 500,000 years ago by the Toba MTT event (Middle Toba Ash)
Area # 3.  Sibandung caldera: made 800,000 years ago by the Toba OTT event (Old Toba Ash)

The MTT and OTT events were not as large as the YTT event of 73,000 years ago
but were still major eruptions of at least VEI 7.

V1 Tandukbenua (Sipisopiso) – young dacit-andesite volcano
V2 Pusubukit volcano – young dacit-andesite volcano
D1 Pardepur dacite domes
D2 Tuk-tuk rhyolite dome
HS Hot springs
Source: Andaman Org.

Recent Activity

Large earthquakes have occurred in the vicinity of the volcano more recently, notably in 1987.  Other earthquakes have occurred in the area in 1892, 1916, and 1920-1922.

Lake Toba lies near the Great Sumatran fault which runs along the centre of Sumatra called the Sumatra Fracture Zone. The volcanoes of Sumatra and Java are part of the Sunda Arc, a result of the northeasterly movement of the Indo-Australian Plate which is sliding under the eastward-moving Eurasian Plate. The subduction zone in this area is very active: the seabed near the west coast of Sumatra has had several major earthquakes since 1995, including the 9.3 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake [followed by the deadly tsunami] and the 8.7 2005 Sumatra earthquake, the epicenters of which were around 300 km from Toba Lake. (Source: Wikipedia).

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(26 August-1 September 2009)

New activity/unrest:

Notes [Source: GVP]

RVO reported that during 28 August-3 September white and gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera’s Tavurvur cone rose 1.5 km above the crater and produced ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas.

The Washington VAAC reported that on 6 September an explosion from San Cristóbal produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude no higher than 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume drifted 75 km W.

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Posted in Sumbawa Island, Supervolcanoes, toba, Toba catastrophe theory, toba lake, toba volcano, Volcanic Activity Report, VolcanoWatch, VolcanoWatch Weekly | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on VolcanoWatch Weekly [9 September 2009]

Shiveluch Release Plumes of Ash

Posted by feww on August 4, 2009

More Activity at Shiveluch Volcano

shiv_amo_2009215
A  true-color image of Shiveluch captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite on August 3, 2009. The volcanic plume blows away from the summit, crossing the coastline and fanning out over the Bering Sea. The plume’s relatively dark color compared to nearby clouds suggests the presence of volcanic ash.  One of Kamchatka’s largest volcanoes, with a 3,283 meters high summit,  Shiveluch has undergone about 60 significant eruptions in the past 10,000 years.
NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center. The Rapid Response Team provides daily images of this region. Caption by Michon Scott. [Edited by FEWW.]

Young Shiveluch: 56°38′ N, 161°19′ E, elevation: active dome about 2,800 m, summit of Old Shiveluch 3,283 m


Shiveluch volcano seen from the southeast: Young Shiveluch with its active dome is to the left, and Late Pleistocene Old Shiveluch is to the right of the photo. Source: Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Kamchatka, Image may be subject to copyright.

FEWW Links:


Posted in Bering Sea, Kamchatka volcanoes, volcanic plume, volcano images, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , | 2 Comments »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [2 July 2009]

Posted by feww on July 3, 2009

VoW: Yellowstone Volcano

Location: 44.43°N 110.67°W
Summit Elevation:  2,805 m
Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Yellowstone
Remote sensor imagery of Yellowstone Caldera. Source: a frame-freeze picture from Yellowstone Volcano Due To Erupt


The rim of the Yellowstone Caldera.  Source ESA (mirrored from http://www.yellowstonegis.utah.edu/home/home.html)

What’s brewing under the old rocks?

  • Earthquake swarms are common at Yellowstone.
  • Increased seismic activity at Yellowstone Lake in Yellowstone National Park  in late December 2008 decreasing  since January 8, 2009.
  • Seismic activity  could continue.
  • The recent swarm is well above typical activity at Yellowstone, but  not unprecedented.
  • Earthquake swarms within the Yellowstone caldera typically occur with magnitudes of about 4.0.
  • A swarm with about 3,000 events occurred in 1985 on the northwest rim of the caldera, lasting for three months, with largest earthquakes up to M4.9  recorded. (Source: Volcanoes USGS )


Yellowstone Lake showing location and times of the recent earthquakes from Dec. 27, 2008 (blue) to Jan. 8, 2009 (red). The M 3.0 and greater earthquakes are shown as stars, the smaller earthquakes are shown as circles. During the swarm, the earthquake locations appear to have moved north. For more information on the depths of the earthquakes, see the cross section from X to X’ below.
(Source: Volcanoes USGS/ YVO )


The depth versus location of the Yellowstone Lake earthquake swarm from X to X’ on the Yellowstone Lake map. Earthquakes are shown from Dec. 27, 2008 (blue) to
Jan. 8, 2009 (red). The M 3.0 and greater earthquakes are shown as stars, the smaller earthquakes are shown as circles.  (Source: Volcanoes USGS
/ YVO )


Number of reviewed Yellowstone Lake earthquakes in six-hour and three-hour intervals from 12/27/08 to 01/06/09. The green line on the left figure gives the cumulative
number of earthquakes; the steep slopes correspond to increase in earthquake number. The red line in the figure on the right gives the cumulative moment, or energy; its sharp increase in the first few days is due to a greater number of large earthquakes with their greater energy release. The total cumulative moment is equivalent in energy to about one M 4.5 earthquake. Click on the image for a full-size version.
(Source: Volcanoes USGS/ YVO )

What causes earthquakes at Yellowstone?

USGS / YVO cite a combination of geological factors including:

  • Regional stress associated with normal faults such as the nearby Teton and Hebgen Lake faults
  • Magmatic movements at depth (>7 kms)
  • Hydrothermal fluid activity caused by boiling groundwater which is heated by magma.

However,  YVO has not reported any anomalous changes in hot springs discharges, gas emissions …

In 2004 the Yellowstone caldera underwent period of accelerated uplift, clocking 7 cm/yr, or three times  faster than  in the recorded history; however the movement has now slowed down to  a maximum rate of 4 cm/yr (or about 175 % of the pre-2004 records.)

The uplift is most noticeable at the White Lake GPS station, as has been discussed in our monthly YVO updates during the past year. As of late October 2007, the total uplift since 2004 at that location is about 17 cm. Chang and his colleagues credit the relatively rapid rise to recharge of magma into the giant magma chamber that underlies the Yellowstone Caldera. They also used numerical modeling to infer that the magma intruded about 10 km (6 miles) beneath the surface.


This interferogram provides a map view of ground movements at Yellowstone. Each color contour represents a line of equal uplift relative to the ENVISAT satellite between Sept. 2004 and Aug. 2006. The center of the uplift is an elliptical region stretching from the northeastern part of the Yellowstone Caldera (the dashed black line) to the southwest. This area of maximum uplift encompasses both Yellowstone’s resurgent domes, features long known for similar movements. During this time period, the north-rim uplift anomaly subsided (bullseye in the upper left part of the interferogram). The yellow lines are roads. The yellow triangles are locations of GPS stations with continuous data. The light blue lake within the caldera is Yellowstone Lake. Thin black lines are mapped faults. Figure courtesy of C. Wicks, USGS. Caption: USGS / YVO


Yellowstone caldera Map. USGS   Click Image to Enlarge.


Source: USGS


Source: Yellowstone National Park.

Conclusion:

USGS / YVO: “At this time, there is no reason to believe that magma has risen to a shallow level within the crust or that a volcanic eruption is likely. ”

FEWW: Perhaps, a new mindset is needed to help understand the true nature, “utility function” and full range of  all possible scenarios that might occur at the super volcano site. Let’s start looking at Yellowstone in the Big Picture frame.  There may be a few sobering “surprises” in store!


Volcanic Activity Report: 24 June-30 June 2009

Source: Global Volcanism program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

NOTE: A small explosive eruption of Cleveland on 25 June prompted AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. An ash cloud that detached from the volcano was seen on satellite imagery moving S at an estimated altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. No further activity was reported. On 27 June, AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. (Source: GVP)

Ongoing Activity:

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates for July 03, 2009 0040 UTC

  • Redoubt Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

  • Kilauea Activity  –  Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Cleveland Activity – Color Code – YELLOW : Alert Level – ADVISORY

  • Mauna Loa Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

Redoubt Volcano Latest Observations: Local time: June 24, 2009 1705 AKDT (June 25, 2009 0105 UTC)
The eruption of Redoubt continues. Seismic activity remains low but above background levels.

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A New Era of Intense Volcanic Unrest May Have Begun

Posted by feww on September 26, 2008

2008/9 May be the Start of a New Period of Intense Global Volcanic Unrest

[SHIVELUCH: Central Kamchatka (Russia) 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev. 3,283 m]

Shiveluch Volcano in Kamchatka peninsula erupted at 08:00 local time on Friday (23:00 Moscow time, September 25) discharging a column of ash to an altitude of about 4.5km above sea level, Kamchatka office of the Geophysics Service of the Russian Academy of Sciences told Itar-Tass.  Shiveluch is one of the most active volcanoes on the Kamchatka peninsula.

KVERT had previously reported above background levels seismic activity at Shiveluch during 12-19 September. Seismic data analysis, video camera and visual observations indicated that “a small hot avalanche descended the SE side of the lava dome, producing an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.5 km, and drifted 100 km NE”, GVP reported.

Holocene Volcanoes in Kamchatka

Source of map:Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Kamchatka, Russia

[KARYMSKY Eastern Kamchatka 54.05°N, 159.45°E; summit elev. 1,536 m]

Karymsky, another of Kamchatka’s volcanoes, also discharged ash to an altitude of about 3km Friday, possibly due to an explosion. This followed KVERT report for enhanced seismic activity at Karymsky during 12-19 September.

Kliuchevskoi

Klyuchevskaya Sopka [Kliuchevskoi,] Eurasia’s highest volcano (elevation of 4,700 m a.s.l.) was also reported as showing seismic activity that “considerably exceeded” the background level, with a total of 196 local quakes recorded during the previous 24 hours. Despite heightened thermal anomaly, no eruption was reported.


Kliuchevskoi is Kamchatka’s highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring on the NE (seen here) and SE flanks of the conical volcano at altitudes of 500-3600 m. Photo by E.Y. Zhdanova (courtesy of Oleg Volynets, Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk). Source and Caption: GVP)

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Week 33 Volcano Watch

Posted by feww on August 21, 2008

13 August-19 August 2008

New Activity/Unrest:

Piton de la Fournaise. The massive Piton de la Fournaise on the island of Réunion is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. It is seen here in 1977 with a fresh black lava flow descending the outer NE flank of the shield volcano to the sea. An unvegetated summit lava shield (upper left) was constructed within an 8-km-wide caldera that is breached to the sea. Its sloping northern rim is marked by the diagonal vegetation line at the left. More than 150 eruptions have occurred since the 17th century, mostly from vents within the caldera. (Caption:Global Volcanism Program ). Copyrighted photo by Katia and Maurice Krafft, 1977 (published in SEAN Bulletin, 1977).

Ongoing Activity:

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program. This page is updated on Wednesdays, please see the GVP Home Page for news of the latest significant activity.

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Week 31 Volcano Watch

Posted by feww on August 7, 2008

30 July-5 August 2008

Breaking News:

Color Code Purple

Recent activity at the Kilauea volcano has increased atmospheric levels of sulfur dioxide in the districts of Kau and Puna, Hawaii, resulting in a spike of sulfur of 9 parts per million, which is considered to be extremely high. (Source)

New Activity/Unrest:


Kilauea volcano eruption. Photo dated July 14. 2008. Copyright: Steven and Donna O’Meara. Source: HawaiiMagazine.com. See Fair Use Notice!

Ongoing Activity:

[The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program.]

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