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Earth is fighting to stay alive. Mass dieoffs, triggered by anthropogenic assault and fallout of planetary defense systems offsetting the impact, could begin anytime!

Posts Tagged ‘Volcanic Activity Report’

Fuego Volcano Erupts

Posted by feww on September 13, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,280 Days Left

[September 13, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016. 

Global Disasters/ Significant Events

Guatemala’s Fuego volcano eruption forces tens of thousands of people to evacuate

Fuego’s powerful explosions ejected smoke and ash about 4km into the air, spewing two lava stream down the volcano flanks, accompanied by thousands of tons of volcanic ash and tephra.

About 35,000 people from two dozen villages nearest to the volcano have been evacuated, awaiting evacuation, or are on notice to abandon their homes depending on the wind direction, authorities said.

  • The 3,763 m volcano, dubbed the ‘Volcano of Fire,’  sits about 10km SW of the colonial city of Antigua (Pop: ~ 50,000) , Guatemala’s former capital, and is one of Central America’s most active volcanoes.

 

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Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

GLOBAL WARNING

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San Cristóbal Eruption Forces Mass Evacuation

Posted by feww on September 9, 2012

DISASTER CALENDAR SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,284 Days Left

[September 9, 2012] Mass die-offs resulting from human impact and the planetary response to the anthropogenic assault could occur by early 2016. 

  • SYMBOLIC COUNTDOWN: 1,284 Days Left to the ‘Worst Day’ in Human History…

Nicaragua: 3,000 people are being evacuated as San Cristóbal volcano explodes

San Cristobal, Nicaragua’s highest volcano, exploded at least 3 times, expelling volcanic gases, ash and tephra about 1,500 meters into the air and forcing evacuations of thousands of people in the rural northwestern department of Chinandega.

Other Global Disasters/ Significant Events

United States.  Red Flag Warnings/Extreme Fire Danger. Critical Fire Weather Conditions are expected across parts of the Great Basin, Northern Rockies and Great Plains on Sunday, NWS said. Red Flag Warnings are in effect for parts of at least 12 states.

  • “Thunderstorms with little or no rain coupled with abundant lightning will offer a threat for critical fire weather conditions across portions of the northern Rockies on Sunday. Meanwhile, strong winds and low relative humidity will also create locally dangerous fire weather conditions across the northern and central Great Basin as well as the northern and central Great Plains.” NWS forecasters said.


Weather Hazards Map. Source: NWS

Related Links

Global Disasters: Links, Forecasts and Background

GLOBAL WARNING

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VolcanoWatch Weekly [20 May 2010]

Posted by feww on May 20, 2010

Summary of Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

[Source: SI/USGS]

New Activity/Unrest (12 May-18 May 2010)


Map of Volcanoes. Background Map: University of Michigan. Designed and enhanced by Fire Earth Blog. Click image to enlarge.

Ongoing Activity:

For additional information, see source.

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FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

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Posted in environment, volcano, Volcano Hazards, Volcano News, Volcano Watch | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [8 January 2010]

Posted by feww on January 11, 2010

VoW: Turrialba


Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Photo by Federico Chavarria Kopper, 1999. Caption: GVP.

Volcano Details

  • Country: Costa Rica
  • Volcano Number: 1405-07=
  • Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
  • Last Known Eruption: 1866 (see below for latest report)
  • Summit Elevation: 3,340 m
  • Latitude: 10.025°N  (10°1’30″N)
  • Longitude: 83.767°W  (83°46’1″W)

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(30 December – 5 January 2010)

New activity/Unrest:

Volcano News (Source: GVP)

An explosive eruption from Galeras on 2 January prompted INGEOMINAS to raise the Alert Level. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 12 km (39,400 ft) a.s.l. Ejected incandescent blocks ignited fires.

Nyamuragira erupted on 2 January from a fissure on the SE flank. By 3 January, the lava flow had traveled 4.6 km and had burned about 10 hectares of forest.

On 1 January, an ash plume from Tungurahua rose to an altitude of 5.9 km (19,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Slight ashfall was reported the next day in Manzano. On 3 and 4 January, incandescent blocks were ejected from the crater.

On 5 January, OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption from Turrialba produced ashfall in local areas, particularly in areas to the SW. (SOURCE: GVP)

Ongoing Activity

Barren Island, Andaman Is;  Chaitén, Southern Chile;  Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka;  Kilauea, Hawaii (USA);  Kliuchevskoi, Central Kamchatka (Russia);  Nevado del Huila, Colombia;  Rabaul, New Britain;  Sakura-jima, Kyushu;  Sangay, Ecuador;  Santa María, Guatemala;  Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia);  Soufrière Hills, Montserrat;  Suwanose-jima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan).

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program.

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Posted in Rinjani, Tungurahua, Turrialba, volcanism, volcano | Tagged: , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Mount Nyamulagira Erupting, Again?

Posted by feww on January 3, 2010

Mount Nyamulagira in DR Congo erupted

Lava from Mount Nyamulagira Saturday eruption sent lava into the surrounding Virunga National Park, BBC reported.


Photo released by the Congolese Wildlife Authority, Virunga National Park, shows Nyamulagira erupting early Saturday local time on January 2, 2010.

Mount Nyamuragira, Africa’s most active volcano, is located about 25km (16 miles) north of Goma. A large section of the city of Goma (population of 200,000 plus at least 100,000 war refugees), located in the east of the country was destroyed in 2002 after  Mount Nyiragongo erupted.

Lava spewed along the volcano’s southern flank into Virunga National Park, but avoided the nearby villages. there were no casualties reported. However, about 4 dozen endangered chimpanzees as well as other animals live near the volcano.

One of Virunga’s wardens told reporters: “I saw the mountain was on fire with sparks flying.”

Nyamulagira has erupted about 40 times since the late 19th century.


Following a loud explosion at 03:45 local time (01:45 UTC) Lava from Nyamuragira flowed along the volcano’s southern section incinerating everything on its path. Freeze frame from CCTV. Image may be subject to copyright.

FEWW Comment: If we are looking at a sulfur dioxide dispersal scenario in relation to the Earth’s defense mechanism against Warming, then the latest eruption could have been just an opening salvo in the upcoming eruptions of Nyamulagira and its neighbor Nyiragongo volcano.

Major Volcanoes of the DR Congo

In May 2009 Scientists in the DR Congo recorded a significant increase in volcanic activity around the city of Goma.


A general view of the refugee camp at Kibati at the foot of Nyiragongo volcano in eastern Congo, November 14, 2008.  REUTERS/Finbarr O’Reilly. Image may be subject to copyright.

Volcano: Nyamuragira

Country:  DR Congo
Region: Central Africa
Volcano Type: Shield volcano
Last Known Eruption: 2006
Summit Elevation: 3058 m  (10,033 feet)
Latitude: 1.408°S   (1°24′30″S)
Longitude: 29.20°E  (29°12′0″E)
Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP)


Lava fountains from the new cone of Mikombe on the lower NE flank of Zaire’s Nyamuragira volcano feed the lava flow in the foreground. This photo was taken from the SE on September 29, nine days after the start of the eruption. During the first week the new cone, whose name means “many bats,” grew to a height of 60-70 m. Lava flows had traveled 6-7 km NE by the time of this photo. The eruption continued until February 1993, by which time lava flows had traveled 19 km to the NE. Photo by Minoru Kasahara, 1991 (Hokkaido University). Caption GVP.


Depiction of the Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira volcanoes, based on data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Landsat. Vertical scale exaggerated (1.5x).  Image ID: PIA03337.  Date: February 2000 – December 2001. Image:Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira – PIA03337.png (high resolution) . NASA/JPL/NIMA


Depiction of the Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira volcanoes, based on data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, or Aster, and Landsat. Some lava flows (not all) from the 2002-01-17 eruption are shown in red. Date: February 2000 – January 2002. Image ID: PIA03339.  NASA/JPL/NIMA


The summit of Nyamuragira volcano is truncated by 2 x 2.3 km wide caldera whose floor is partially covered by unvegetated historical lava flows. This view from above the SW caldera rim shows a pit crater on the far side of the caldera at the upper left that was the site of a lava lake, active since at least 1921, which drained in 1938 at the time of a major flank eruption. Africa’s most active volcano, 3058-m-high Nyamuragira rises about 25 km north of Lake Kivu in the East African Rift Valley NW of Nyiragongo volcano.  Photo by Simon Carn, 2004 (TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, University of Maryland, Baltimore County). CAption: GVP.

From: Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program Website, 2002

Africa’s most active volcano, Nyamuragira is a massive basaltic shield volcano that rises north of Lake Kivu across a broad valley northwest of Nyiragongo volcano. The volcano has a volume of 500 cubic kilometers and extensive lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1500 square kilometers of the East African Rift. The 3058-meter-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 kilometer summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 meters high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, frequently modifying the morphology of the caldera floor, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano’s flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

SO2 emissions from Mount Nyamulagira’s previous eruption on November 27, 2006


The Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA’s Aura satellite tracked the emission of SO2 gas from the volcano between November 28 and December 4, 2006. The sulfur dioxide concentrations are shown here using a logarithmic color scale. (The value at the top of the scale is about 149 times greater than the value at the bottom.) Credit: NASA.

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VolcanoWatch Weekly [16 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 17, 2009

VOW: Krakatoa [Krakatau]

Krakatoa is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait located between Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. Both the volcano and island group share the same name.

Four enormous explosions almost entirely destroyed Krakatoa island on August 27, 1883. The violent explosions were reportedly heard in Perth, Western Australia,  some 3,500 km away. It was heard even on the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius, about 4,800 km away.

The shockwave from the last explosion, which ejected volcanic matter 80 km into the atmosphere, echoed around the planet seven times.

Karakatoa
An 1888 lithograph of the 1883 violent explosion of Krakatoa.

The eruption ejected about 21 cubic kilometers of volcanic matter and completely destroyed two-thirds of the Krakatoa island.

island map
The Island Map (Simkin and Fiske, 1983). Image may be subject to copyright.

Anak Krakatau (the Child of Krakatau)  is the only active vent left from Krakatoa. u is  This volcano has built itself slowly from the sea floor since the paroxysmal eruption of 1883.  Anak Krakatau is located between the northern two vents, Danan and Perboewatan, that were destroyed in the 1883 eruption.  For the most part, the eruptions are Vulcanian, slowly building the island with a combination of lava, ash, and pumice.

location map
Krakatoa: Location Map. Source of the original map: USGS

Krakatoa_01
Krakatoa: An early 19th Century image.

Early in the morning of May 20, 1883, the captain of the German warship Elizabeth reported seeing an ~11-km-high cloud of ash and dust rising above the uninhabited island of Krakatau, thus documenting the first eruption from this Indonesian island in at least two centuries. Over the ensuing two months, crews on commercial vessels and sightseers on charted ships would experience similar spectacles, all of which were associated with explosive noises and churning clouds of black to incandescent ash and pumice. From a distance, the largest of these natural fanfares impressed the local inhabitants on the coastal plains of Java and Sumatra, creating a near-festive environment. Little did they realize, however, that these awe-inspiring displays were only a prelude to one of the largest eruptions in historic times. A series of cataclysmic explosions began at mid-day on August 26, and ended on August 27 with a stupendous paroxysmal eruption. On this day, the northern two-thirds of the island collapsed beneath the sea, generating a series of devastating pyroclastic flows and immense tsunamis that ravaged adjacent coastlines. The events that began on August 26 would mark the last 24 hours on earth for over 36,000 people [possibly as many as 120,000,] and the destruction of hundreds of coastal villages and towns. —Geology-/SDSU [Spelling mistakes corrected by FEWW.]

ashcroft -riv thames
William Ashcroft painting “On the Banks of the River Thames” in London, November 26, 1883 [Exactly three months after Krakatoa’s cataclysmic 1883 eruption.]

The Krakatoa eruption affected the climate driving the weather patterns wild for the next 5 years. Average global temperatures fell by about 1.2 °C in the following years, returning to normal only in 1888.

landsat PP1
Krakatoa Image by Landsat Pathfinder Project (Dated May 18, 1992)

Anak Krakatau’s most recent eruptive episode began in 1994, with near continuous Strombolian eruptions, punctuated by larger explosions.  In its most recent eruption, which began in April 2008, the volcano released hot gases, rocks, and lava. Scientists monitoring the volcano have warned people to stay out of a 3 km zone around the island. By and large, the eruptions are Vulcanian, helping to slowly build the island with ash, lava and pumice at an average rate of about 60 cm per month.

Fearing an imminent eruption, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia raised Anak’s  eruption alert level to Orange on May 6, 2009.

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(9 September – 15 September 2009)

New activity/unrest:

News From GVP:

  • PHIVOLCS reported that 11 earthquakes from Mayon were detected during 14-15 September. On 15 September, three ash explosions produced a brownish plume that rose no more than 700 m above the crater and drifted SW.
  • On 11 September, KVERT reported strong explosions from Shiveluch. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes rose to an altitude greater than 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l. The seismic network then detected eight minutes of pyroclastic flows from the lava dome; resulting plumes rose to an altitude of approximately 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. —GVP

Tafu-Maka


A bathymetric map prepared during a NOAA Vents Program November 2008 expedition shows two submarine volcanoes, Tafu (Tongan for “source of fire”) and Maka (Tongan for “rock”). The volcanoes lie along a NE-SW-trending ridge on the southern part of the back-arc NE Lau Spreading Center (NELSC). The November 2008 expedition discovered submarine hydrothermal plumes consistent with very recent (days to weeks?) submarine lava effusion from Maka volcano.  Image courtesy of NOAA Vents Program, 2008. Caption: GVP.

Ongoing Activity:


HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE

Wednesday, September 16, 2009 8:30 AM HST (Wednesday, September 16, 2009 18:30 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (CAVW #1302-01-)
19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH

Activity Summary for past 24 hours: The third DI event in a week started yesterday morning and switched to DI inflation overnight. Moderate glow was visible after dark from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent (summit). Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents remain elevated. Lava from the TEB vent (east rift zone) flows through tubes to the ocean and feeds surface flows.

Past 24 hours at Kilauea summit:
Glow was visible from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent overnight. This morning, trade winds are blowing the plume, denser than yesterday morning, to the southwest over the Ka`u Desert. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 900 tonnes/day on September 11, which is well above the 2003-2007 average of 140 tonnes/day. Very small amounts of ash-sized rock dust waft up from the vent and are deposited nearby on the crater rim.

halema uma u
This Quicktime movie shows two active vents on the floor of the Halema`uma`u cavity. Lava is just below the rim of the two vents, creating frequent spattering which falls around their rims. Within the larger of the two (on the right), lava can be seen vigorously sloshing. For scale, these vents are about 10 yards wide. The first half of the movie is shown in normal mode, with the second half shown in ‘nightshot’ mode.

The summit tiltmeter network recorded the third DI event in a week with deflation just before 8 am yesterday and inflation just after midnight last night. The GPS network, which is less sensitive than the tiltmeter network, recorded less than 2 cm of contraction over the last 3 months with brief periods of extension coinciding with strong DI inflation on September 1-2 and 11-12; they recorded contraction since 9/13.

Seismic tremor levels remain elevated; two weak hybrid earthquakes followed by 15-20 minutes of sustained tremor were recorded starting around 7:30 pm last night. The number of RB2S2BL earthquakes continued to increase slightly but remained below background levels. Six earthquakes were recorded beneath Kilauea – three beneath the summit caldera, two deep quakes below the lower southwest rift zone, and one on south flank faults. —HVO

  • Videos and Images are available at: HVO

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Posted in Chaiten, FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast, island of Java, Sumatra, volcanism, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [2 September 2009]

Posted by feww on September 5, 2009

Supervolcanoes may awaken

VOW: Mt Tambora

Mt tambora indonesia
Photo: Mark Webster/Lonely Planet Images. Image may be subject to copyright.

Tambora Photo
Country:    Indonesia
Region:    Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia)
Volcano Type:     Stratovolcano
Last Known Eruption:     1967 ± 20 years
Summit Elevation:     2,850 m     (9,350 feet)
Latitude:     8.25°S
Longitude:     118.00°E
Source: GVP


Tambora volcano on Indonesia’s Sumbawa Island was the site of the world’s largest historical eruption in April 1815. This NASA Landsat mosaic shows the 6-km-wide caldera truncating the 2850-m-high summit of the massive volcano. Pyroclastic flows during the 1815 eruption reached the sea on all sides of the 60-km-wide volcanic peninsula, and the ejection of large amounts of tephra caused world-wide temperature declines in 1815 and 1816. NASA Landsat7 image (worldwind.arc.nasa.gov). Caption GVP.

Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. Sumbawa is flanked both to the north and south by oceanic crust, and Tambora was formed by the active subduction zones beneath it. This raised Mount Tambora as high as 4,300 m (14,000 ft), making it one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago.

Tambora erupted in 1815 with a rating of seven on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, making it the largest eruption since the Lake Taupo eruption in about 180 AD. It was the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. The explosion was heard on Sumatra island (more than 2,000 km  away). Heavy volcanic ash falls were observed as far away as Borneo, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku islands. Most deaths from the eruption were from starvation and disease, as the eruptive fallout ruined agricultural productivity in the local region. The death toll was at least 71,000 people (perhaps the most deadly eruption in history), of whom 11,000–12,000 were killed directly by the eruption. The eruption created global climate anomalies; 1816 became known as the Year Without Summer because of the effect on North American and European weather. Agricultural crops failed and livestock died in much of the Northern Hemisphere, resulting in the worst famine of the 19th century. (Source: Wikipedia; edited by FEWW)

SI /USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
(26 August-1 September 2009)

New activity/unrest:

  • Kanlaon, Negros Island (central Philippines)
  • Kolokol Group, Urup Island  (Kurile Islands,Sakhalin Oblast region, Russia)
  • Koryaksky, Eastern Kamchatka, Russia

Ongoing Activity:

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Posted in Chaiten, Kanlaon, Kolokol Group, Koryaksky, Kīlauea, Popocatépetl, Shiveluch | Tagged: , , , , , | 1 Comment »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [6 August 2009]

Posted by feww on August 6, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 29 July – 4 August 2009

VOW: Kizimen

55°08’ N, 160°20’ E, summit elevation 2,375 m

Kizimen volcano is a Holocene edifice situated in Shchapina graben, on the southeastern edge of the Central Kamchatka Depression. The volcano is cut by NE-strking faults and deep gullies, which expose the whole suite of its rocks. The only historic eruption of the volcano (“fire flames and black smoke”)  was reported by local hunters in 1928, however, it should have been a weak one since no deposits of this age are seen at the foot of the volcano. Copyrighted photo by Vikto Dvigalo. Caption:  Holocene Kamchataka volcanoes; http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/volcanoes/holocene/main/main.htm

Kizimen is an isolated, conical stratovolcano that is morphologically similar to Mount St. Helens prior to its 1980 eruption. The summit of Kizimen consists of overlapping lava domes, and blocky lava flows descend the flanks of the volcano, which is the westernmost of a volcanic chain north of Kronotsky volcano. The 2376-m-high Kizimen was formed during four eruptive cycles beginning about 12,000 years ago and lasting 2000-3500 years. The largest eruptions took place about 10,000 and 8300-8400 years ago, and three periods of long-term lava dome growth have occurred. The latest eruptive cycle began about 3000 years ago with a large explosion and was followed by lava dome growth lasting intermittently about 1000 years. An explosive eruption about 1100 years ago produced a lateral blast and created a 1.0 x 0.7 km wide crater breached to the NE, inside which a small lava dome (the fourth at Kizimen) has grown. A single explosive eruption, during 1927-28, has been recorded in historical time. USGS

New activity/unrest:

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Notes:

On 2 August, KVERT reported that seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi had gradually increased since 30 July, and continuous seismic tremor was detected. A strong thermal anomaly was seen in satellite imagery at night.

On 31 July, KVERT reported that seismic activity from Kizimen had increased since 11 July. Several tens of shallow earthquakes per day were detected. (Source: GVP)

Ongoing Activity:

Recent Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases

HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE Wednesday, August 5, 2009 7:39 AM HST (Wednesday, August 5, 2009 17:39 UTC)

KILAUEA VOLCANO (CAVW #1302-01-)
19°25’16” N 155°17’13” W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Aviation Color Code:
ORANGE
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH

Activity Summary for past 24 hours: The Halema`uma`u Overlook vent remained dark; sulfur dioxide emission rates from Halema`uma`u and east rift zone vents were elevated; lava from the TEB vent, on the east rift zone, flows through tubes to the Waikupanaha ocean entry west of Kalapana; surface flows are active on the pali.

Past 24 hours at Kilauea summit: No lava or glow has been visible within the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent since the July 4 DI event. This morning, the plume is white and opaque and is blowing toward the southwest. Tephra production by the vent has been very low over the past several weeks, mostly characterized by ash-sized rock dust from small wall collapses in the vent. No rock falls or gas rushing sounds were heard at the vent during this morning’s ash collection. (HVO)

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Global Volcanism, Volcanic Activity Report, Volcano Hazard, VolcanoWatch, volcanism, volcanoes. Tagged: , , , , .

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Shiveluch Release Plumes of Ash

Posted by feww on August 4, 2009

More Activity at Shiveluch Volcano

shiv_amo_2009215
A  true-color image of Shiveluch captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite on August 3, 2009. The volcanic plume blows away from the summit, crossing the coastline and fanning out over the Bering Sea. The plume’s relatively dark color compared to nearby clouds suggests the presence of volcanic ash.  One of Kamchatka’s largest volcanoes, with a 3,283 meters high summit,  Shiveluch has undergone about 60 significant eruptions in the past 10,000 years.
NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center. The Rapid Response Team provides daily images of this region. Caption by Michon Scott. [Edited by FEWW.]

Young Shiveluch: 56°38′ N, 161°19′ E, elevation: active dome about 2,800 m, summit of Old Shiveluch 3,283 m


Shiveluch volcano seen from the southeast: Young Shiveluch with its active dome is to the left, and Late Pleistocene Old Shiveluch is to the right of the photo. Source: Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Kamchatka, Image may be subject to copyright.

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Posted in Bering Sea, Kamchatka volcanoes, volcanic plume, volcano images, volcanoes | Tagged: , , , , | 2 Comments »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [23 July 2009]

Posted by feww on July 23, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 15 July – 21 July 2009

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

VOW: Revisiting Mount Tambora Volcano, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia

Tambora
On April 10, 1815, the Tambora Volcano produced the largest eruption in recorded history. An estimated 150 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) of tephra—exploded rock and ash—resulted, with ash from the eruption recognized at least 1,300 kilometers (808 miles) away to the northwest. While the April 10 eruption was catastrophic, historical records and geological analysis of eruption deposits indicate that the volcano had been active between 1812 and 1815. Enough ash was put into the atmosphere from the April 10 eruption to reduce incident sunlight on the Earth’s surface, causing global cooling, which resulted in the 1816 “year without a summer.”

This detailed astronaut photograph depicts the summit caldera of the volcano. The huge caldera—6 kilometers (3.7 miles) in diameter and 1,100 meters (3,609 feet) deep—formed when Tambora’s estimated 4,000-meter- (13,123-foot) high peak was removed, and the magma chamber below emptied during the April 10 eruption. Today the crater floor is occupied by an ephemeral freshwater lake, recent sedimentary deposits, and minor lava flows and domes from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Layered tephra deposits are visible along the northwestern crater rim. Active fumaroles, or steam vents, still exist in the caldera.

In 2004, scientists discovered the remains of a village, and two adults buried under approximately 3 meters (nearly 10 feet) of ash in a gully on Tambora’s flank—remnants of the former Kingdom of Tambora preserved by the 1815 eruption that destroyed it. The similarity of the Tambora remains to those associated with the AD 79 eruption of Mount Vesuvius has led to the Tambora site’s description as “the Pompeii of the East.”

Astronaut photograph ISS020-E-6563 was acquired on June 3, 2009  [photo caption said acquired March 6, 2009] , with a Nikon D3 digital camera fitted with an 800 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 20 crew. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by William L. Stefanov, NASA-JSC.

New activity/unrest:

Ongoing Activity:

  • Bagana, Bougainville
  • Barren Island, Andaman Is
  • Batu Tara, Komba Island (Indonesia)
  • Chaitén, Southern Chile
  • Egon, Flores Island (Indonesia)
  • Ibu, Halmahera
  • Kilauea, Hawaii
  • Makian, Halmahera
  • Rabaul, New Britain
  • Sarychev Peak, Matua Island
  • Semeru, Eastern Java (Indonesia)
  • Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)
  • Suwanose-jima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan)

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Posted in Batu Tara, Chaiten, Komba Island, Sakura-jima, Sarychev Peak | Tagged: , , , , , | 2 Comments »

VolcanoWatch Weekly [16 July 2009]

Posted by feww on July 16, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 8 July – 14 July 2009

Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

NOTES: A large sulfur dioxide plume and several thermal anomalies from Manda Hararo that were detected in satellite imagery during 28-30 June prompted a science team to visit the area on 4 July. They saw new predominantly ‘a’a lava flows that were 2-3 m thick. The fissure was lined with scoria ramparts 30-50 m high.

On 10 July, AVO reported that a distinct thermal anomaly in Shishaldin’s summit crater observed intermittently since January 2009 became more intense during the previous month. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level. (Source: GVP)

VOW: More Volcanoes to watch for 2009-10

  • Buvet
  • Colima
  • Rabul  [Explosive eruption more powerful than 1994 may occur]

Ongoing Activity:

  • Batu Tara, Komba Island (Indonesia)
  • Chaitén, Southern Chile
  • Dukono, Halmahera
  • Fuego, Guatemala
  • Kilauea, Hawaii (USA)
  • Pacaya, Guatemala
  • Rabaul, New Britain
  • Sakura-jima, Kyushu
  • Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia)

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates

Alaska Volcano Observatory Update: July 16, 2009 0300 UTC

  • Redoubt Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

  • Cleveland Activity – Color Code – UNASSIGNED: Alert Level UNASSIGNED

HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE: Wednesday, July 15, 2009 18:05 UTC

  • Kilauea Activity  –  Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Mauna Loa Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

Related Links:

FEWW Links:

Posted in Buvet, Rabul, San Miguel, Sarychev Peak, Shishaldin | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Manam Volcano Coughs, Again!

Posted by feww on July 11, 2009

manam_ali_2009179
Manam Volcano, just off the coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, released a faint plume on June 28, 2009. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) onboard NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this photo-like image of the volcano the same day. Bright white clouds hover over the volcano’s summit. Clouds often collect over peaks, but these clouds could result from water vapor released by the volcano. Slightly darker in color, a pale blue-gray plume blows west-northwest from the summit and over the Bismarck Sea. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 Team. Caption by Michon Scott.

Manam Volcano

Country:  Papua New Guinea (PNG)
Region : Northeast of New Guinea
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Last Known Eruption: 2009 (continuing)
Summit Elevation: 1,807 m
Latitude: 4.080°S
Longitude: 145.037°E
Source: Global Volcanism Program (GVP)

Manam GVP
The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country’s most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These “avalanche valleys,” regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island’s shoreline on the northern, southern and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded at Manam since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas. Photo by Wally Johnson (Australia Bureau of Mineral Resources). Caption: GVP.

Major Volcanoes of Papua New Guinea


Manam, Papau New Guinea – May 9, 2006


An unusually clear day in Papua New Guinea provided the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite with this view of the Manam Volcano on May 9, 2006. The volcano is one of the country’s most active volcanoes, and it has erupted frequently since 1616. Its current eruption began on October 24, 2004, when the volcano erupted explosively. Though MODIS has detected many ash plumes from the volcano since that time, none have been so large. Evidence that the volcano was still rumbling on May 9 comes from the tan plume of ash that streams southeast from the mountain summit.  NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained courtesy of MODIS Rapid Response team.

More of the images acquired in 2006 are posted at: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=16618

manam_omi_2005028
When the Manam volcano erupted explosively in the middle of the night on January 27, 2005, it sent a cloud of ash and sulfur dioxide over New Guinea. The large eruption killed at least one person, injured several others, and destroyed the volcano monitoring station on the small volcanic island. About 12 hours after the eruption (January 28), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flew over on NASA’s new Aura satellite. This image was produced from preliminary, uncalibrated data provided by OMI.

OMI saw a large cloud of sulfur dioxide drifting west over the island of New Guinea. The gas is measured in Dobson Units (DU), the number of molecules in a square centimeter of the atmosphere. Red pixels cover the areas of highest concentration, while the lowest concentrations are represented by pink pixels. If you were to compress all of the sulfur dioxide a column of the atmosphere into a flat layer at standard temperature and pressure, one Dobson Unit would be 0.01 millimeters thick and would contain 0.0285 grams of SO2 per square meter. On January 28, the atmosphere over New Guinea contained up to 50 Dobson Units (red regions), or 1.425 grams of SO2 per square meter.

Once in the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide combines with water to create a highly reflective haze of sulfuric acid. The haze reflects sunlight away from the Earth, so if the eruption is big enough, it can lead to cooler temperatures for several years before the sulfuric acid falls out of the atmosphere as rain. In 1991, Mount Pinatubo sent millions of tons of SO2 into the atmosphere, and global temperatures, which had been expected to rise because of the greenhouse effect, leveled out. While large, Manam’s eruption does not compare to Mount Pinatubo in magnitude, and it is not clear if or how the eruption will impact regional climate.

For more information about Manam’s eruption, please visit the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center.

OMI was added to the Aura satellite as part of a collaboration between the Netherlands’ Agency for Aerospace Programs and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The sensor tracks global ozone change and monitors aerosols in the atmosphere.

NASA image courtesy Simon Carn, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (JCET), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC). Caption: Earth Observatory.

Continued Eruption of Manam Volcano – October 24, 2004

manam 2004 EO
Collection: NASA Earth Observatory Collection – Title: Continued Eruption of Manam Volcano
Description: The island of Manam sits in the Bismarck Sea across the Stephan Strait from the east coast of mainland Papua New Guinea. Only 10 kilometers wide, the island results from the activity of the Manam Volcano, one of the country?s most active. In this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MO DIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite on  , a large ash plume has spread northwestward from an eruption of Manam, located at bottom right. The thermally active areas on the volcano have been detected by MODIS and are outlined in red. Interestingly, the winds higher up in the atmosphere appear to have been blowing in the opposite direction at the time this image was captured. Streamers of clouds stretch from the coast northeastward over the ash plume and farther out to sea. In the afternoon sunlight, the thicker clouds cast shadows down onto the ash plume. North of the cloud streamers, the tail of the ash plume is being rippled by the wind into rows of evenly spaced, nearly parallel waves. The Manam Volcano has an interesting structure. Its 1,870-meter summit is bare and carved by four large avalanche valleys that radiate from the summit down the flanks. These valleys are spaced roughly 90 degrees apart around the cone-shaped mountain, and lava and pyroclastic debris flows have funneled through these valleys and reached the coast in past eruptions. The volcano has two summit craters, and both are active. The island is inhabited, and emergency agencies urged residents to move to safer parts of the island; however, according to news reports on October 27, no casualties had yet been reported. NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MOD IS Rapid Response Team, NASA-GSFC  —  UID: SPD-ETOBS-12556 —  Image ID: 173708  — Original caption.

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Shiveluch spewes large plumes of ash

Posted by feww on June 30, 2009

Shiveluch volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula ejects ash to a height of 7km

Shiveluch volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia’s northernmost active volcano,  spewed out ash to a height of some 7,000 meters (23,000 feet), the local geophysics service reported on Monday.

The service had registered about 60 tremors within the area in the previous 24 hours.

“Some of them were followed by powerful ash bursts and avalanches,” a spokesman for the service said.

Shiveluch volcano erupted in December 2006. Local scientists expect the volcano to erupt explosively soon.

“Volcanic activity over the past two-three years has significantly altered the contour of the volcano, with the crater increasing in size by 50% and the slopes becoming far steeper.” RiaNovosti reported.

Related Links:

Previous Comments by FEWW

FEWW Volcanic Activity Forecast

Posted in Explosive Eruption, Kamchatka peninsula, Kamchatka volcanoes, Koryakski volcano, Russian volcano | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Weekly VolcanoWatch [13 May 2009]

Posted by feww on May 14, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 6 May – 12 May 2009

Source: Global Volcanism program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

VoW: Curacoa


A submarine volcano south of Curacoa Reef at the northern end of the Tofua volcanic arc was first observed in eruption in 1973. Explosive eruptions, which produced large rafts of dacitic pumice covering an area of more than 100 sq km, were observed from the island of Tafahi, 27 km to the SSW. The eruption site was located about 6.5 km SW of Curacoa Reef. Multiple submarine vents are apparently located in this area; a second eruption was reported in 1979 from a location 13 km north of Tafahi. Photo by the crew of the vessel “Port Nicholson,” 1973 (courtesy of Tom Simkin, Smithsonian Institution). Caption: GVP.

FEWW Forecast: FEWW earth model suggests Curacoa may explode spectacularly in one or more episodes this year. [Photos, or eye-witness accounts of any activity will get an honorable mention on the blog.]

  • Country: Tonga
  • Region: Tonga Islands
  • Volcano Type: Submarine volcano
  • Last Known Eruption: 1979
  • Summit Elevation: -33 m – 108 feet
  • Latitude: 15.62°S 15°37’0″S
  • Longitude: 173.67°W 173°40’0″W

Ongoing Activity:

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates for Wednesday, May 13, 2009 at 22:20 AKDT (May 14, 2009 06:20 UTC)

  • Redoubt Activity – Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Kilauea Activity  –  Color Code ORANGE : Alert Level WATCH

  • Veniaminof Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

  • Mauna Loa Activity – Color Code YELLOW : Alert Level ADVISORY

Related Links:

Posted in Chaiten, Curacoa, Ebeko, Kīlauea, Rinjani | Tagged: , , , , | 1 Comment »

Volcano Watch Weekly [6 May 2009]

Posted by feww on May 7, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 29 April – 5 May 2009

Source: Global Volcanism program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

VoW: Atitlán

Country:  Guatemala
Volcano Type:  Stratovolcano
Volcano Status:  Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1853
Summit Elevation: 3,535 m  (11,598 feet)
Latitude: 14.583°N  (14°34’58″N)
Longitude: 91.186°W  (91°11’11″W)


Volcán Atitlán is one of several prominent conical stratovolcanoes in the Guatemalan highlands. Along with its twin volcano Tolimán to the north, it forms a dramatic backdrop to Lake Atitlán, one of the scenic highlights of the country. The 3535-m-high summit of Atitlán directly overlies the inferred margin of the Pleistocene Atitlán III caldera and is the highest of three large post-caldera stratovolcanoes constructed near the southern caldera rim. The volcano consequently post-dates the eruption of the voluminous, roughly 85,000-year-old rhyolitic Los Chocoyos tephra associated with formation of the Atitlán III caldera. The historically active andesitic Volcán Atitlán is younger than Tolimán, although their earlier activity overlapped. In contrast to Tolimán, Atitlán displays a thick pyroclastic cover. The northern side of the volcano is wooded to near the summit, whereas the upper 1000 m of the southern slopes are unvegetated. Predominantly explosive eruptions have been recorded from Volcán Atitlán since the 15th century. Photo by Bill Rose, 1980(Michigan Technological University). Caption GVP.

Major Volcanoes of Guatemala

REPORT:
Volcanic Hazards at Atitlán Volcano, Guatemala

—J.M. Haapala, R. Escobar Wolf, J.W. Vallance, W.I. Rose, J.P. Griswold, S.P. Schilling, J.W. Ewert, and M. Mota, 2006
Volcanic Hazards at Atitlán Volcano, Guatemala U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1403

Introduction

Atitlán Volcano is in the Guatemalan Highlands, along a west-northwest trending chain of volcanoes parallel to the mid-American trench. The volcano perches on the southern rim of the Atitlán caldera, which contains Lake Atitlán. Since the major caldera-forming eruption 85 thousand years ago (ka), three stratovolcanoes—San Pedro, Tolimán, and Atitlán—have formed in and around the caldera. Atitlán is the youngest and most active of the three volcanoes. Atitlán Volcano is a composite volcano, with a steep-sided, symmetrical cone comprising alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs.

Eruptions of Atitlán began more than 10 ka and, since the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-1400’s, eruptions have occurred in six eruptive clusters (1469, 1505, 1579, 1663, 1717, 1826–1856). Owing to its distance from population centers and the limited written record from 200 to 500 years ago, only an incomplete sample of the volcano’s behavior is documented prior to the 1800’s. The geologic record provides a more complete sample of the volcano’s behavior since the 19th century. Geologic and historical data suggest that the intensity and pattern of activity at Atitlán Volcano is similar to that of Fuego Volcano, 44 km to the east, where active eruptions have been observed throughout the historical period.

Because of Atitlán’s moderately explosive nature and frequency of eruptions, there is a need for local and regional hazard planning and mitigation efforts. Tourism has flourished in the area; economic pressure has pushed agricultural activity higher up the slopes of Atitlán and closer to the source of possible future volcanic activity. This report summarizes the hazards posed by Atitlán Volcano in the event of renewed activity but does not imply that an eruption is imminent. However, the recognition of potential activity will facilitate hazard and emergency preparedness. [Report Menu]

Ongoing Activity:

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates for Wednesday, May 6, 2009 at 17:51:20 PDT

Related Links:

Posted in Bagana, Krakatau, Redoubt, Rinjani, Shiveluch | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Weekly Volcano Watch: 30 April 2009

Posted by feww on April 30, 2009

Volcanic Activity Report: 22 April – 28 April 2009

Source: Global Volcanism program (GVP) – SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

New activity/unrest:

VoW: Bazman


Bazman Volcano Satellite Image – ASTER Volcano Archive – dated 2007/07/12- Image ID: SC:AST_L1A.003:2044912154

Country:  Iran
Region: SE Iran
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 3,490 m  (11,450 feet)
Latitude: 28.07°N    (28°4’0″N)
Longitude: 60.00°E    (60°0’0″E)


Bazman (Kuh-e Bazman) is a 3490-m-high stratovolcano in a remote and arid region in SE Iran. A well-preserved, 500-m-wide crater caps the summit of the volcano. Its satellitic lava domes have been the source of fresh-looking viscous lava flows, including the prominent one with dramatic flow levees at the lower left. No historical eruptions are known from Bazman, but minor fumarolic activity has been reported. Image:
NASA Space Shuttle image ISS006-E-5209, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/). Caption: GVP.

Map of Volcanoes of the ME and the Indian Ocean

bazman-volcano
Source: GVP.

FEWW Forecast: FEWW believes there is 0.7 probability Bazman volcano could erupt in 2009.

Ongoing Activity:

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program.

Latest U.S. Volcano Alerts and Updates for Thursday, Apr 30, 2009 at 03:58:49 PDT

Related Links:

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