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Posts Tagged ‘Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers’

Sierra Leone “Quarantines” Ebola Affected Area

Posted by feww on June 14, 2014

EMERGING & RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
DEADLY EBOLA HF
SCENARIO 011
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Sierra Leone quarantines Ebola affected area as death toll mounts

Authorities in Sierra Leone have declared an emergency in the Ebola affected district of Kailahun, near Gueckedou, Guinea, ordering closure of all schools.

“All public gatherings and cultural activities are banned and cross-border trade fairs halted until the Ebola virus is contained, ” the health authorities said.

Ebola HF has  killed at least 19 people in Sierra Leone, with 117 suspected cases, CDC reported.

Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone [CDC]

Highlights
As of June 10, 2014, the Guinea Ministry of Health announced a total of 376 suspect and confirmed cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), including 241 fatal cases, in the districts of Conakry, Guéckédou, Macenta, Kissidougou, Dabola, Djingaraye, Télimélé, Boffa, and Kouroussa (see map).

233 cases across Guinea have been confirmed by laboratory testing to be positive for Ebola virus infection.
In Conakry, 75 suspect cases are reported to meet the clinical definition for EHF, including 32 fatal cases.

June 9, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone reported 43 laboratory confirmed cases of EHF from 3 districts: Kailahun, Kambia, and Port Loko.

An additional 117 suspect cases and 19 fatal cases were also reported in Sierra Leone on June 9.

The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia reported 1 new laboratory confirmed case and one death on June 7, 2014. This is the first case reported since early April.

Genetic analysis of the virus indicates that it is closely related (97% identical) to variants of Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus) identified earlier in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon (Baize et al. 2014External Web Site Icon).

The Guinean Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone, and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia are working with national and international partners to investigate and respond to the outbreak.

Guinea at a Glance

Suspected and Confirmed Case Count: 376
Suspected Case Deaths: 241
Laboratory Confirmed Cases: 233

Liberia at a Glance

Suspected and Confirmed Case Count: 13
Suspected Case Deaths: 9
Laboratory Confirmed Cases: 6

Sierra Leone at a Glance

Suspected and Confirmed Case Count: 160
Suspected Case Deaths: 19
Laboratory Confirmed Cases: 43

Outbreak Update
June 11, 2014

On June 10, 2014, The Ministry of Health (MoH) of Guinea reported 376 suspect and confirmed cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), including 241 fatal cases and 233 laboratory confirmed cases. New cases were reported in Gueckedou, Telimele, and Boffa districts and follow-up investigations continue in Conakry, Boke, and Dubreka districts in the west, and Macenta, and Kouroussa districts in the south (see map).

The Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone reported 117 suspect cases, 19 fatal cases, and 43 laboratory confirmed cases on June 9, 2014. Confirmed cases have been reported from the Kailahun district, near Gueckedou, Guinea, and for the first time in Kambia and Port Loko districts in northwest Sierra Leone. Reports of and investigations of suspect cases continue in Kailahun, Kenema, Kono, Bo, Moyamba , Kambia, Koinadugu, Port Loko, Tonkolili, Bombali, and Western area districts. Laboratory testing is being conducted in Kenema city. Sierra Leone and WHO have sent experts to aid in the response and investigation.

On June 7, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia reported 1 laboratory confirmed EHF case and 1 new death in the Foya District of Liberia. This is the first reported case since April 6, 2014.

Possible Outbreak in Senegal and Gambia

News of a possible outbreak in Senegal may have been suppressed. As of early April, Gambia had placed at least two people with suspected EHF under quarantine.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever(EHF)

EHF is a highly contagious virus that spreads via close personal contact and kills up to 90% of the victims.

Five subspecies of Ebolavirus have so far been found. Four of those have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans, according to CDC.

There are  no known cure or vaccine for the Ebola virus.

In Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have previously been reported in the following countries:

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

The current outbreak  is the first known occurrence of Ebola HF in Guinea.

“The natural reservoir host of ebolaviruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa; no case has been reported in the United States,” said CDC.

Ebola_2_thumb_colorized
Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a “bowl of spaghetti.” Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.  Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

12 deadly pathogens could spread into new regions aided by climate change

A report by Wildlife Conservation Society released on October 7, 2008 lists 12 deadly pathogens that could spread globally as a result of climate change. “All have potential impacts to both human and wildlife health as well as global economies.” Report said.

Titled ‘The Deadly Dozen: Wildlife Diseases in the Age of Climate Change,’ the report illustrates examples of diseases that could spread due to temperatures changes and variations in regional precipitation levels.

The “Deadly Dozen” list [ABC]

  1. Avian influenza
  2. Babesia
  3. Cholera
  4. Ebola
  5. Intestinal and external parasites
  6. Lyme disease
  7. Plague
  8. Red tides
  9. Rift Valley fever
  10. Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
  11. Tuberculosis
  12. Yellow fever

RELATED LINKS

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Ebola Kills 100 in West Africa

Posted by feww on April 5, 2014

DEADLY VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
EBOLA KILLS 100 IN W. AFRICA
MALI SUSPECTS EBOLA HF
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Mali suspects EHF cases as death toll reaches 100 in W. Africa

Mali health authorities say they have identified possible cases of Ebola HF since the epidemic outbreak in neighboring Guinea.

The outbreak, which originated in Guinea in early March, has since spread to the neighbors Sierra Leone and Liberia.

Guinea has reported an increased total of 127 probable and suspect cases, including 86 deaths (case fatality ratio: 68%), as of April 4, 2014. Of the suspect cases, 35 have been laboratory confirmed positive cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), including 14 health care workers and 11 cases in Conakry, the capital, according to various sources.

Liberia has reported 14 suspect cases, which include 7 deaths and 2 laboratory-confirmed cases of EHF from persons with recent travel history to Guinea. Authorities are investigating reports of additional suspect cases in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak, Guinea and Liberia 2014

ehf outbreak in west africa
Source:  CDC/National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)

Possible Outbreak in Senegal and Gambia

News of a possible outbreak in Senegal may have been suppressed.

Gambia has placed at least two people with suspected EHF under quarantine.

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever(EHF)

EHF is a highly contagious virus that spreads via close personal contact and kills up to 90% of the victims.

Five subspecies of Ebolavirus have so far been found. Four of those have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans, according to CDC.

There are  no known cure or vaccine for the Ebola virus.

In Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have previously been reported in the following countries:

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Gabon
  • South Sudan
  • Ivory Coast
  • Uganda
  • Republic of the Congo (ROC)
  • South Africa (imported)

The current outbreak  is the first known occurrence of Ebola HF in Guinea.

“The natural reservoir host of ebolaviruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa; no case has been reported in the United States,” said CDC.

Ebola_2_thumb_colorized
Ebola virions (image 2 colorized 1), diagnostic specimen from the first passage in Vero cells of a specimen from a human patient — this image is from the first isolation and visualization of Ebola virus, 1976. In this case, some of the filamentous virions are fused together, end-to-end, giving the appearance of a “bowl of spaghetti.” Negatively stained virions. Magnification: approximately x40,000.  Micrograph from F. A. Murphy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

12 deadly pathogens could spread into new regions aided by climate change

A report by Wildlife Conservation Society released on October 7, 2008 lists 12 deadly pathogens that could spread globally as a result of climate change. “All have potential impacts to both human and wildlife health as well as global economies.” Report said.

Titled ‘The Deadly Dozen: Wildlife Diseases in the Age of Climate Change,’ the report illustrates examples of diseases that could spread due to temperatures changes and variations in regional precipitation levels.

The “Deadly Dozen” list [ABC]

  1. Avian influenza
  2. Babesia
  3. Cholera
  4. Ebola
  5. Intestinal and external parasites
  6. Lyme disease
  7. Plague
  8. Red tides
  9. Rift Valley fever
  10. Sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
  11. Tuberculosis
  12. Yellow fever

RELATED LINKS

Posted in Climate Change, Global Disaster watch, global disasters, global health catastrophe, health | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever Breaks Out in SW Uganda

Posted by feww on October 20, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,239 Days Left 

[October 20, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016. 

  • SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,239 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History

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Outbreak of Deadly Marburg Disease in SW Uganda Kills 5, Leaves 6 Hospitalized

An outbreak of deadly Marburg disease has left at least 5 people dead and 6 others hospitalized in SW Uganda, reports said.

The latest death occurred in Bukora Kitumba in Kabale district, said a report.

The following information is provided by CDC:

Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever

Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) is a rare, severe type of hemorrhagic fever which affects both humans and non-human primates. Caused by a genetically unique zoonotic (that is, animal-borne) RNA virus of the filovirus family, its recognition led to the creation of this virus family. The five subtypes of Ebola virus are the only other known members of the filovirus family.


Marburg virus virion. A colorized negative stained transmission electron micrograph (TEM), captured by F.A. Murphy in 1968, depicts a Marburg virus virion, which had been grown in an environment of tissue culture cells. Marburg hemorrhagic fever is a rare, severe type of hemorrhagic fever which affects both humans and non-human primates. Caused by a genetically unique zoonotic (that is, animal-borne) RNA virus of the filovirus family, its recognition led to the creation of this virus family. The four species of Ebola virus are the only other known members of the filovirus family. See PHIL 7219 for a black and white version of this image.

After an incubation period of 5-10 days, the onset of the disease is sudden and is marked by fever, chills, headache, and myalgia. Around the fifth day after the onset of symptoms, a maculopapular rash, most prominent on the trunk (chest, back, stomach), may occur. Nausea, vomiting, chest pain, a sore throat, abdominal pain, and diarrhea then may appear. Symptoms become increasingly severe and may include jaundice, inflammation of the pancreas, severe weight loss, delirium, shock, liver failure, and multi-organ dysfunction. Because many of the signs and symptoms of Marburg hemorrhagic fever are similar to those of other infectious diseases, such as malaria or typhoid fever, diagnosis of the disease can be difficult, especially if only a single case is involved. [CDC/ Frederick Murphy.]

Marburg virus was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany and in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia). A total of 31 people became ill; they included laboratory workers as well as several medical personnel and family members who had cared for them. There were 7 deaths among the reported cases. The first people infected had been exposed to African green monkeys or their tissues. In Marburg, the monkeys had been imported for research and to prepare polio vaccine. In addition to the 31 cases, an additional primary case was retrospectively serologically diagnosed.

Other Details of MHF

  • The case-fatality rate for Marburg hemorrhagic fever is between 23-90%, CDC reported.
  • An outbreak of Marburg in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2000 claimed at least 128 lives (83% fatality rate).
  • Another outbreak in Angola killed at least 227 prople in 2005 (90% fatality rate).

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs)


Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of diseases caused by ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses from four distinct families. These diseases include Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Lassa fever, Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, and Yellow Fever. Symptoms vary with the disease, but often include fever, fatigue, and muscle aches. There may be bleeding, although death from blood loss is rare. Severe cases can include shock and coma. Although some types of VHFs are relatively mild illnesses, many of them can cause severe, life-threatening disease with high fatality rates
.

Along with smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism, and tularemia, hemorrhagic fever viruses are among the six agents identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as the most likely to be used as biological weapons. Many VHFs can cause severe, life-threatening disease with high fatality rates. Source: U.S. Gov.

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