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Posts Tagged ‘Super Typhoon LEKIMA’

Coldest Place on Earth Identified by Satellite

Posted by feww on December 10, 2013

Satellites measure super chilled temp of 93.2ºC (-135.8F) in East Antarctica

Researchers using satellite data have recorded the lowest temperatures on Earth at a remote ice plateau in East Antarctica, icing over a previous record set in 1983.

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) found temperatures from −92 to −94ºC  (−134 to −137 degrees Fahrenheit) in a 1,000-kilometer stretch on the highest section of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.

[Editor’s Note: According to several reports, the satellite sensors recorded a peak temperature of -94.7C (-135.8F) in August 2010.]

  • By comparison, The lowest recorded temperature in the United States measured at −62ºC (−79.6 degrees Fahrenheit) in Alaska, in northern Asia at -68ºC (−90.4 degrees Fahrenheit), at the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet at -75ºC (−103 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • The coldest temperature recorded in the U.S. so far this year was -41ºC (minus 42 degrees Fahrenheit) set in Jordan, Montana on December 7, as Arctic weather gripped much of the United States.
  • The coldest temperature detected on Earth’s Moon was -238ºC.
  • CO2 turns into dry ice at −78.5ºC (−109.3ºF) at standard temperature and pressure.

The measurements were made between 2003 and 2013 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board the Aqua satellite and during the 2013 Southern Hemisphere winter by Landsat 8, a new satellite launched early this year by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey, said NSIDC.

“I’ve never been in conditions that cold and I hope I never am,” said lead scientist Ted Scambos. “I am told that every breath is painful and you have to be extremely careful not to freeze part of your throat or lungs when inhaling.”

The previous record of −89.2ºC (−128.6 degrees Fahrenheit) was measured on July 21, 1983 at the Vostok Research Station in East Antarctica.

ColdestPlaceRecords-nsidc-enhanced
This image shows the location of record low temperature measurements for Antarctica. The red dots show where the record satellite-measured surface temperatures and the earlier record low air temperature  ccurred. Shades of gray are a compilation of the lowest MODIS-sensor land surface temperature readings made by NASA’s Aqua satellite during 2003-2013, with darker grays representing the coldest areas. Landsat 8 thermal images acquired in July and August of 2013 provided more detail on the coldest areas (purple squares). Elevation of the Antarctic surface is shown in green lines, and a blue lines provide an outline of the Antarctic continent, its islands, and the edge of its floating ice sheet. —Credit: Ted Scambos, National Snow and Ice Data Center — High Resolution Image

Scambos and his team found record low temperatures in several 5 by 10 kilometer pockets where the topography forms small hollows of a few meters deep. These hollows are present near the ice ridge that runs between Dome Argus and Dome Fuji—the ice dome summits of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Under clear winter skies in these areas, cold air forms near the snow surface. Because the cold air is denser than the air above it, it begins to move downhill. The air collects in the nearby hollows and chills still further, if conditions are favorable.

“The record-breaking conditions seem to happen when a wind pattern or an atmospheric pressure gradient tries to move the air back uphill, pushing against the air that was sliding down,” Scambos said. “This allows the air in the low hollows to remain there longer and cool even further under the clear, extremely dry sky conditions,” Scambos said. “When the cold air lingers in these pockets it reaches ultra-low temperatures.”

“Any gardener knows that clear skies and dry air in spring or winter lead to the coldest temperatures at night,” Scambos said. “The thing is, here in the United States and most of Canada, we don’t get a night that lasts three or four or six months long for things to really chill down under extended clear sky conditions.”

Scambos suspected they would find one area that got extremely cold. Instead they found a large strip at high altitude where several spots regularly reach record low temperatures. Furthermore, dozens of these extremely cold areas reached about the same minimum temperatures of −92 to −94 degrees Celsius (−134 to −137 degrees Fahrenheit) on most years.

“This is like saying that on the coldest day of the year a whole strip of land from International Falls, Minnesota to Duluth, Minnesota to Great Falls, Montana reached the exact same temperature, and more than once,” Scambos said. “And that’s a little odd.”

Temperature inside Super Typhoon LEKIMA

Measuring at an estimated 150ºK, the temperature of the round patch located next to the eye of Super Typhoon LEKIMA made it the coldest place on or near planet Earth on October 24, 2013.

lekima temp
Majestic
Super Typhoon LEKIMA. SW-IR satellite image recorded at 14:30UTC on October 24, 2013. Temperature of the patch located to the right of the typhoon’s eye measures about 150ºK (minus 123ºC) making it the coldest place on or near planet Earth. Image sourced from: CIMSS/SSEC/WISC.

The Hottest Place on Earth?

Satellite sensors detected a blazing high of 70.7ºC in the Dasht-e Lut desert in southeastern Iran in 2005.

Related Links

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Coldest Place on or Near the Earth

Posted by feww on October 24, 2013

Temperature of Super Typhoon LEKIMA

Measuring at an estimated 150ºK, the temperature of the round patch located next to the eye of Super Typhoon LEKIMA makes it the coldest place on or near planet Earth.

lekima tempMajestic Super Typhoon LEKIMA. SW-IR satellite image recorded at 14:30UTC on October 24, 2013. Temperature of the patch located to the right of the typhoon’s eye measures about 150ºK (< minus 123ºC) making it the coldest place on or near planet Earth. Image sourced from: CIMSS/SSEC/WISC.

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FRANCISCO Drenches Okinawa, Moves Northeast

Posted by feww on October 24, 2013

FRANCISCO weakens to a wet tropical storm

Tropical Storm FRANCISCO was located near 26.8ºN, 130.6ºE at 14:00 UTC, moving Northeast at about 12km/hr. The storm was located about 260 km east of Okinawa, as of posting.

FRANCISCO and LEKIMA 24oct13
A very wet Tropical Storm FRANCISCO moves closer to mainland Japan as a covetous Super Typhoon LEKIMA looks on.  VISIBLE/INFRARED satellite image (FIRE-EARTH Enhancement) recorded at 13:30UTC on October 24, 2013. Original image sourced from: CIMSS/SSEC/WISC.

Meantime, Super Typhoon LEKIMA with sustained winds of more than 240 km/hr and gusting up to 300 km/hr was moving northwestward at an average forward speed of about 25 km/hr. LEKIMA was located about 500km ESE of Iwo To (Iwo Jima) Island, at 14:00UTC.

lekima
Majestic Super Typhoon LEKIMA. SW IR satellite image recorded at 13:30UTC on October 24, 2013.  Image sourced from: CIMSS/SSEC/WISC.

Typhoon Stats for NW Pacific

  • The 60 year average (1951-2010) No of Typhoons: 20.9
  • No of typhoons so far this year: 28
  • Percent Increase: 34 [Calculated by FIRE-EARTH blog]

typhoon list 2013

Related News

Nansei Sekiyu KK, a Japanese refiner owned by Petrobras, has shut down marine operations at its 100,000 barrels-per-day refinery in Okinawa, due to typhoon FRANCISCO, said a report.

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant

The operator of the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant is running out of options to store radioactive contaminated rainwater as a very wet FRANCISCO approaches.

Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has started  transferring contaminated rainwater into underground pools, originally deemed too leaky. The precipitation from recent typhoons and extreme rain events have been accumulating in barriers around radioactive waste water tanks, reported NHK.

TEPCO has been storing the most contaminated rainwater in tanks and in the basement of a turbine building. But the tanks are now full, the report said

More details to follow…

Related Links

Links to Typhoon WIPHA

Posted in Climate Change, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global disasters 2013, satellite imagery, Significant Event Imagery, significant events | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

FRANCISCO to Bring More Rain to Sodden Coastal Japan

Posted by feww on October 23, 2013

Typhoon FRANCISCO to Swipe Japan’s Pacific Coast

FRANCISCO, the 27th Typhoon of 2013, would likely follow a somewhat similar path to typhoon WIPHA, which dumped more than 800 millimeter of rain over Izu Ōshima Island in 24 hours, as it swiped Tokyo region.

WIPHA unleashed massive landslides on the volcanic Island, killing dozens of people (29 confirmed dead , 16 others missing presumed dead), destroying or damaging hundreds of homes and forcing thousands to evacuate last Wednesday.

FIRE-EARTH Models show FRANCISCO making landfall with probability of about 55 percent, as of 03:00UTC on October 23, 2013.

francisco 23oct13
Typhoon FRANCISCO moves closer to southern Japan, watched by Super Typhoon LEKIMA. VISIBLE/INFRARED satellite image (FIRE-EARTH Enhancement) recorded at 01:30UTC on October 23, 2013. Original image sourced from: CIMSS/SSEC/WISC.

Typhoon FRANCISCO

  • Time: 03:00UTC – October 23, 2013
  • Movement: NW (305 degrees) at 15km/hr
  • Position: Near 24.3ºN, 131.1ºE
  • Location: About 270km Southeast (118 degrees) of Naha, Okinawa, Japan
  • Max Sustained Winds: 140km/hr
  • Max Wind Gusts: 215km/hr
  • Significant Wave Height:   10m
  • Source: FIRE-EARTH and others

typhoons projected pathes
Projected paths of Typhoon FRANCISCO and Super Typhoon LEKIMA as of 01:30UTC on October 23, 2013. Original images sourced from: CIMSS/SSEC/WISC. Enhanced by FIRE-EARTH

Typhoon Stats for NW Pacific

  • The 60 year average (1951-2010) No of Typhoons: 20.9
  • No of typhoons so far this year: 28
  • Percent Increase: 34 [Calculated by FIRE-EARTH blog]

typhoon list 2013

Related News

Nansei Sekiyu KK, a Japanese refiner owned by Petrobras, has shut down marine operations at its 100,000 barrels-per-day refinery in Okinawa, due to typhoon FRANCISCO, said a report.

More details to follow…

Related Links

Links to Typhoon WIPHA

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