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Posts Tagged ‘WMO’

Earth experiencing yet another exceptionally warm year –WMO

Posted by feww on June 21, 2017

Earth is Experiencing 2nd Warmest Year to Date

Multiple parts of the globe including regions in Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and the United States have experienced extremely high May and June temperatures, with a number of records broken. The heatwaves are unusually early and are occurring as the Earth experiences another exceptionally warm year.

Average global surface temperatures over land and sea were the second highest on record for the first five months of 2017, according to NOAA.

Statement by WMO

“Climate change scenarios predict that heatwaves will become more intense, more frequent and longer. It is also expected that the number of hot days will continue to rise,” said WMO.

Europe

The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), which acts as WMO’s Regional Climate Centre for Europe’s Node on Climate Monitoring, has issued a Climate Watch Advisory valid until at least 25 June. It states that a period with significantly above-normal temperatures and heat waves is expected for most parts of western Mediterranean (from Portugal to western Balkans).

National meteorological and hydrological services are issuing regular forecasts,  heat-health advice, as well as information on air quality, UV levels and wildfire risk.

The heatwave originated as a result of very hot air moving up from the Sahara to the Iberian Peninsula and parts of the Mediterranean.

Iberian Peninsula

Extremely high temperatures of around 40°C contributed to the severity of the disastrous wildfire in Portugal which has claimed dozens of lives.

An amber alert for heat – the second highest warning level – continues to be in place in the area on 20 June.

The Portuguese national meteorological service, IPMA, said that over the weekend, when the fire broke out, more than one third of its weather stations measured temperatures over 40°C. The meteorological service said that for 20 June, 5 municipalities are at maximum fire risk and 58 at very high risk.

Spain

Spring 2017 (from 1 March to 31 May 2017) has been extremely warm, with an average temperature of 15.4°C, which is 1.7°C above the average of this term (reference period 1981-2010). It has been the warmest spring since 1965, having exceeded by 0.06°C the previous highest value, which corresponded to the spring of 2011. It has therefore been also the warmest spring since the beginning of the 21st century.

The marked contrast observed between the maximum temperature anomalies, which were on average 2.5°C above the normal value of the term, and those of the minimum temperatures, which were only 0.9°C higher than the normal ones.

May was extremely warm, with a temperature that surpassed the normal value by 2.4°C. As of June, the average temperature is well above normal values.

A number of places broke temperature records for June for both maximum daytime temperatures and minimum overnight ones.

These include Granada airport, 41.5°C, Madrid Retiro 40.3°C and Madrid airport 40.1°C on 17 June. The peak if the minimum temperatures was on the 19th June, when Salamanca and Zamora had record overnight temperatures of 22.1°C and 23.7°C.

AEMET also reported extreme fire hazard for parts of the country on 20 June.

France

Fifty one departments in France have an amber alert for high temperatures on 20 June, according to Meteo France. Temperatures for Monday included 38°C for Bordeaux, 36°C forLimoges, 34°C for Mulhouse and 33°C for Paris, Toulouse, Brest and Lille, according to Meteo France.

A number of stations broke June records, including Cuers at 37.6°C and Toulon 35.3°C. Records for minimum night-time temperatures were also beaten (25.1°C in Montpellier, 25°C in Marseille) on Friday 16 June.

Meteo France said that very high temperatures will continue until Friday 23 June, with temperatures between 32 °C and 38 °C in the afternoon, or more than 10°C above the average for this time of year.

Other parts of Europe

Many other parts of Europe, including the United Kingdom, also witnessed above average temperatures into the low to mid 30°s.

USA

Near record to record heat has been reported in the desert southwest USA and into California, with highs near 120°F (49°C) in places. More than 29 million Californians were under an excessive heat warning or advisory at the weekend. The US National Weather Service has warned that dangerous heat will continue through at least Friday 23 June in Nevada, Arizona, parts of California and Las Vegas.

Phoenix recorded 118°C (47.8°C) on 19 June. In the 11,059 days since the start of record keeping, 118°C heat has only been recorded 15 times. A number of flights to Phoenix Sky Harbour International Airport were reportedly cancelled because it was too hot to fly.

Death Valley National Park, California, issued warnings to visitors to expect high temperatures of 100°F to over 120°F (38°C to over 49°C). Death Valley holds the world record for the highest temperature, 56.7°C recorded in 1913.
[On Monday the temperature reached 127°F (53°C), National Weather Service reported.]

North Africa, Middle East and Asia

The temperature in United Arab Emirates topped 50°C on 17 May, with 50.5°C in Mezaira.

In the center of Iran’s Kuzestan province in the south-east of the country, neighboring Iraq, temperatures reached 50°C on 15 June.

The heatwave in Morocco peaked on 17 May, when there was a new reported record of 42.9°C Larach Station in northern Morocco.

The high June temperatures follow above average temperatures in parts of the world at the end of May. The town of Turbat in southwestern Pakistan reported a temperature of 54°C. WMO will set up an international committee of experts to verify the temperature and assess whether it equals a reported 54°C temperature recorded in Kuwait last July.

WMO Statement is posted at: https://public.wmo.int/en/media/news/high-temperatures-and-heatwaves-take-hold

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Antarctica Hit by Crazy Record High Temperature at 17.5°C (63.5°F)

Posted by feww on March 1, 2017

Temperature Extreme of 17.5°C Recorded in Antarctic Continent

Researchers at World Meteorological Organization (WMO) have announced new records for the highest temperatures recorded in the Antarctic Region.

A record high temperature 17.5°C (63.5°F) was recorded at Experanza base, an Argentine  research base near the northern tip of the Antarctic peninsula. The temperature extreme was recorded on March 24, 2015, WMO reported after reviewing data around Antarctica as part of its “continuing efforts to expand a database of extreme weather and climate conditions throughout the world.”

The highest temperature for the “Antarctica Region” (defined by the WMO and United Nations as all land and ice south of 60°S) of 19.8 degrees Celsius (67.6 degrees Fahrenheit) was observed on 30 January 1982 at Signy Research Station, Borge Bay on Signy Island. 

The highest temperature for the “Antarctic continent” defined as the main continental landmass and adjoining islands is the temperature extreme of 17.5°C (63.5°F) recorded on 24 March 2015 at the Argentine Research Base Esperanza located near the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. 

Thirdly, the highest temperature for the Antarctic Plateau [at or above 2500 meters (8202 feet)] was the observation of -7.0°C (19.4°F) made on 28 December 1980 at an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) site D-80 located inland of the Adélie Coast. 

The lowest temperature yet recorded by ground measurements for the Antarctic Region, and for the whole world, was −89.2°C (-128.6°F) at Vostok station on 21 July 1983.

Antarctica in 6 Seconds

  • Area: 14 million km2 (about twice the size of Australia)
  • Climate: Cold, windy and dry.
  • Average annual temperature:  Ranges from about −10°C on the Antarctic coast to −60°C at the highest parts of the interior.
  • Ice sheet:  Up to 4.8km thick, contains 90% of the world’s fresh water.

The Antarctic Peninsula (the northwest tip near to South America) is among the fastest warming regions of the planet, almost 3°C over the last 50 years. Some 87% of glaciers along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula have retreated in the last 50 years with most of these showing an accelerated retreat in the last 12 years.

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FIRE-EARTH Alert: Warmest 5 Years on Record

Posted by feww on November 9, 2016

  • CJ Members
  • EAC
  • OC Teams

2011 to 2015 the Warmest Years on Record: WMO

  • The five years from 2011 to 2015 were the warmest on record, with temperatures higher  one degrees Celsius (1.8 °F) above pre-industrial times, according to data released by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
  • The burning of fossil fuels increased the probability of extreme weather events including heat by at least a factor of 10, says WMO.
  • 2016 will likely set a new record for warmest year.
  • The last five-year period beat 2006-2010 as the warmest such period since records began about 150 years ago.
  • Details of the Alert are available from FIRE-EARTH PULSARS.

 

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GHG Concentrations Hit Yet Another Record

Posted by feww on November 9, 2015

Submitted by a reader

Warming amplified by interaction between CO2 and water vapor: WMO

The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere continue to set new records.

A 36% increase in radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from industrial, agricultural and domestic activities, has affected the climate in the past 25 years, according to WMO’s Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.

The WMO report also highlights the interaction and amplification effect between rising levels of CO2  and water vapour, which is itself a major greenhouse gas, albeit short-lived. Warmer air holds more moisture and so increased surface temperatures caused by CO2 would lead to a rise in global water vapour levels, further adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect.  Further increases in CO2 concentrations will lead to disproportionately high increases in thermal energy and warming from water vapour.

“Every year we report a new record in greenhouse gas concentrations,” said WMO Secretary-General.  “Every year we say that time is running out. We have to act NOW to slash greenhouse gas emissions if we are to have a chance to keep the increase in temperatures to manageable levels.”

[“Manageable levels of temperature?” Is this crotch science or the more scientific “argument of the pubic hair?”]

Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 reached 397.7 parts per million (ppm) in 2014.  “In the Northern hemisphere CO2 concentrations crossed the symbolically significant 400 ppm level in 2014 spring, when CO2 is most abundant.  In spring 2015, the global average concentration of CO2 crossed the 400 ppm barrier.”

Caught in a massive positive feedback loop, Earth’s surface is heating up rapidly. The excess energy trapped by atmospheric GHGs is resulting in increasing levels of water vapor, which in turn generates even more heat.

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WMO Admits Ozone Hole ‘Third Largest Ever’

Posted by feww on October 29, 2015

REALLY!

WMO, the UN’s climate and weather organization, reported today a record-size Antarctic Ozone Hole (AOH); however, it said there was no cause for alarm as it should shrink again!

[Be sure to familiarize yourself with the AOH narrative. See links to blog posts on the subject listed below—Ed.]

WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletin no. 4, 2015

The area of the region where total ozone is less than 220 DU, the so-called “ozone hole area”, averaged over the 30 worst consecutive days has reached 26.9 million square kilometres according to data from NASA. This places 2015 as the third largest ozone hole on record according to this criterion. One has to go back to 2006 and to 2000 to find a larger ozone hole area for this time period. A stable and large vortex, concentric around the south pole and characterised by low temperatures explains why 2015 experiences the largest ozone hole since 2006. […]

Antarctic ozone hole 2015
The figure shows the partial ozone column between 12 and 20 km altitude above the South Pole station. This is measured with electrochemical ozonesondes launched on balloons from the ground. The small light blue dots show all observations done from 1991 to 2014. The medium blue circles show the measurements from 2006, the year that saw the most severe ozone hole on record. The orange diamonds show data from 2015. Although the 2015 minimum is not as low as in 2006, the 2015 observations still show some of lowest partial columns measured throughout the history of the Antarctic ozone hole. This figure has been provided by Bryan Johnston and Kirk Thoning at the Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Source: WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletin no. 4, 2015.

On 5th August the NAT area reached a maximum for the season with 28.2 million km2, which is higher than the maximum reached in recent years. One has to go back to 2009 to find a higher PSC area maximum (28.4 million km2). Also in September and so far in October, the NAT area has been well above the long-term mean. Since mid October, the NAT area has oscillated around the long term maximum for this time of the year.

WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletin no. 4, 2015 (PDF Download Available). Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/283301743_WMO_Antarctic_Ozone_Bulletin_no._4_2015 [accessed Oct 29, 2015].

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GHG Concentrations Climbed to New Highs in 2012: WMO

Posted by feww on November 6, 2013

Atmospheric greenhouse gases reached new record levels

Atmospheric concentrations of major greenhouse gases responsible for climate change climbed to new records in 2012, according to WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (No. 9: November 2013) released by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO).

Levels of CO2, the primary greenhouse gas produced by human activities, grew by 2.2 ppm, higher the average of 2.02 ppm over the past decade. At 393.1 parts per million (ppm), the 2012 CO2 concentrations were 41 percent above the pre-industrial level.

The latest analysis of observations from the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme shows that the globally averaged mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) reached new highs in 2012, with CO2 at 393.1±0.1 ppm, CH4 at 1819±1 ppb and N2O at 325.1±0.1 ppb. These values constitute, respectively, 141%, 260% and 120% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels. The atmospheric increase of CO2 from 2011 to 2012 is higher than the average growth rate over the past 10 years. For N2O the increase from 2011 to 2012 is smaller than the one observed from 2010 to 2011 but larger than the average growth rate over the past 10 years. Atmospheric CH4 continued to increase at a rate similar to the one observed over the past 4 years. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Annual Greenhouse Gas Index shows that from 1990 to 2012 radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases increased by 32%, with CO2 accounting for about 80% of this increase.

This ninth WMO/GAW Annual GHG Bulletin reports atmospheric abundances and rates of change of the most
important long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide – and provides a summary of the contributions of the other gases. These three together with CFC-12 and CFC-11 account for approximately 96% of radiative forcing due to LLGHGs.

The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) in 2012 was 1.32, representing a 32% increase in total radiative forcing (relative to 1750) by all LLGHGs since 1990 and a 1.2% increase from 2011 to 2012 (Figure 1). The total radiative forcing by all LLGHGs in 2012 corresponds to a CO2-equivalent mole fraction of 475.6 ppm (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi).

 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the single most important anthropogenic GHG in the atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is the single most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, contributing ~64%  to radiative forcing by LLGHGs. It is responsible for ~84% of the increase in radiative forcing over the past decade and ~82% over the past five years. The pre-industrial level of ~278 ppm represented a balance of fluxes between the atmosphere, the oceans and the biosphere. Atmospheric CO2 reached 141% of the pre-industrial level in 2012, primarily because of emissions from combustion of fossil fuels (fossil fuel CO2 emissions 9.5±0.5 PgC in 2011, according to http://www.globalcarbonproject.org), deforestation and other land-use change (0.9±0.5 PgC in 2011). The average increase in atmospheric CO2 from pre-industrial time corresponds to ~55% of the CO2 emitted by fossil fuel combustion with the remaining ~45% removed by the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere.

CO2 Global Average

The globally averaged CO2 mole fraction in 2012 was 393.1±0.1 ppm. The mean annual increase from 2011 to 2012, 2.2 ppm, is greater than the increase from 2010 to 2011, the average growth rate for the 1990s (~1.5 ppm/yr) and the average growth rate for the past decade (~2.0 ppm/yr).

aggi_2013
Global average abundances of the major, well-mixed, long-lived greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFC-12 and CFC-11 – from the NOAA global air sampling network are plotted since the beginning of 1979. These gases account for about 96% of the direct radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases since 1750. The remaining 4% is contributed by an assortment of 15 minor halogenated gases including HCFC-22 and HFC-134a. Source: ESRL/NOAA

Methane (CH4) – THe Second Major Contributor

Methane contributes ~18% to radiative forcing by LLGHGs. Approximately 40% of methane is emitted into the atmosphere by natural sources (e.g., wetlands and termites), and about 60% comes from anthropogenic sources (e.g., ruminants, rice agriculture, fossil fuel exploitation, landfills and biomass burning). Atmospheric CH4 reached 260% of the pre-industrial level (~700 ppb) due to increased emissions from anthropogenic sources. Globally averaged CH4 reached a new high of 1819 ± 1 ppb in 2012, an increase of 6 ppb with respect to the previous year (Figure 4). The growth rate of CH4 decreased from ~13 ppb/yr during the early 1980s to near zero during 1999-2006. Since 2007, atmospheric CH4 has been increasing again due to increased emissions in the tropical and mid-latitude
Northern Hemisphere. The attribution of this increase to anthropogenic and natural sources is difficult because the current network is insufficient to characterize emissions by region and source process.

Nitrous oxide (N2O )

Nitrous oxide contributes ~6% to radiative forcing by LLGHGs. It is the third most important contributor to the combined forcing. N2O is emitted into the atmosphere from both natural (about 60%) and anthropogenic sources (approximately 40%), including oceans, soil, biomass burning, fertilizer use, and various industrial processes. The globally averaged N2O mole fraction in 2012 reached 325.1 ±0.1 ppb, which is 0.9 ppb above the previous year and 120% of the pre-industrial level (270 ppb). The annual increase from 2011 to 2012 is greater than the mean growth rate over the past 10 years (0.80 ppb/yr).

aggi_2013 RF
Radiative forcing, relative to 1750, of all the long-lived greenhouse gases. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), which is indexed to 1 for the year 1990, is shown on the right axis.  Of the five long-lived greenhouse gases that contribute 96% to radiative climate forcing, CO2 and N2O are the only ones that continue to increase at a regular rate. Radiative forcing from CH4 increased from 2007 to 2012 after remaining nearly constant from 1999 to 2006. While the radiative forcing of the long-lived, well-mixed greenhouse gases increased 32% from 1990 to 2012 (by ~0.69 watts m-2), CO2 has accounted for nearly 80% of this increase (~0.55 watts m-2). Source: ESRL/NOAA

Recent Global CO2

  • August 2013:     393.11 ppm
  • August 2012:     389.82 ppm

Up-to-date weekly average CO2 at Mauna Loa

  • Week beginning on October 27, 2013:     394.20 ppm
  • Weekly value from 1 year ago:     391.32 ppm
  • Weekly value from 10 years ago:     373.39 ppm

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